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ST. LOUIS 
CATHOLIC HISTORICAL 
REVIE 



;t7'7. 


3 


SI4S 


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Volume 


IV 



Issued Qu arterly 





EDITOR-IN-CHIEF "• $ (/y\^ 

REV. JOHN ROTHENSTEINER 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

REV. CHARLES L. SOUVAY, C. M., D. D. 
REV. F. G. HOLWECK 
REV, GILBERT J. GARRAGHAN, S. J. 
EDWARD BROWN 



JANUARY-AFMIL 1922 Number 1-2 



Published by the Catholic Historical Society of Saint Louis 
209 Walnut Street, St. Louis, Mo. 



4020 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

An Appeal 4 

Public Places of Worship in St. Louis. 

BEFORE palm SUNDAY 1843 

Rev. F. G. Holweck 5 

The Ursulines of Texas — M. A 13 

The Kickapoo Mission 

Rev^. Gilbert J. Garragkan, S. J. 25 

An Adventure of Lucille St. Pierre 

AMONG the OSAGE 

Rev. Paul Mary Ponziglione, S.J. 51 

Notes 65 

Documents from Our Archives 76 



AN APPEAL 

HISTORICAL MATTER DESIRED 
by the Catholic Historical Society of St. Louis 

Hh 

Books and pamphlets on American History and Biography, 
particularly those relating to Church institutions, ecclesiastical 
persons and Catholic lay people within the limits of the Louisiana 
Purchase ; 

Old newspapers ; Catholic modern papers ; Parish papers, 
whether old or recent : 

IVe tuill highly appreciate the courtesy of the Reverend 
Pastors who send us regularly their Parish publications; 
Manuscripts; narratives of early Catholic settlers or relating 
to early Catholic settlements ; letters : 

In the case of family papers which the actual owners 
zcish to keep in their possession, zve shall be grateful for 
the privilege of taking copies of these papers; 
Engravings, portraits, Medals etc; 

In a word, every object whatsoever which, by the most liberal 
construction, may be regarded as an aid to, or illustration of the 
history of the Catholic Church in the Middle West. 

Contributions will be credited to the donors and preserved 
in the Library or Archives of the Society, for the use and benefit 
of the members and other duly authorized persons. 

Communications may be addressed either to the Secretary, 
or to the Librarians of the 

Catholic Historical Society of St. Louis, 

209 Walnut Street, St. Louis, Mo. 



PUBLIC PLACES OF WORSHIP 
IN ST. LOUIS 

BEFORE PALM SUNDAY 1843. 

It may impress many of our well-educated people as the per- 
formance of some rather severe penance, when they learn that one 
of their otherwise right reasonable friends has spent hours upon hours 
in delving into the heaps of old tattered papers and documents of say 
the archives of the St. Louis Diocese: yet by the supposed penitents 
this labor is considered as one of the great pleasures of life, not be- 
cause it is a labor and a rather tiresome one, but because it is the 
means of reconstructing some incident or scene of the long forgotten 
past. This fact came home to me with special insistence, as I pored 
over the volumes of Bishop Rosati's Diary, in which all the events of 
his episcopal activity are briefly noted. Our Dr. Souvay has first made 
a start to publish this Diary in our Review, but for the present and 
in as far as the general public is concerned it is as yet virgin soil. 

In this Diary and in other papers, left by Bishop Rosati, I have 
found interesting information as to some churches that were planned 
and begun but never completed, as well as of churches that were com- 
pleted but afterwards destroyed, the memory of which has almost en- 
tirely passed away in our city. — It is my intention in this paper to 
reproduce these memories by giving a review of the churches built and 
to be built in this city, up to the dedication of the Jesuit church of St. 
Francis Xavier, on Ninth and Green Streets, on Palm Sunday 1843. 

1. Church of St. Louis, the King. 

Upon the history of the Church of St. Louis, the King, which in 
the course of events has become a Cathedral and is loath to lose the 
title, I shall touch only slightly, because it is universally known. This 
church was built of palisades, by the Creole settlers, six years after 
the foundation of the post and village of St. Louis. It was blessed by 
Father Gibault on the Feast of St. John the Baptist, June 24. 1770. 
It was so small and so carelessly constructed, that four years later, at a 
public meeting, Dec. 26, 1774, a resolution was passed by the settlers 
to build a new one. This second church, also constructed of upright 
logs, was blessed by P. Bernard de Limpach, O.M. Cap., the parish 



6 REV. F. G. HOLWECK 

priest of St. Louis, in the summer of 1776, shortly after his arrival. 
These two buildings stood on the West side of Second Street about 
half way between Market and Walnut Sts. 

When Du Bourg arrived in January 1818, this second church must 
have been in a most deplorable condition : it was ready to tumble down 
any day. Therefore, on March 29, 1818, Bishop Du Bourg blessed the 
cornerstone of a brick church to replace the old log and post structure; 
the Architect was a Frenchman, Gabriel Paul ; the principal contractor 
was the well known Irishman, Hugh O'Neil. The first services were 
held in this church on Christmas day 1819; it was dedicated by the 
Ven. Servant of God, Father De Andreis, on Jan. 9, 1820. This third 
church stood on the southwest comer of Market and Second Streets ; 
but it was never completed ; it was never even plastered or ceiled ; only 
the main nave was roughly built in 1819. 

When Bishop Rosati felt the necessity of having a larger church 
built in a more imposing style, he saw that it would not be worth 
while to enlarge or rather finish the church of Bp. Du Bourg. On Aug. 
1, 1830 he laid the foundation stone of an entirely new stone edifice on 
Walnut Street. This building, the present church of St. Louis of 
France, or the Old Cathedral, was really and is still to-day, a worthy 
house of God. It was consecrated Oct. 26, 1834. Present were Bishop 
Flaget of Bardstown, Bishop Purcell of Cincinnati and the newly 
elected Bishop of Vincennes, Simon Brut6, whom Rosati consecrated 
two days later, Oct. 28. The solemnities were drawn out a whole week 
and only on November the 3rd the visiting prelates departed for their 
respective dioceses. The ground on Market Street was disposed of by a 
lease of 99 years; Bishop Du Bourg's church (2nd and Market) was 
first used as a warehouse; five months later it was destroyed by fire, 
on April 6, 1835. All traces of it have disappeared. 

2. St. Mary's Chapel. 

After the Cathedral, the first public place of worship in the city 
of St. Louis was St. Mary's Chapel, on the West side of Second 
Street, between Market and Walnut. This chapel was transformed 
from a meeting hall and an adjoining room of a brick building, which 
had been erected by Bishop Du Bourg, for St. Louis Academy, in 1819, 
on the exact spot, where Father Gibault's church had stood. When, in 
the spring of 1827, this episcopal College was closed, the building was 
not used for any purpose for several years, except, perhaps, for cateche- 
tical instructions. At last. Bishop Rosati had it changed into a chapel. 
In the spring of 1832 the work was finished and, on the second Sunday 
after Elastcr, May 6th 1832, the chapel was blessed, in honor of the 
Mother of God, by Father Verhacgcn, of the Society of Jesus, the Su- 
perior of St. Louis University. He was assisted by Fathers Roux, Jean- 
jean and Bouillier. The Mass after the benediction services was said 
by Father Jos. Ant. Lutz. *) The chapel was used for the Catholic 



•) Bishop Ronati's Diary in the Chancery Office. 



PUBLIC PLACES OF WORSHIP IN ST. LOUIS 7 

Negroes who, at that time, were very numerous in St. Louis. The ser- 
mons were preached in French and in English. 

The conflict between the French priests at the Cathedral and the 
English speaking population, prior to the coming of Bishop Kenrick, 
is well known. For 15 years there was hardly one priest at the Cathe- 
dral who was able to preach a sermon in good English, while the num- 
erous Irish of the city demanded to have the word of God preached 
to them at a convenient hour. Bishop Rosati found it extremely diffi- 
cult to be just to both, the old native Creoles and the Irish immigrants. 
And now, to fill the cup of bitterness to the brim, since 1830 another 
spectre raised its head: a third language, the German. It was impos- 
sible to preach in three languages in the Cathedral without raising strife 
galore. At this juncture, St. Mary's chapel, the little church of the 
negroes, appeared as the angel of peace. 

"Mr. Lutz to-day," as the Bishop writes in his Diary, "has said Mass in St. 
Mary's chapel for the Germans and preached to them a sermon in German. In 
future this shall be done every Sunday. Also catechetical instruction has begun 
to-day. Mr. Lutz has instructed the children in German and English in the 
chapel and St. Cyr in French in the church." 

Accordingly St. Mary's chapel was, since January 1834, the first 
German church in St. Louis. Father Lutz had sole charge of the Ger- 
mans till 1837, when Father Fischer was ordained and given him as 
an assistant. When St. Mary's chapel ceased to exist, I have not 
found ; later on, it seems, the German services were held in the base- 
ment of the Cathedral until the Church of St. Mary of the Victories 
was built on Third and Mulberry Streets in 1844. 



3. St, Mary's Church. 
{planned hut never built) 

After 1830 the German Catholics, especially from the North, from 
Westphalia and Hannover, poured into the city like the waves of a 
mighty river. Having been accustomed to the solemn services in their 
stately churches at home, they were dissatisfied with the simple low 
Mass in the humble chapel of St. Mary's or in the basement chapel 
of the Cathedral. They began to clamour for a church of their own, 
according to the example of Quincy, 111., where Father Brickwedde 
had opened a German church in 1837. We follow the development of 
the affair in Bishop Rosati's papers. 

On March 14, 1839, he writes in his Diary, that on that day with 
Major Smith, he went to the Western part of the city, where a church 
was to be built in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary, for the Germans. 
He thinks, the site was very beautiful. 

On March 20th he writes: 

"I have bought of Major Smith a lot of ground, 200 by 150 ft., at 15 dollars 
a foot, and I received a lot of 30 feet as a gift, for the German church." 



8 REV. F. G. HOLWECK 

There were two small frame houses on the property. During Easter 
week Fathers Fischer )' and Meyer *) in the Cathedral gave a mis- 
sion for the Germans, to gather the scattered people for the new 
parish. Fischer preached in the evening, Meyer in the morning. — On ac- 
count of the financial crisis nothing further was done towards the erec- 
tion of St. Mary's church. 

On April 27, 1840 Bishop Rosati left for the East to take part in 
the Pro\nncial Council of Baltimore. I wish to state here that Bishop 
Rosati went to Baltimore by special invitation and of his own free 
v,'\\\. St. Louis diocese never belonged to the ecclesiastical province of 
Baltimore ; it was directly subject to the Holy See. Wherefore the 
Bishop of St. Louis was under no obligation to attend a provincial 
Council of Baltimore, but simply followed a special and pressing invita- 
tion. 

In the instructions which Bishop Rosati at his departure left to 
his friend and legal adviser. Mr. Philip Leduc *) he writes under the 
head of Credit (Avoir) : ") 

Under Debit (Devoir) he writes: 

"I have bought from Major Thomas F. Smith a piece of land, to l)uild a 
church for the Germans. They have promised me to take up subscriptions in 
order to pay for it. The ground has cost 3,ooo Dollars. Of this I have paid to 
Major Smith 2,000 Dollars, including 100 Dollars which he had subscribed for 
the new church. The Germans h.Tvc promised to collect the subscriptions. They 
will hand over the money to Mr. Leduc, who again will pay Major Smith." 



*) Rev. John Peter Fischer was born in the diocese of Metz Dec. 26, 1836. 
he was ordained Deacon at St. Louis Cathedral; Jan. i, 1837 he received the 
holy priesthood. Nov. 17, 1837 he was appointed pastor of New Madrid, but came 
back to St. I>3uis in a short time and was assistant at the Cathedral, until he was 
appointed pastor of St. Mary's Church in 1844. June 10, 1856 he left for Europe, 
never to return. 

•) Father Charles Meyer came from Switzerland to the States and received 
faculties from Bishop Rosati. Dec. 13, 1836, for the Germans in Illinois. In 1837 
he resided at Shilo, near Belleville, then at Teutonia (Paderborn), since 1839 
at St. Thomas, two miles from Millstadt; in the following year he resigned and 
retired to a farm near Columbia, 111. 

♦) Marie Philip Leduc was born at Saint-Denis, France in 1772; in 1792 he 
came to New Madrid, was private secretary to Gov. DeLassus in 1796, secretary 
of the province unrlcr Del^ssus in 1799; Aug. 30, 1802 he married Marg. Papin. 
Later on he wan Recorder, Alderman, Justice of the Peace, Notary, Court Clerk 
and Judge of the Probate Court. He died at the res-dence of his brother-in-law, 
Hippolyte Papin. .^ug. 15, 1842. (/Innals of St. Louis, F. Billon, St. I^uis, 1886.) 

•) The^e instructions are contained in a ledger which is preserved in the 
Archives of the Archdiocese of St. Louis. 

"Rent from two frame houses in the Riley Afldition, beyond Ciiouteau lake 
on a piece of ground which I l)OUKht to build a church for the Germans. The 
rent from these hou»cs is 8 DolUtrs per nujnth, Mr. Luckey will collect the rent." 



PUBLIC PLACES OF WORSHIP IN ST. LOUIS 9 

But this church in the Riley Addition, beyond Chouteau Pond, was 
never built. To the Bishop's entry Mr. Leduc added the following re- 
mark: 

"Major Smith is paid. I commissioned Father Fischer and Mr. VVeizenecker «) 
to collect the subscriptions. After several inquiries they told me and repeated it: 
that the Germans will not pay anything, since they find that the property is too 
far out of the way for their church. As far as I know, they have not paid any- 
thing." 

From other accounts and notices left by Rosati and Leduc it ap- 
pears that the property for the new German church was situated on 
15th Str. and Clark Ave. Probably at that time very few Germans lived 
in that neighborhood and Chouteau Pond with its many ramifications 
may have been a real obstacle. Distances which our modern automobile 
covers in less than five minutes, at that time meant a great deal for 
the people living in a city. Small wonder then, that the Germans re- 
fused to comply with the wishes of the Bishop. The lots remained on 
the hands of the diocese ; later on Archbishop Kenrick built the Orphan 
Asylum on the lots. I recollect the building well. Shortly after my 
ordination I said Mass in the place, in the fall of 1880. 

4. Holy Trinity Church 
{on the Southside.) 

To the South, Mill Creek had been the boundary line of St. Louis 
for many years. But as the original town of Laclede turned into a busi- 
ness center, many of the descendants of the old French-Creole settlers 
built themselves new homes south of the Creek. This district is still 
known as Frenchtown. Many of the newcomers followed their example. 
A new town arose south of Mill Creek. 

Prominent among the inhabitants of Frenchtown was Antoine 
Soulard, the owner of a large tract of land. This land (76 arpents) 
had been given by the Spanish government to Gabriel Cerre; his 
daughter Julia was married to Antoine Soulard who took possession 
of the property on June 15, 1802. Soulard died March 10. 1825. Ten 
years later, in 1836, his widow subdivided the land and offered it for 
sale. This was Soulard's First Addition, between what is now Park 
Ave. and Lesperance Street. 

The first condition, to make the sale of lots in a new addition to 
a city a success, was, to put aside some of the lots for the erection of a 
Catholic Church. So, with true business instinct, did also Mrs. Julia 
Soulard-Cerre : she promised the Bishop land for a new church if it 
were built in her subdivision. Bishop Rosati gladly accepted the offer, 
and on September 6th, 1838, obtained from Mrs. Soulard a donation 
of land, 300 by 150 ft., for the new church of the Holy Trinity. For 
the sum of 4,500 Dollars he bought from her another, contiguous plot 



«) Mr. Weizenecker lived on what was later Grand Avenue, at the corner 
where the "Mission Inn" stands now. In 1867 he was one of the charter members 
of St. Francis de Sales Church. 



10 REV. F. G. HOLWECK 

of ground, also 300 by 150 ft. payable in ten years. On September 7, 
1838. one day after the deeds had been perfected, Bishop Rosati made 
a contract with Hugh O'Neil, the gentleman who had erected the St. 
Louis Cathedral of Du Bourg ; O'Neil was to erect ten houses on the 
newly acquired Soulard tract. The houses were built. '') 

On March 11, 1839, six months after he had bought the property 
of Mrs. Soulard. Bishop Rosati ordained three Jesuits in the College 
Chapel. In the afternoon, wishing to give the young priests a special 
treat, he made a trip with them to the site of Holy Trinity Church ; Mr. 
Mathews the archiuxt accompanietl them. Rosati designated the exact 
spot on Ninth and Carroll, where the church should be erected. But the 
Bishop seemed to hesitate : the people were getting impatient. On March 
21, 1839 Bishop Rosati received a petition from the citizens of French- 
town, asking that a church be established in their district in honor of 
the Holy Trinity. 

On the third Sunday after Easter, in April 1839, the Bishop held 
a diocesan synod at the conclusion of a retreat which he had given to 
his priests. In the afternoon all the priests were to assist at the blessing 
of the cornerstone of Holy Trinity Qiurch. But such a tremendous 
thunder storm swept over the city that afternoon, that the solemnity 
had to be postponed one week. So the foundation stone was laid on the 
fourth Sunday after Easter, May 5th. The Irish Benevolent Society 
with its banner and a band of music, all St. Louis University and a 
crowd of 5,000 people were present. ^) What a splendid occasion for 
a great collection, some of our friends might say. 

On August 3, when the Bishop came home from the consecration 
of St. Vincent's church. Cape Girardeau, he visited the work just be- 
gun on Holy Trinity. It seems, the foundations of the church were 
completed that summer ; then the work was suspended indefinitely. 

In consequence of the great financial crisis which then oppressed 
the United States, the entire speculation in Soulard Addition proved 
a lamentable failure. The ten houses built by Hugh O'Neil remained 
vacant. No funds were available. The Bishop was sick from chills and 
fever nearly all summer, unable to say Mass, sometimes even on Sun- 
days. In April 1840 he went to the provincial Council at Baltimore; 
from there he started on a trip to Rome and to Sora, his home in Italy. 
Before he left he appointed the Jesuit Father Verhaegcn administrator 
of the diocese. 

In the letters which Father Verhaegcn wrote to his Bishop we find 
occasional remarks about Holy Trinity Church.") 

On August 18, 1840 he writes : 

"The church of the Holy Trinity is still in the same condition, and I fear, 
h will remain so, unless Monseigncur sends me orders and funds to resume the 
work." 



') These facts are taken partly from Billon's /Imials, partly from Bp. Ro- 
sati's Diary. 

•) Bp. Rosati's Diary. 

*) These letters are kept m the Archives of the Chancery Office, St. Louis. 



PUBLIC PLACES OF WORSHIP IN ST. LOUIS U 

On February 26, 1842 he writes : 
"You understand, Monseigneur, that during this winter which has been very 
severe, also here, no work could be done on the Church of the Holy Trinity. I 
had the foundation walls covered with planks to protect them against rain, snow 
and ice. Think, what happened. The planks were stolen. And in addition to this: 
since your houses are vacant, people have pushed their audacity so far, as to 
steal the doors and the windows. Mr. Leduc has put a stop to this, by permitting 
a man to occupy one of the houses gratis on condition that he would take care 
of the other houses. When I speak to the good man (Leduc) of resuming the 
work of the church, he shrugs his shoulders and says, that the funds will not 
permit us to think of it." 

Two months later (April 19, 1842) P. Verhaegen writes to the 
Bishop : 

"Business is poor everywhere. Money is scarcer, than ever before. We feel the 
effects very much. The collections have dropped to one half, the perquisites 
are reduced to almost nothing. Hard times : these two words are on everybody's 
lips. Our banks have declared themselves insolvent or expect to do so in the 
near future. All confidence is gone." 

Consequently the foundation walls of Holy Trinity Church re- 
mained as they were until after Bishop Kenrick had arrived in De- 
cember 1841. On August 15, 1842 Mr. Philip Leduc, to whom Bishop 
Rosati had entrusted the financial administration of the diocese, died 
at the house of his brother-in-law, Hippolyte Papin. — In the same year 
the Soulard mansion was changed into the diocesan Seminary ; one of 
the Bishop's houses was used as a chapel. Father O'Hanlon in his 
Life and Scenery in Missouri says, it was dedicated to the Mother of 
God, but we are inclined to beheve, that it was dedicated to the Blessed 
Trinity. It was a semi-public or pubKc Oratory, because not only the 
Seminarians, but also English speaking and German congregations met 
there at stated hours. 

After it had been used for some time, on a Sunday during High- 
mass poor O'Neil's slight joists, suporting the plank flooring, gave way, 
while a numerous congregation was present. A panic ensued, but no- 
body was hurt. (O'Hanlon.) 

In the meantime the foundation walls of Holy Trinity had suffered 
so much from long exposure to the weather, that they became unfit to 
carr)'- the weight of a church. The Lazarist Fathers procured a new 
site for their own Church of St. Vincent de Paul, nearby and Bishop 
Kenrick donated the rock for the foundation walls of Holy Trinity to 
them, about February 1844. Father O'Hanlon tells the following story : 
"To save expense, the seminarists unanimously proposed to Fathers Timon 
and Paquin that they should have a holiday, that picks, crowbars and shovels 
might be borrowed, while they engaged to level the walls and to root up the 
foundation stones, so that they could be carried away for the new site. Per- 
mission was obtained and the very day all went cheerfully to work. A perfect 
demolition was effected before the day was far advanced and not one stone was 
left over another." (p. 89). 

Later on the Sisters of Charity built their Insane Asylum on the 
site destined for the church. This is the tragedy or rather the comedy 
of Holy Trinity Church in Frenchtown. 



12 REV. F. G. HOLWECK 

5. St. Aloisius Chapel and St. Fr.\ncis Xavier Church. 

On November 2. 1829 the College and Chapel of the Jesuits on 
Ninth and Washington .\venue was formally opened. When the 
Flemish Jesuits who by their stay in Marshfield, Md., had acquired 
fluency in the English language, settled in St. Louis, the French Cathe- 
dral clergy- experienced a more or less gentle panic. Father Saulnier ^") 
wrote amongst other things to the Bishop: 

"These gcntleinen are going to have a church and they have spread a rumor 
in town that the English speaking people shall soon have an English priest there 
who will preach to them every Sunday. Beware! Principiis obsta, sero mcdicina 
parjtur. Resist the beginnings: when the remedy is prepared, it may be too late," 

And some years later Father Francis Niel. formerly pastor of St. 
I^uis Cathedral, wrote from Paris : 

"I heard a report, that the Jesuits are going to build a church. If this be 
true, and if you give them permission, you will incur the danger of preaching 
to empty pews in your Cathedral. You destroy the parish of St. Louis. Bishop 
Du Bourg. although half a Jesuit himself, often told me at St. Louis that in 
the deed of the donation of the land where they built their college, he had made 
the condition, that they should have there a chapel only for their pupils, to the 
exclusion of the general public. Beware! You will create for yourself a lot of 
d-fficulties, if you permit them to have a church. I foresee the time, when the 
Cathedral will be deserted, when the only occupation of the Bishop in St. Louis 
shall be to give confirmation, and when he can have only two or three diocesan 
priests." 

In fact, at the beginning, the Jesuits had only a chapel in connection 
with their college. It was dedicated to St. Aloisius and fronted on 
Washington Avenue. In this chapel, probably in December 1836, Father 
Helias de Huddeghem, S. J., opened services for the Catholics of the 
Northside; these were held there, until St. Joseph's church was opened 
on Biddle Street. The building later on was used as a gymnasium. 

But the city grew by such rapid strides that it became absolutely 
necessary to establish a parish in what was then the Northwest of the 
city. Bishop Rosati did not share the apprehensions of the Catholic 
clergy. So, setting aside their warnings, he gave permission to the 
"terrible" Jesuits to erect a public church in honor of St. Francis 
Xavier at the Northeast comer of the College block. In fact, he was so 
little influenced by the sinister imaginings of the French priests, that 
before leaving for Europe he delivered into the hands of the Jesuits 
the entire diocese, by apjMDinting the Superior of St. Louis University, 
Father Verhaegen, administrator of the diocese during his absence. 

He bles.sed the corner stone of the new church of St. Francis 
Xavier with appropriate ceremonies shortly before his departure, on 
Palm Sunday. April 12, 1840. A Jesuit, Father Carrell, later on Bishop 
of Covington, preached the sermon. 

The church was consecrated on Palm Sunday 1843. St. Francis 
Xavier's after the Cathedral, was the first regular church opened for 
public services, 73 years after the dedication of the little log chapel of 
St, Louis, blessed by Father Gibault. 

F. G. HoLWECK. 

'•) This and the following letters are found in the Archives of the Chancery 
Office, 



THE URSULINES IN TEXAS 



The Ursulines as a religious foundation are 387 years old. St. 
Angela Merici is their foundress. On the twenty-fifth of November 
1535, Angela and her companions, having spent several days in prayer 
and solitude, resolved to devote every instant of their Hves to instruct- 
ing the young, to consoling and encouraging those whom poverty or 
bad example exposed to danger of ruin, also to visiting and nursing 
the sick. The object of this first institution was, therefore to blend the 
contemplative life with the labors of the active life. In her humiUty, 
Angela would not give her name to her congregation, but insisted that 
it should be known as the Company of St. Ursula. Pope Paul III in 
1540 raised it to the rank of a religious Order especially devoted to the 
education of young girls. 

Thus the Ursuline was the first Order of women canonically in- 
stituted for the education of youth. They were the first to cross the 
Atlantic and in the very year, 1639, that John Harvard began the 
school which has developed into the grand Harvard University, we 
find Mother Mary of the Incarnation in Quebec, gathering around her 
the daughters of the French settlers, as well as the maidens of the 
Indian tribes. In 1727, the Ursulines are found on the banks of the 
Mississippi, the Convent of New Orleans being the first educational 
Institution for the education of young girls in all the territory now 
comprising the United States. It was under the Ursulines that the 
orphans, left by the Nachez Massacre, found shelter, as well as the 
Acadians, driven from their homes and country by the British. 

The ancient Convent of New Orleans, which Bishop Du Bourg 
called "The Pillar of Religion in Lower Louisiana," has continued for 
nearly two centuries its Apostolic labors, blessed with sucess in the 
midst of trials and difficulties and with each decade of years seems to 
acquire new life and strength and renewed impetus in the work of 
Christian education. 

The monastery of New Orleans has been a fruitful family tree; 
from its vigorous stock have sprung all the Texas Ursuline Com- 
munities. 

URSULINE CONVENT OF GALVESTON 

The pioneer spirit of the Ursuline Order is again manifested in 
the Lone Star State, for the Ursuline Convent of Galveston, founded 
under the auspices of Bishop J. M. Odin of holy memory, was the 
first Religious Order established in the State. 

13 



14 M. A. 

WTien Texas ceased to be a part of Mexico, and in 1842 was erect- 
ed into a vicariate apostolic, Bishop Odin saw the necessity of a relig- 
ious Community dedicated to the work of education; in 1846 he ap- 
plied to the Ursulines of New Orleans for a colony of their Order. 
The daughers of^St. Angela cheerfully consented and on the sixteenth 
of January 1847. five Professed Religioun and three Novices, with 
Mother St. Arsene as Superioress, set out for Galveston, where Bishop 
Odin had purchased for them ten acres of land, on which there was a 
large frame building said to have been for several years the head- 
quarters of the pirate Lafitte. 

The small colony arrived on the nineteenth of January, and to 
this day that date is faithfully commemorated each year by the solemn 
chanting of the "Laudate Dominum" after the Conventual Mass. The 
little Community was soon unequal to the harvest lying before them. 
Bishop Odin appealed for help to the ancient Convent of Quebec ; two 
nuns came in response to his appeal. Mother St. Jane de Chantal and 
Mother St. Thomas, both distinguished for their virtue and true Ursu- 
line spirit. About this time also Bishop Odin went to France to collect 
means and subjects for the promising Texas vineyards. The prosper- 
ous Ursuline Community of Auch very materially helped the good 
Bishop with much needed fimds and especially by yielding him two 
of its most efficient subjects, Sister Madaleine de Pazzi, a fervent 
Novice of nineteen, the other a voung and talented Professed, twenty- 
seven years of age. The Novice remained in New Orleans to continue 
her Novitiate. After pronouncing her vows with admirable fervor the 
young Sister gave heart and soul in her new duties as a Professed 
Ursuline. However, like St. Stanislaus, in a short time she filled a long 
career. She died a victim ot yellow fever in October 1853. Her com- 
panion, Sr. St. Ambrose, arrived in Galveston in June 1852. In a letter 
to France, written a few days later, she thus describes the arrival of 
Bishop Odin and his little band of Missionaries : 

Galveston, Texas, 
Very dear Mother:- July 3, 1852 

Last Sunday I said good-bye to our dear Mothers and Sisters of New Or- 
leans; they mingled their tears with mine. Six weeks are more than sufficient 
to unite hearts already drawn to each other by a conformity of ideas and 
sentiments. 

At g A.M. we went on board the beautiful steamer "Mexico," which was 
already filled with passengers. A young English widow on being told that I was 
an Ursuline bound for Galveston, hastened to come to converse with me, un- 
deterred by my broken English. She said she had the intention of confiding her 
two little daughters to the Ursulines of Galveston, who like Bishop Odin, are 
highly esteemed and loved by all classes of people. 

Less than twenty-five years ago Galveston was a barren sand bank, without 
a single habitation in sight. Fourteen years ago a small band ot colonists settled 
there, and when Mgr. Odin was named Bishop of Texas he fixed his Episcopa' 
See at Galveston. The city numbers about six thousand inhabitants; civilizatfon 
and religion are making wonderful progress, owing in great part to the zeal of 
the missionary priests and to the Ursulines. More than thirty pupils have been 
baptired in the poor little Chapel of the poor little Convent. 

Our Community is composed of nine choir nuns and three lay Sisters; each 
ia obliged to do the work of four from morning till night. As I have not enough 
space in the room where I sleep, and every other quarter is filled, I work during 



THE URSUUNES OF TEXAS 15 

the day under an improvised shed. A delightful breeze comes from the Gulf, 
which greatly modifies the temperature, I believe that geographers who affirm 
that the climate of Texas is "the most beautiful in the world" tell the truth. 

Again, on the twelfth of September of the same year Sr. St. Am- 
brose writes : "How magnificent are the nights in Texas ! Your skies 
are not so beautiful as ours ; I often wish that you could be here with 
me, to contemplate this splendid spectacle; that serene blue sky, so 
blue, so filled with twinkling stars seems to shine brighter than else- 
where." 

In June 1858 a terrible hurricane caused great damage in the city, 
but the Ursulines placed their trust in Providence and invoked Mary, 
Star of the Sea, whom under the title of Our Lady of Prompt Succor 
they had already so often invoked against "lightning and tempest," 
they were preserved unscathed. 

A few weeks later the yellow fever appeared in Galveston and in a 
short time made dreadful havoc. All public buildings were closed ; only 
fifteen boarders remained in the Convent, and a strict quarantine was 
kept. Of the seven priests that were stationed at the Bishopric only 
two remained, the Vicar General, Very Rev. L. C. Chambodut and 
Rev. Father Anstaett, who had charge of the German congregation. 
These two devoted missionaries were unceasingly engaged in visiting 
the sick and dying, and they divided between themselves the duties of 
Chaplain to the Convent. 

Mother St. Jane de Chantal, who was then Superioress, consecrat- 
ed the Community to the Blessed Virgin, begging her to take it under 
her special protection and show herself indeed Our Lady of Prompt 
Succor Against Contagious Diseases and Epidemics. Wonderful to re- 
late, the dreaded scourge did not cross the threshold of the Convent ; 
the same miraculous preservation was again repeated the following 
year, when the scourge again ravaged the country. Twice the Blessed 
Virgin also saved the Convent from destruction by fire, and several 
times has she kept the incoming waves from invading the sanctuary 
confided to her care. 

The ever increasing number of pupils made the erection of a new 
building absolutely necessary. Their Chaplain, Very Rev. Father Cham- 
bodut made the plans and personally superintended the work which 
was begun on the tenth of July, 1853, and is now the old monastery 
which still stands, a weather-beaten monument of the devotedness and 
foresight of this zealous missionary. 

Before the Civil War the yearly attendance at the Convent school 
averaged one hundred and sixty ; throughout the war, work of educa- 
tion continued, being interrupted only during a short interval during 
the occupation of the city by Federal troops when the monastery was 
filled with the woimded, and the Ursulines were trasn formed into 
Sisters of Charity under one flag — the Cross! For many years large 
dark spots on the floors of the different rooms and halls showed that 
the blood which flowed on the upper story had percolated through the 
ceiling and fallen on the floors below. 



16 MA. 

Rev. Mother St. Pierre, Professed of New Orleans, then Superior- 
ess, ha\-ing sent the Novices and young Sisters to San Antonio, she 
with her httle corps of devoted Ursulines, Sisters of Charity, zealously 
cooperated with \"ery Rev. Father Chambodut and his Assistant, Rev. 
Father Anstaett, in ministering to the sick and wounded without dis- 
crimination to Flag or Creed. In recognition of these services every 
year, on Decoration Day, the G. A. R. V^eterans decorate the grave of 
leather Chambodut at St. Mary's Churchyard, and that of Mother St. 
Pierre in the Convent cemeter}'. 

The era that followed the period of Reconstruction was one of 
progress and prosperity under the administrations of Mother St. Au- 
gustine, Mother St. Agnes and Mother Mary Joseph, worthy sucessors 
of Mother St. Pierre. Then came the terrible catastrophe of 1900 when 
ten thousand persons perished in the terrible hurricane and tidal wave 
which devastated Galveston. The Convent, solidly constructed and 
situated on the highest part of the city became a life-saving center 
under the admirable direction of Mother Mary Joseph, who never lost 
her presence of mind. Two thousand persons were rescued and shelter- 
eii during that awful night; four new born babes and ten adults were 
baptized by that admirable religious. Mother Mary Joseph whose spirit 
of faith and ardent charity shone in bright relief in that night of hor- 
rors. But she was not alone in this sublime devotedness ; it was shared 
by all the Sisters who vied with one another in exposing their lives to 
save others. The Galvestonians will never forget the debt of gratitude 
they owe the Ursulines. 

The Boarding School has not recovered from the losses it then 
sustained, but two parochial schools show a yearly increase and rank 
among the most efficient and best equipped in the South. 

Seeing the number of their boarders diminishing and fearing an- 
other disaster, the Ursulines of Galveston made a new foundation — 
that of Bryan. 

URSULINE CONVENT OF BRYAN 

The city of Bryan having donated a certain amount of land for 
that purpose, the Ursulines erected their new Convent, Villa Maria, 
on a little elevation which bears tjie name of St. Ursula's Hill. Since 
the first year of its existence the Academy and adjacent parochial 
school claim the well deserved reputation which all the Ursulines enjoy 
in Texas. 

URSULINES IN S.\N ANTONIO 

Rt. Rev. J. M. Odin was first and foremost a Missionary. As long 
as he was Bishop of Texas, he never remained stationary in any one 
place. His whole time was spent in visiting his vast diocese, which 
comprised all Texas and part of the Indian Territory, leaving the ad- 
ministration of his affairs to his two Vicar Generals, Father Cham- 
bodut in fialveston and Father Dubuis in San Antonio. In 1846 the 
whole population of .San Antonio consisted of six or seven thousand 
inhabitants, nearly all Mexicans. In the surrounding country, how- 



THE URSUUNES OF TEXAS 17 

ever, were several settlements of French, German and Irish colonists. 
There Father Dubuis and his co-laborers found an ample field for 
their zealous missionary activity. 

After a few years Father Dubuis asked Bishop Odin for a colony 
of Ursulines. During his pastoral visit in 1851, the prelate was con- 
vinced of the necessity of such an establishment for the education of 
youth. A providential bargain was on the market. 

A Frenchman had erected a substantial stone building for his 
residence. The house being finished, the good man went back to France 
to bring his wife but the lady refused to come. Bishop Odin purchased 
the house and the vast surrounding property at a nominal price and 
set it apart as the future abode of the Ursulines. His Lordship then 
applied to New Orleans and Galveston for subjects. His request was 
generously granted and in 1853 a little band of devoted religious ar- 
rived in San Antonio. They numbered thirteen in all, nine Professed, 
two Novices and two Postulants. Mother St. Marie of New Orleans 
was appointed Superioress and Mother St. Eulalie, also of New Or- 
leans, was given the charge of Mistress of Novices. 

Accompanied by their Chaplain, Rev. Father Dubuis, who later 
became their Bishop, the Sisters arrived at their destination exhausted 
with the fatigue of their long journey (there were no railroads in 
those days) and took possession of this new Convent of St. Ursula. 

Six weeks later the Sisters opened their school. Every class-room 
was filled. The building contained seven apartments, the four on the 
lower floor being used as class rooms, refectory, recreation and com- 
munity rooms. The largest room was set aside for the Chapel. The 
upper story was used for dormitories. Everything was of the plain- 
est. Holy Poverty was indeed practised in reality. The Sisters had to 
undergo many privations which they bore with a courage which brought 
the blessing of God on their labors. The Divine Presence seemed to 
fill the atmosphere, imparting strength and serenity to their souls. In 
this first Novitiate, many holy religious were trained, who for long 
years edified succeeding generations. 

Mother St. Joseph Aubert, Professed from the Community of 
Brignoles. was brought from France by Father Dubuis to help the 
foundation. Shortly after her arrival, she thus describes her new abode 
to Rev. Mother St. Angela Martin, Superioress of Brignoles : 

Dear Reverend Mother :- 

Our Convent is beautifully situated on the bank of the San Antonio River, 
which forms a part of our inclosure and also contributes to our sport as there 
is an abundance of fish which we try to catch with well baited fishing hooks. 
Fruit and vegetables are rather scarce, the river banks, however, are bordered 
with pecan trees which also form a part of our enclosure. The surrounding 
prairies are covered with a variety of wild flowers, which in France, would be 
carefully cultivated in gardens and hot houses. 

Our Lord blesses our Community in a visible manner. Our number is 
mcreasing, although vocations are still rare in this country. We are now 
eighteen, whether Professed, Novics or Postulants. 

The boarding school is flourishing, and the day pupils are so numerous that 
the class rooms are packed like sardines. 



18 M. A. 

I love these dear children with all my heart. They are so affectionate a 
kind word thrills them. I profit of this means to stimulate their application to 
their studies. They are progressing rapidly. They show a great deal of taste 
for all kinds of fancy and needlework. Ten young pupils have been baptized 
within two years and my knowledge of Spanish has enabled me to instruct and 
prepare three adults for the reception of the Sacraments. They approached the 
altar with such sincere devotion and have shown since such admirable faith 
and piety that I feel amply rewarded for the trouble I took to learn Spanish. 

Slay God reward the generous zeal and devotedness of our Missionaries 
who spend themselves for His glory in this country where the enemies of souls 
scatter broadcast seed of the most pernicious doctrine." 

The \vish, expressed by the writer of the foregoing letter was soon 
reah'zed. The building was no longer sufficient to accommodate the 
pupils that sought admisison. A new two story structure was built for 
the use of the boarding and select school and was called the Academy, 
whilst the old building remaining the exclusive quarters of the Relig- 
ious, and the Mexicans' Free School was called the Monastery. These 
two buildings were united at one extremity by the new Chapel, beauti- 
ful in design and spacious enough to serve as Parish Church for the 
French element of the city, which was steadily increasing in popula- 
tion and civilization. The area enclosed by these buildings formed a 
vast quadrangle opened at one side not unlike the Old World Cloisters. 
The broad acres belonging to the Convent and which at first were like 
the earth when Adam was cast out of Paradise, that is, covered with 
thorns and briars, were now changed into highly productive gardens 
and orchards, which supplied the house with an abundance of fruit 
and vegetables. The poultry yard was the delight of the Sister House- 
keeper and the game birds, which were plentiful, furnished delicacies 
for the sick and provisions for feast days. 

In 1857 Rev. Father Parisot O. M. I. was appointed Chaplain 
pro-tem, during Rev. Father Dubuis' absence. In his "Reminiscenses" 
the saintly Oblate records that one day a band of Northern tourists 
asked to visit the Convent. Having obtained the required permission, 
the party, accompanied by Fr. Parisot arrived at the appointed time. 
They were introduced to the Community and after a few moments of 
pleasant conversation were invited to visit the building. After doing 
so they expressed their surprise at not finding dark dungeons and 
secret hiding places and declared that the San Antonio nuns were the 
most amiable and most highly educated women they had ever seen. 

A few weeks later, three gentlemen arrived from Austin. One 
was the father of a young lady boarder who had died six months be- 
fore. A report was spread that she was not dead but had been removed 
to another Convent. To silence these reports, the father had the coffin 
removed from the grave and opened before three witnesses. On remov- 
ing the veil that covered the face of the flead girl she was seen beauti- 
ful and smiling without a sign of decomposition. "It is my child, my 
dear child" exclaimed the father. An affidavit drawn up and signed put 
an end to the previous false reports. 

The young lady had been a Protestant and several times had ex- 
presses! her desire to become a Catholic but her father would never 



THE URSULINES OF TEXAS 19 

give his consent. She fell ill and although her parents were immediately 
notified, she died before they had started on their way to- San Antonio. 

Shortly after the event related above, the Sister Sacristan while 
dusting the Chapel found under the statue of the Blessed Virgin a note 
written by this young lady, beseeching the Mother of God to obtain for 
her the grace of Baptism and Holy Communion. And Mary Immacu- 
late heard her prayer. Three days before her death the young girl re- 
ceived Baptism and made her First Communion, which was also her 
Viaticum. 

The good achieved in San Antonio by the Ursulines cannot be 
over-estimated. They have educated the mothers of the present gen- 
eration and their daughters and they look up with veneration and 
sincere affection to their Ursuline Mothers. 

On the promotion of Rt. Rev. J. M. Odin to the Archiepiscopal 
See of New Orleans, Father Dubuis, who had accompanied him to 
France was appointed to succeed him and was consecrated Bishop in 
Lyons November 23, 1862. 

After his consecration, Bishop Dubuis immediately left France 
and embarked for Texas, having previously enlisted for his mission 
field Rev. Father Etienne Buffard, whom he appointed his successor 
as Vicar General of West Texas and Chaplain to the Ursulines. Bishop 
Dubuis always entertained a love of predilection for his dear Ursuline 
daughters of San Antonio. It was he, who in 1866 laid the foundation 
stone of the present edifice. 

The work of education was not interrupted during the Civil War, 
for, although Texas paid a heavy toll in dead and wounded and her 
sons distinguished themselves on the field of honor, the Northern 
troops never invaded the interior of the state. Many of the slave own- 
ers were Catholics and the freed negroes chose to remain with their 
humane masters. The planters then organized business transactions on 
a vast scale with Mexico, where they sent all their cotton and as there 
was no competition they realized great profit. And while anxiety for 
safety of their loved ones reigned in .nearly every household, the 
younger members were sent to the good Sisters to continue their 
studies and to pray for their Country. 

With the advent and increase of railroad communication after 
the period of Reconstruction, San Antonio made incredible records in 
wealth and population. It became the county seat and commercial cen- 
ter of a rich agricultural region. The sphere of influence of the Ursu- 
Hnes became proportionately enlarged. The Community at the time 
was increased by worthy subjects from France and Ireland and from 
that time on, Receptions and Professions were of frequent occurrence. 

In 1883 the Institution was legally chartered under the name of 
Ursuline Academy and was given power to give diplomas to its gra- 
duates. Some of the names most famous in the History of Texas and 
Mexico are registered in the roll of the Academy. 

In 1901 the Ursulines of San Antonio celebrated the fiftieth an- 
niversary of their foundation. The immense concourse of friends who 



20 M. A. 

took part in the celebration wras an evident proof of the universal 
esteem they enjoy and which they so well deserve. 

In 1901 a North extension was added to the Academy and the 
whole building was remodeled and removed. Now it stands, one of 
the most interesting landmarks and most attractive structures in the 
Alamo City. 

THE URSULINES IN LAREDO 

In 1868, Mother St. Joseph Aubert, Professed Ursuline of Brig- 
noles, France, was returning to her house of Profession when she 
was met in Galveston by Rt. Rev. C. M. Dubuis who persuaded her to 
remain in Texas. Moreover the Bishop begged her to undertake the 
foundation of an Ursuline Convent in Laredo. "The house" he said, 
"was ready, the harvest plentiful but it was difficult to find laborers as 
these must have a knowledge of Spanish." Mother St, Joseph did not 
need much urging to accept the mission. At the request of Bishop 
Dubuis. Galveston gave up one of its professed members, Sister St. 
Teresa Pareida. a Mexican and former pupil of San Antonio. 

The two pioneers set out for Laredo and on arriving at their 
destination, immediately began their Ursuline Mission of education. 
Within the year they were joined by one Professed Religious, two 
Novices and two lay Sisters from San Antonio. 

The old Convent, which now forms the nucleus of the handsome 
structure on the Rio Grande, was a massive stone building of three 
stories. On the first floor were the class rooms, on the second were 
two large apartments, one of which served for a Refectory, Community 
and Recreation Room, the other was used as a Chapel. On the third 
floor were the dormitories. 

The Sisterhood quickly won the love and confidence of the Mex- 
icans, who then, constituted the whole population. In 1874 Mother St. 
Claude of San Antonio was appointed Superioress, and Mother St. 
Joseph returned to France where a few months later she died in the 
house of her Profession, having filled a long and fruitful career. 

The saintly Mother St. Claude remained eighteen years in author- 
ity with but little interruption. During her administration the Convent 
continued faithfully and strenuously its noble work. In 1892 this good 
Mother was delegated to establish a new foundation in Puebla, Mexico. 

Laredo, which in 1868, numbered scarcely four thousand inhabit- 
ants has now an American population of twenty thousand, and the 
Ursuline Sisters continue the work which is the life purpose of their 
Order, the building up of Christian Womanhood by imparting to their 
pupils a useful and solid education. 

THE URSULINES IN DALLAS 

In 1873 Dallas was a small thriving town of about eight thousand 
inhabitants. Rev. Father Joseph Martiniere was ])arish priest of the 
only Catholic Church there, the Sacred Heart. The Texas and Pacific 
Railroad had just pushed its terminus in this locality. With prophetic 



THE URSUUNES OF TEXAS 21 

eye, the good Father saw the brilliant future of the little town then 
struggling into existence and he readily persuaded Bishop Dubuis to 
procure a little colony of Ursulines to educate the youth of the future 
metropolis. 

With the zealous Bishop, to think was to act. He therefore com- 
municated his designs to the Ursulines of Galveston , his episcopal 
city, requesting them to undertake the foundation as soon as possible. 
The Community readily consented and on the twenty-seventh of Jan- 
uary 1874 a band of six Professed Ursulines, with Mother St. Joseph 
Holly as Superioress, and Mother St. Paul Kauffman as Treasurer 
arrived in Dallas. Rt. Rev. Bishop Dubuis, who had accompanied 
them, gave them possession of a small building consisting of four 
rooms situated on the Sacred Heart property on Bryan Street. 

Half-amused and much surprised at the aspect of their new do- 
main, the nuns wondered where they would accommodate the board- 
ing pupils already promised them. They were not discouraged, how- 
ever, but trusted on the blessing of God, on the sympathy of their new- 
ly made friends and on their own exertions. Having no other endow- 
ment than the accomplished education based upon a system of train- 
ing that has withstood the test of centuries, gifted moreover, with the 
ready tact which could adapt this experience to the needs of a new 
and rapidly growing country, these true daughters of St. Angela brave- 
ly set their hands and brains to work to devise ways and means of 
prosecuting their mission — the instruction and education of youth. 

On the second of February, they opened their school with but 
seven pupils ; before the close of the session the number had increased 
to fifty. Among the first to be enrolled was a gifted young girl, who, 
the following year, entered as a Postulant and two years after made 
her solemn Religious Profession in the little Convent Chapel adjoin- 
ing the Sacred Heart Church. She was the first Professed Religious 
of Dallas. Hers was the privilege to be trained by the two first Mothers 
whose eminent virtues and quaHfications have made them the standard 
of succeeding generations. In after years when the humble Sister suc- 
ceeded in office these first Mothers, she combined in her person the 
rare wisdom, the tactful sympathy and true spirituality of Mother St. 
Joseph, with the business knowledge and administrative ability of 
Mother St. Paul. 

From their first arrival in Dallas, a cordial and generous bond of 
sympathy and confidence was established between the people and the 
Ursulines. Year by year every scholastic term became an improvement 
on the preceding. Parents hastened to confide their children to the nuns' 
care, and the number of students soon ran up to hundreds. These in 
time became the best advertisement for the school. Additions were 
hastily put up to meet the growing demands. Within a year after their 
arrival a large two-story frame building was begun and at the begin- 
ning of 1876 was ready for occupancy. The beautiful gardens and 
shady nooks which soon appeared as if by magic transformed the 
hitherto forest wild into a delightful Eden. The same year the school 



22 M. A. 

was chartered by the State legislature and given the collegiate rights 
and privileges, under the title of "Ursuline Academy." 

Ehiring ten years the Ursulines continued there and prospered 
beyond their most sanguine expectations. Several of the graduates of 
these early ^'ears became representative women in various walks of 
Hfe. 

In 1881 through the advice of their esteemed Chaplain, Very Rev. 
J. Martiniere. negotiations were opened for the acquisition of desirable 
property in the suburbs of the city; there the main building of the 
present magnificent structure was begun and the following year was 
completed. The plan is purely Gothic in design, a marvel of beauty, 
pronounced worthy of any city in the Union. Fit surroundings are in 
keeping with the beautiful structure. Smiling gardens, fruit laden 
orchards, shady groves and a charming Grotto are some of the many 
attractions on the Convent grounds. 

The primitive place on Bryan street was used as the Sacred Heart 
Parochial School until 1908, when a modern and well equipped build- 
ing was erected adjacent to the new Sacred Heart Cathedral on Ross 
Avenue. The average yearly attendance there is between two hundred 
and fifty and three hundred pupils. 

Mother St. Joseph Holly became known and loved far and wide 
for her amiable qualities. Christian spirit and efficient government. She 
was laid to rest in the quiet Convent cemetery on a dreary December 
morning 1884. She was succeeded in office by Mother St. Paul whose 
business tact and administrative abilities did much toward the progress 
and prosperity of the institution. 

In 1887, Rev. Mother Mary Evangelist Holly, Professed of Gal- 
veston, received and generously accepted the mission to devote herself 
henceforth in the field prepared by her saintly sister. Rev. Mother 
St. Joseph. Mother Mary Evangelist was a Religious of tried virtue 
and more than ordinary talent and efficiency. Her tact and devotedness 
had made her an ideal teacher, her spirit of faith and trust in God im- 
parted to others reverence, love and confidence. She was welcomed 
in Dallas as an angel from Heaven. She was immediately appointed 
Directress of studies, and from that time on we find her in some 
official capacities until she finally became the American representative 
of the Order in Rome ; everywhere radiating an influence that impels 
to the highest efforts. 

With all her intense love and esteem for Religious traditions 
nevertheless, she is truly progressive in all things pertaining to educa- 
tion and has ever sought to standardize the curriculum for the highest 
intellectual, moral and physical training. 

The Ursulines have had charge of St. Patrick's Parochial School 
ever since the erection of the Parish ; indeed until 1903 they were the 
only teaching Order in Dallas. Thus, through the Parochial Schools 
and the Academy they reach all classes of society. Many parents love 
to remind their little ones that Sister or Mother "So and so" was 
papa's or mama's teacher, whilst every year graduates go forth from 



THE URSULINES OF TEXAS 23 

the Academy, the pride and comfort of the home circle, and the orna- 
ment of society, and later became model wives and mothers, true 
Christian gentlewomen. 

Moreover, since its beginning, the Academy has been a fertile 
nursery of vocations. More than half the number of the Professed 
Religious were former pupils, who like Noah's faithful dove, have 
returned to the Ark that sheltered their early years from sin and 
danger. Not the Ursuline Order alone, but other Institutes count many 
recruits from the Dallas Ursulines. 

In May 1899 Rev. Mother St. Paul passed away after a long and 
and most painful illness. This good Mother's strong personality has 
left lasting impressions on her former pupils, her memory is for them 
still a stimulus and an inspiration. 

The bereaved Sisterhood now turned with entire confidence and 
love to Rev. Mother Mary Evangelist who was elected Superioress, 
being a woman of remarkable discernment and intelligence. Her ad- 
ministration was one of kindly wisdom and gentle firmness. Under 
her energizing influence the Academy received a new impulse in its 
onward career and there was a general trend toward the best in the 
training of pupils and teachers. Yearly lecture and summer normal 
were some of the means used to accomplish this. With all her earnest- 
ness about a pupils' intellectual progress, she was as considerate about 
their youthful love for good times and she was ever devising ways 
and means oL pleasure and recreation for them. Little wonder the 
Institution gained favor with the parents on account of its thorough- 
ness, and attracted the pupils on account of its pleasantness and par- 
ental care. 

In January 1899 the Convent celebrated the twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of its foundation. It was then that the Alumnae Association 
was organized. This Association has the honor of being the first of 
the kind established in the Order. 

The tie that binds the Alumnae to their Alma Mater is a strong 
and tender one and the years increase its strength. There, gray haired 
women, leaders and uplifters in society meet with bright young girls 
full of high aspirations, and all find a common interest in the welfare 
and prosperity of their Convent Home. 

The Jubilee celebration lasted three days, the crowning event be- 
ing the unveihng of the memorial window with magnificent ceremonies 
in the Convent Chapel. This window, a beautiful work of art executed 
in Munich is the gift of the Alumnae. It represents the five wise 
Virgins meeting the Divine Bridegroom and commemorates the five 
pioneer Ursulines who founded the Convent. 

A great and long desired work was brought to a happy conclusion 
when on November 28, 1900 the Holy Father, Pope Leo XIII gave his 
formal approbation to the work of unifying the Ursuline Communities 
of the entire world. For more than three hundred years the peculiar- 
ities of their organization placed the Ursulines largely under the 
authority of their Bishops and made the different houses autonomous. 



24 M. A. 

Realizing that in "Union there is strength" and what a great advan- 
tage would accrue to the Order if they could concentrate their powers 
and harmonize their efforts, they gladly responded to the desire ex- 
pressed by the Holy Father, that delegates from the different houses 
should meet in Rome to deliberate together on the best means to form 
an Ursuline Union with a centralized government in Rome. This great 
work of unification met with many difficulties, but the whole matter 
was conducted with such tact and so much consideration for the 
immemorial customs of venerable Institutes that the most harmonious 
relations resulted, and the good work was brought to a happy conclu- 
sion with the approbation and blessing of the Holy Father. 

Mother Julian of Blois, France was elected first Mother General 
with residence in Rome. In the formation of the Ursuline provinces 
in the United States, the Ursuline Convent of Dallas was chosen for 
the Provincial headquarters of the Southern province, the provincial 
house of the North being in New York City. Since 1910 to the pres- 
ent year. 1922, Reverend Mother Mary Evangelist has been Assist- 
ant General and American Representative of the Order in Rome. 

After the Unification, the Ursulines of Dallas have continued to 
be faithful daughters and loyal supporters of their Bishops and en- 
joy their paternal support and special patronage. 

While the Academy ofTers to students of the wealthiest class of 
sodety all the advantages of a high education, it is conducted in a 
common sense and practical manner so that all classes may avail them- 
selves of the opportunities it aflFords of acquiring a Christian education 
solid, useful and cultured. 

As previously stated the Institution was chartered in 1876. More- 
over, in recent years it has been affiliated to the Catholic University 
of Washington and is also accredited to the State University. 

Through all these years trials and difficulties have not been want- 
ing. Every advantage has been bought with the coin of sacrifice but 
the fulfilment of the Sacred Heart's Promises has been evident in 
the Community and schools. St. Joseph has been the trusty banker and 
provider of the household and Our Lady of Prompt Succor was never 
invoked in vain to obtain from her Divine Son a speedy and favorable 
answer to the petitions of her clients, the Ursulines of Dallas. 

M. A. 



THE KICKAPOO MISSION 



I. FIRST STEPS 

Ever since coming to the West, Father Charles F. Van Quicken- 
borne, founder of the Jesuit Mission of Missouri, had cherished the 
idea of an estabHshment in the Indian country as an enterprise which 
the Mission was urgently called upon to undertake. In an interesting 
document drawn up in 1832 ( ?) and indorsed "Reasons for giving 
a preference to the Indian Mission before any other," he detailed the 
weighty considerations that made it imperative for the Society of 
Jesus to put its hands to this apostolic work. It was primarily for the 
conversion of the Indian that the Society had been established in Mis- 
souri ; it was with a view to realizing this noble purpose that contribu- 
tions from charitable benefactors in Europe had been solicited and ob- 
tained ; and the tacit obligation thus incurred, to say nothing of the ex- 
press obligation imposed by the Concordat, could be discharged only 
by establishing a mission in behalf of one or more of the native Am- 
erican tribes. Even the new college in St. Louis commended itself to 
the zealous Van Quickenborne chiefly as a preparatory step to the 
larger and more important enterprise of the Indian mission. 

"All these things come by reason of the Indian Mission," he wrote in No- 
vember, 1828, to Father Dzierozynski, Superior of the Jesuit Mission of Mary- 
land, with reference to certain contributions received from abroad. "Don't let 
your Reverence fear therefore to make an establishment in the Indian country 
or close to it. But why a college in St. Louis? Because that college is neces- 
sary for the Indian establishment." ^ 

Why a college in St. Louis was necessary for the Indian establish- 
ment we learn from the same communication of Van Quickenborne 
to his Superior. There the missionaries could meet the government 
Indian agents as also the deputations from the various tribes and in 
general be in close touch with the tide of busy life that was beginning 
to flow between the Missouri metropolis and the frontier. In 1831, 
however, Father Van Quickenborne relinquished the office of Superior 
of the Missouri Mission without having realized his cherished plans. 
Father De Theux, his successor, could scarcely fail to be interested 
in the project of an Indian mission, especially as the General, Father 
Roothaan, was insistent that the work be commenced. 



1 Van Quickenborne to Dzierozynski, Florissant, Nov. 1828. (B). — (A) 

indicates Missouri Province ,S. J., Archives; (B), Maryland— New York Pro- 
vince S. J. Archives; (C), Archdiocesan Archives, St. Louis. 

25 



26 REV. G. J. GARRAGHAN, S.J. 

"In almost all his letters," Father De Theux informed Father McSherry in 
December 1834, "his Paternity insists on my beginning the Indian mission; but 
by what means or by what persons seems to me a problem not easily to be 
solved except by Him who can do all things and has already done great things 
for this the least of the missions of the Society." - 

In March of the following year Father De Theux informed Bishop 
Rosati that the Father General had just communicated to him the de- 
sire of the Propaganda and therefore of the Holy See that a start be 
made with the Indian mission, but that men and means were still lack- 
ing for the undertaking. 

In the summer of 1835 Father Van Quickenborne visited the vari- 
ous Indian tribes settled along the Western frontier with a view to 
ascertain which among them offered the most promising field for the 
long-projected mission. He was particularly anxious to determine by 
a first-hand investigation the real attitude of the Kickapoo who had 
been reported to him as eager to secure the services of a Cathohc priest. 
This tribe, whose village was on the Missouri a few miles above Fort 
Leavenworth, at the confluence of the Missouri River and Salt Creek, 
had been visited in 1833 by Father Roux, the pioneer priest of Kan- 
sas City, who was especially impressed by their leanings towards 
Christianity. ^ The Kickapoo were strongly under the influence of a 
so-called prophet or religious leader, Kennekuk by name, who had 
picked up various fragments of Catholic doctrine and practice and 
woven them into a religion of his own, and had even succeeded accord- 



2 De Theux a Rosati, March 1836. (C). 

* Father Stephen Theodore Badin, the first priest ordained in the United 
States .came into contact with a band of Kickapoo on the outskirts of Chicago 
in October, 1830. "I found there another band from the Kickapoo tribe who 
live in an immense prairie in Illinois along the Vermillion River at a distance 
of about one hundred miles from Chicago. Some time before these good people 
had sent their compliments to chief Pokegan, telling him at the same time that 
they envied him the happiness of having a pastor." Ann. Prop., 6: 154. Father 
Roux's visit to the Kickapoo in their village near Fort Leavenworth, November 
18, 1833, is narrated by him in a letter to Bishop Rasati of St. Louis, dated a 
few days later. See Catholic Historical Review, April, 1918, Father Roux's letter 
of March 11, 1834, to Bishop Rosati, (C), contains the text of Kennekuk the 
Prophet's address to the missionary on the occasion of his first visit to the tribe. 
"Rapport des propres paroles du Kenckoek, ou Prophcte, des Kokapooks donne 
en Poos [Potawatomi] par Thithoe, rendu en langue Kikapook per Mechouet, 
et interpret^ en franqais par Laurent Finsoneau a Mr. B. Roux pietre, en 
presence de Penafe, Nochetcomo, Pechoas.n, Pekouak et Paschal Pinsoneau, 
le 22 9 bre 1833." Father Roux visited the Kickapoo Prophet on January i, 1834, 
and shortly after baptized a Kickapoo infant at the Chouteau trading house on 
the Kaw river. "Mr. Pinsoneau who trades with the Kickapoo has been here 
for some weeks; he tells me that these good Indians eagerly desire me to come 
and baptize their children." Roux a Rosati, March n, 1834. (C). Father Roux 
returned from his mission among the French Creoles at the mouth of the 
Kansas, where he had been residing since November, 1833, to St. Louis in April, 
1835, a few months before Father Van Quickenborne undertook his first mis- 
sionary trip to the Kicakpoo. The favorable reports concerning the tribe which 
had reached the Jesuit missionary came to him probably at first-hand from 
Fathe Roux. For a }n\ci account of Father Roux's visits to the Kickapoo, see 
Garraghan, Catholic Beginnings in Kansas City, pp. 49, 50, 53, 54. 



THE KICKAPOO MISSION 27 

ing to the testimony of traders and government agents, in introducing 
certain moral reforms of importance among his people. * 

"To get to the Kickapoo it was necessary to cross the Kansas River. I 
was not a little surprised to see that the Delaware Indians had established a 
ferry there in imitation of the whites. We arrived at the Kickapoo village July 
4, a Saturday, the day consecrated to the Blessed Virgin. The next day I 
said Mass in the trader's house, where the prophet, who was anxious to see 
me, put in an early appearance. ^ After the first exchange of courtesies, he at 
once brought up the subject of religion. 'What do you teach?' he asked me. 
'We teach,' I answered, 'that every man must believe in God, hope in God, 
love God above all things and his neighbor as himself; those who do this 
will go to heaven, and those who do not will go to hell." Many of my young 
people believe that there are two Gods. How do you prove that there is only 
one and that he has proposed certain truths to us to be believed?' I said in 
the course of my reply: 'God spoke to the Prophets and the Prophets proved 
by miracles that God had spoken to them.' He at once interrupted me, saying : 
"This is the very way I got to be believed when I began to preach : I raised 
the dead to life. There was a woman,' he continued, 'who, so every one thought, 
could not possibly recover her health ; I breathed on her and from that mo- 
ment she began to improve and is now in good health. Another time I saw 
an infant just about to die: I took it in my arms and at the end of a few 
days it was cured.' I said in reply that there is a great difference between a 
dead person and one who is believed to be at the point of death; that in 
the two cases alleged he had merely done what any one else might do; and 
that, since on his own admission those two persons were not dead, he had 
not as a matter of fact brought them back to life. 

My answer irritated him greatly and he remarked that no one had ever 
dared to contradict him in this fashion or give him such an answer. Seeing 
him in anger, I kept silent. Then my interpreter ,a friend of the prophet, told 
him it was wrong of him to become angry when he could not answer the re- 
marks made by the Black-Robe and that this only showed that he defended 
a bad cause. After some moments of silence he softened and admitted him- 
self to be worsted. 'I realize,' he said, 'that my religion is not a good one : 
if my people wish to embrace yours, I will do as they." The following Sun- 
day he repeated in assembly what he had often said before, that he should 
not be deceived in his hope and in the pledge he had given them that the 
Great Spirit would send some one to help him complete his work. God alone 
knows whether he spoke sincerely. On Monday I received a visit from several 
of the inferior chiefs ; all expressed a desire to have a Catholic priest among 
them. I was unable on that occasion to see the dead chief, who had gone on 
the hunt and returned only ten days later. I paid him a visit immediately 
on his return and explained to him that I had made this journey because I 
heard it said that his nation wished to have a priest and I was eager to as- 

* Though named Keokuk in some early accounts, the Kickapoo Prophet 
is not to be confounded with the famous Sauk leader for whom the town of 
Keokuk in Iowa is named. Details concerning the Kickapoo Prophet may be 
read in Father Van Quickenborne's letter in the Ann .Prop. 9:94; also in Chit- 
tenden and Richardson's De Smet p. 1085 and in J. T. Irving, Indian Sketches, 
London, 1835, p. 81. "The Prophet was a tall, bony Indian, witji a keen, black 

eye and a face beaming with intelligence Tehre is an energy of character 

about him which gives much weight to his words and has created for him an 
influence greater than that of any Indian in the town. From the little that we 
saw, it was evident that the chief yielded to him and listened to his remarks 
with the deference of one who acknowledged his superiority." (Irving). 

'^ Laurent Pinsoneau, the Kickapoo trader, figures often as god-father 
in the baptismal records of the Jesuit missionaries on the Missouri frontier in 
the thirties. Garraghan, Catholic Beginnings in Kansas City, Missouri, p. 53, 
54, 65. 



28 REV. G. J. GARR.\GHAN. S.J. 

certain if such was really the case; that in his absence the other chiefs had 
soucht me out to assure me of the truth of what I heard; but that before 
speaking of the affair to their grand father (the President of the United 
States), I desired to know how he himself regarded it. 'Have you a wife? 
he asked me. I answered that he ought to know that Catholic priests do 
not marry and that I was a black-robe. At these words he manifested sur- 
prise mingled with respect and excused himself by saying that, as he had 
just arrived and had not as yet spoken to any of his people, no one had 
informed him of the fact that I was a black-robe. He then added that in a 
matter of sudi importance he wished to hear his council and would return his 
answer in St. Louis whither he proposed to go. He did not go there, however, 
but sent me his answer by a trader. It was couched in these terms : 'I desire, 
as do also the principal men of my nation, to have a Black-robe come and 
reside among us with a view to instruct us.*"® 

The result of Father Van Quickenborne's visit to the Kickapoo 
in the summer of 1835 was a decision reached by Father De Theux 
to open a Jesuit residence in behalf of that tribe. Accordingly the 
autumn of the same year saw Father Van Quickenborne in Washing- 
ton negotiating with the Federal authorities for government aid in be- 
half of the projected mission. 

From Georgetown College he wrote on September 17th to Cass, 
Secretary of War. 

"In answer to your favor of the i6th inst., I have the honor to state :- 

1. That I am prepared to open a Mission with a school in the Indian 
country at the following places— ist. On the land of the Kickapoo in the vicin- 
ity of Cantonment Leavenworth. 

2. I have three Missionaries, including a teacher, to cornmence the Mis- 
sion and Schoof immediately in the Kickapoo Nation. I am induced to com- 
mence with this tribe by the circumstance of it having expressed to me, 
through their principal men and chiefs, including even the prophet Kennekuk, 
a desire of having a Catholic establishment among them. The reason they al- 
leged was that they had for many years lived in the neighborhood of French 
settlements ; that they had. in some degree, become acquainted with their re- 
ligion and that now they wished to be instructed in it. The prophet said that 
he had always hoped that a Black-gown, by which name he designates the 
Catholic priest, would be sent by the Great Spirit to help him in instructing 
his people and teaching them the truths he did not know. 

Besides the three Missionaries mentioned above, the Catholic Missionary 
Society of Missouri, in whose name I act, has placed at my disposal for this 
year, commencing at this period, a sum of one thousand dollars. It is my 
intention to take into the school as many pupils as it will be in my power 
to collect and to add to the number of teachers, in proportion as the number 
of scholars will increase, as far as will be in my power; and I have the 
strongest assurance that aid will be given me by the same Society. For this 
establishment I should be grateful for every aid the Department can aflFord, 
cither in the way of raising the necessary buildings or paying part of the 
salary of teachers or for the support of Missionaries." 



• Ann. Prop., 9:99 Father Van Quickenborne baptized in "Kickapoo town" 
July 2, 1835, the earliest recorded baptism for the locality, Lisette fElizabethl, 
ten-month old daughter of Pierre Callieu, a Canadian, and Marguarite, a Pota- 
watomi woman. The ceremonies were omitted "ob superstitioncm adstantium," 
("owing to the superstition of the })ystanders"), July 12 following he baptized, 
also in "Kickapoo town", a son of the Kickapoo Indians, Thakamie and Nikio- 
niche. Tbe ceremonies were omtitcd "ob aegritudinem infantis", ("owing to the 
child's sickness") the child being only six days old. Kickapoo Baptismal Register, 
Archives of St Mary's College, St. Mary's Kansas. 



THE KICKAPOO MISSION 29 

Father Van Quickenborne's appeal to Cass in behalf of his Kicka- 
poo Mission was answered by Elbert Herring, Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs. 

"Your letter of the 17th inst. to the Secretary of War has been referred 
to me and I am instructed to answer the propositions it contains. 

1. In regard to a school among the Kickapoo Indians, the Treaty of 
1832 provided for an appropriation of Five-Hundred Dollars annually for the 
term of ten years, for the support of the school. This sum is now applied in 
the manner thus directed and diversion of it to any other institution is con- 
sidered inexpedient at present. 

2. "You ask an allowance from the appropriation for civilizing the In- 
dians. The Secretary of War has directed that the sum of Five Hundred 
Dollars shall be paid to you or to an authorized agent of the Catholic Mis- 
sionary Society of Missouri whenever information is received that a school 
has been established among the Indians. This information must be accom- 
panied by a certificate of the agent of the tribes, that a building has been 
erected suitable for the purpose, that a teacher is ready to enter upon his 
duties and that there is reason to believe that it will be well attended by 
Indian Children. I enclose an open letter for you to General Clark." ^ 

On the same day that Father Van Quickenborne received the 
foregoing communication from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs 
he penned a letter to Bishop Rosati of St. Louis advising him of his 
success. 

"It is an honor and an inexpressible pleasure to me as well to be able to 
announce to you that today I concluded my affair with the Government. We 
are going to begin an Indian mission and school among the Kickapoo. I have 
obtained as an outfit Five Hundred Dollars. When the school shall be in 
operation, circumstances will determine the amount of aid which the Gov- 
ernment will furnish. My offer in behalf of the Pottowatomies has also been 
favorably received and we are fully authorized to begin work among them 
also when they shall have moved to their new lands in Missouri in the neigh- 
borhood of Council Bluffs. May your Lordship pardon me if I ask you to be 
so good as to communicate this news to the Ladies of the Sacred Heart in 
St. Louis and to commend me earnestly to their prayers as to those of the 
Sisters of Charity. * * * j have made an important acquisition for the mis- 
sion. Father McSherry gives me a Brother of robust health, who is at once 
carpenter, doctor, etc. Many of the Fathers here manifest a lively desire to 
go and work among the Indians." ^ 

Happy in having obtained so readily a pledge of Government aid, 
Father Van Quickenborne spent several months in the East soliciting 
alms for his new venture. With characteristic zeal he was ready to 
interrupt his stay there at the first call from the expectant Kickapoo. 
"Should the Indians, however, want my presence," he writes to Father 
McSherry from New York, "I am determined to come immediately." ^ 
The hospitahty shown him by the Maryland Jesuits elicited the warm 
thanks of his Superior, Father De Theux, who wrote to Father Mc- 
Sherry: "I need not add that we will be happy to return you or any 



^ Van Quickenborne to Cass, Georgetown, Sept. 17, 1835. (G). Herring to 
Van Quickenborne, Washington, Sept. 22, 1835. (A). In his letter of Sept. 17, 
1835 to Secretary Cass, Father Van Quickenborne also petitioned for government 
aid in behalf of a Potawatomi mission. See infra, Chapt. 

8 Van Quickenborne a Rosati, Georgetown, Sept. 22, 1835. (C) Father 
William McSherry was Provincial of the Maryland Province. 
8 Van Quickenborne to McSherry, Dec. 2, 1835. (B). 



30 REV. G. J. GARRAGHAN, SJ. 

of yours the kindness shown our Indian Missionary, should any of 
yours take a trip to Missouri." ^^ Sor^e months later Father De Theux 
again expressed his thanks to Father McSherry, this time for sending 
him Brothers Andrew Mazella and Edmund Barry, who were to ac- 
company Father Van Quickenborne to the Kickapoo village : 

"Your favor of the 15 ulL," he writes on April 12, 1836, "reached me on 
the 8th inst. It afforded me a new proof of the kindness of Providence and 
the kind concurrence of Superiors in regard of this least Mission of the So- 
ciety. Whenever your Reverence sends Brotlier Mazella and his companion, 
they will be very welcome and all your Brethern here will look upon them as 
a new reason for gratitude towards your Reverence and the Maryland Pro- 
vince." ^1 

Father Van Quickenborne returned to St. Louis from the East 
in the May of 1836. Father Verhaegen who had become Superior of 
the Missouri Mission in succession to Father De Theux, wrote to 
Father McSherry on May 14, 1936 : 

"Your Reverence's affectionate favor of the 20th ult. has been handed to 
me by our good Father Van Quickenborne. The voyage to Missouri has been 
very prosperous ; he and his two worthy companions arrived in good health 
and fine spirits. They are now preparing for their arduous undertaking. I do 
not know what success they shall meet with ; but it requires no great pene- 
tration of mind to see the numerous obstacles which they will have to en- 
counter. May the Almighty bless their glorious efforts. I cordially thank your 
Reverence for the kind assistance you have given Father Quickenborne and 
hope. Reverend and dear Father, that you will continue to favor as much as 
circumstances will allow a Mission upon the success of which the honor of 
our dear Society considerably depends." ^^ 

The Indian tribe among whom the Missouri Jesuits were to make 
their first experiment in resident missionary activity were not un- 
known to their predecessors of the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies. The Kickapoo (the name appears to be a corruption from a 
longer term signifying "roamers") were of Algonquin stock, showing 
a close affinity in language, customs and ceremonial forms to the Sauk 
and Foxes. Their first known habitation was South Central Wiscon- 
sin, whence they shifted their position to the Lower Wabash upon 
lands seized from the Illinois and Miami. As early as 1669, Father Al- 
louez come in contact with them at the Green Bay Mission of St. Fran- 
cis Xavier. Upon his fellow-laborer. Father Marquette, they made a 
distinctly unfavorable impression. Though professing loyalty to the 
French, in 1680 they killed the Recollect Friar, Gabriel de la Ribourde, 
a member of La Salle's party, on the banks of the Illinois. In 1728 the 
Jesuit missionary. Father Ignatius Guignas, falling into their hands, 
was condemned to the stake, but his life was spared and being adopted 
into their tribe he brought them by his influence to make peace with the 
French. " 



>« De Theux to McSherry, Dec. 13, 1835. (B). 
»» De Theux to McSherry, April 12, 1836. (B). 
" Verhaegen to McSherry, May 14, 1836. (B) 

'* Catholic flncyclopaedia, art. Kickapoo Indians, Handbook of American 
Indians, Bureau of American Ilthnolorjy, i : 684. 



THE KICKAPOO MISSIOiN 31 

In the conspiracy of Pontiac the Kickapoo were allied with the 
Ottawa chief and took part in the general destruction of the Illinois 
tribes that followed upon his death. In the Revolutionary War and the 
War of 1812 they fought on the side of the English. They suffered 
heavily in these conflicts, especially the second, and by a series of 
treaties beginning with that of Greenville August 3, 1795, after 
Wayne's decisive victory and ending with that of Edwardsville July 
3, 1819, ceded all their lands in Illinois and Indiana. The United States 
Government, having agreed to pay them $2000 a year for fifteen years, 
assigned them a large tract on the Osage River in Missouri. From 
there they moved west of the Missouri river to what is now Atchison 
County in north-eastern Kansas in the immediate vicinity of Ft. 
Leavenworth. In 1822 only four hundred of the twenty-two hundred 
members of the tribe were living in Illinois. By the treaty of Castor 
Hill October 24, 1832, provision was made for schools by an annual 
appropriation of five hundred dollars for ten years. This appropriation 
was applied to the Kickapoo school conducted since 1833 by the Rev. 
Mr. Berryman of the Methodist Episcopal Church. " 

On the whole these Algonquin rovers showed themselves un- 
friendly to the white man and civilization and the fruit of missionary 
labor among them was doomed to be small. But Father Van Quicken- 
borne as he stepped on board the Missouri River steamer at St. Louis 
May 25, 1836, was full of the indomitable hope that buoys up and con- 
soles the hunter of souls. 

"Father Van Quickenborne," writes Father Verhaegen to the East, "left 
this place on the 25th ult. with Brothers Mazella, Barry and Miles. Father 
[Christianl Hoecken ,who is still on the mission is to join hhn in a few weeks. 
Since his departure I have received no news from him. His health had much 
improved and he was full of courage. Everjrthing appears favorable to his 
great and laborious undertaking. The Indian agent [Laurent Pinsoneau] is 
a French Creole and much attached to him. General Clark took him under 
his protection and Messrs. Chouteau & Co. will procure him all the ad- 
vantages and comforts which his new situation will require." ^^ 

II. OPENING OF THE MISSION 

For the incidents attending the inception of the Jesuit Mission 
among the Kickapoo we have Father Van Quickenborne's own ac- 
count, in English, which he sent to Father McSherry. 



1* Castor Hill (Marais Castor, "Beaver Pond"), a tract of lanci now within 
the city-limits of St. Louis, lying north of Natural Bridge Road between Union 
and Goodfellow Avenues. Missouri Historical Society Collections, 3: 409. Here, 
in October, 1832, General William Clark, with two other U. S. Commissioners, 
negotiated treaties with the Kickapoo, Wea, Piankeshaw, Peoria and Kaskaskia 
Indians. 

15 Verhaegen to McSherry, June 2, 1836. (B). Andrew Mazella, b. Procida, 
(Naples), Italy, Nov. 30, 1802; entered the Society of Jesus in the Neopolitan 
Province, Nov. 4, 1823; d. St. Mary's Potawatomi Mission, Kansas, May 9, 
1867. Edmund Barry, b. Ireland, Feb. 24, 1803; entered the Society of Jesus in 
Maryland Province, Aug. 6, 1832; d. Bardstown, Ky., Dec. 10, 1857. George 
Miles, b. Bardstown, Ky., Sept. 13, 1802; entered the Society of Jesus in 
Missouri Mission, Dec. 26, 1827; d. St. Charles, Mo., Jan. 23, 1885. 



32 REV. G. J. GARRAGHAN, S.J. 

"We arrived here on the ist inst., (June, 1836) precisely thirteen years 
after we arrived in Missouri the first time, when we came to commence the 
Indian Mission — better late than never. The steamer on board of which we 
came up, brought us to the very spot where we intended to build. We met. 
with a very cordial reception from the principal chief and his warriors and 
from the prophet himself. There are two towns among the Kickapoos about 
ijj or 2 miles apart, which are composed of the two bands into which the 
nation is divided. Pashishi, the chief ,is quite proud of the circumstance of our 
coming at his particular invitation and for this reason wished me to build near 
his town ; on the other hand the Prophet expressed a wish that we should do 
as much for his band as for the others. He said he had always told his people 
that a black-gown (priest) would come and help him, that he felt disposed to 
join us and to persuade his followers to do the same. By the agreement of the 
chief we intend to build between the two towns on a spot nearly equally dis- 
tant from both. As I did not like the expression of the prophet (of our help- 
ing him), I made him acknowledge that he had not received authority from 
the Great Spirit to preach and that his religion was not a divine religion. 
He readily did it and added that a black-gown had given him a paper and 
had told him to advise and direct his people to the best of his knowledge. 
Afterwards he brought me the paper; — it contains nothing but part of a 
hymn. Time will show whether he is sincere, of which I have great reason to 
doubt General Clark has not as yet communicated to the Agent the letter 
from the War Department of which I was the bearer. This circumstance is 
the cause that the Agent cannot give us the help he would otherwise. He has 
no evidence of my having made an arrangement with the War Department for 
a school in the Kickapoo nation. There can be, however, no doubt but he 
will soon receive an answer from General Clark on the subject, as he has 
written to him and so I have done also. Father Hoecken and Brother Miles 
have been added to the number of those who started from St. Louis. ^^ Father 
Hoecken is getting sick. The others enjoy good health ,except myself being as 
usual very weak. Our accommodations are rather better than I had antici- 
pated. Mr. Painsonneau, [Pinsonneau] the one who keeps a store for the na- 
tion, has had the kindness to let us occupy one of his old cabins. It is 16 feet 
square .made of rough logs and daubed with clay. Here we have our chapel, 
dormitory, refectory, etc. We have to sleep on the floor. Brother Mazella is 
really a precious man ; by his very exterior countenance he has been preach- 
ing all the time of our travelling. He cooks, he washes and mends our linen, 
bakes and does many little things besides. He is truly edifying. Brother 
Barry is a famous hand to work, but he is not used as yet to the western 
country. Whilst on board of the steam boat, the water of the Missouri made 
him sick. Here the salt provisions do not agree with him; but 1 have the 
consolation to see that he bears all this with courage. After a while the In- 
dians will bring in venison and even now and then we have a chance to get 
some. It would be a great consolation to me if all our work could be done 
exclusively by our Brothers. I do not know vvhat we could have done here 
if we did not have the Brothers from Georgetown. I hope that your Rever- 
ence will receive an ample reward for your liberality towards us and that the 
increase of the number of good subjects will allow your Reverence to treat 
with Father General for sending us some more; — a teacher for the school- 
boys will be very necessary. Feather Hoecken and myself hope to be able to 
Icarn the language. We are making now something like a dictionary. This 
will help those that will come afterwards. Since my arrival here I have seen 



'" Father Christian Hoecken, a Hollander, had been employed on the mis- 
sion-circuit of the Missouri-river towns for a few years immediately prior to 
his assignment in June, 1H36, to the Kickapoo, among whom he began his career 
as an Indian missionary. 



THE KICKAPOO MISSION 33 

the Potawatomie Chief Caldwell. ^^ He is a Catholic and wishes to have a 
Catholic establishment among his people. If we make this, as I have promised 
to the Department by order of our Superior, several Brothers more will be 
necessary. ^* Father General has recommended the Indian Mission to Father 
Verhaegen in a particular manner. Your Reverence will not be surprised if I 
do not write about news. We live here, as it were, out of the world. Our good 
Master affords us a fair opportunity for leading an interior life, if we only 
be faithful to His grace. I earnestly beg of your Reverence to remember us 
in your holy sacrifices and prayers. It is one thing to come to the Indian mis- 
sion and another to convert the Indians. Father Hoecken and the Brothers 
present their best respects to your Reverence and wish to be remembered 
to the Fathers and Brothers with whom they have lived, — and myself in par- 
ticular to Rev. Father Rector and Father Vespre and to all inquiring bene- 
factors." ^^ 

The ambition of the zealous Van Quickenborne had at length 
been realized. A Jesuit residence had been opened in the Indian coun- 
try, the first of its kind in the history of the Mission of Missouri. The 
Annual Letters for 1836 preserve some interesting details of the ar- 
rival and first experiences of the missionaries in the Kickapoo village. 
On the eve of Corpus Christi the Missouri river steamer that had car- 
ried them from St. Louis put in at the landing, only a stone's throw 
distant from the Kickapoo wigwams. No sooner did the Indians catch 
sight of the boat than they flocked down to the river bank to welcome 
the missionaries. Pashihi, the chief came at once to pay his respects, 
expressing himself in terms that made the latter hopeful of a plentiful 
spiritual harvest. The log-cabin placed at the disposal of the Jesuits by 
the trader, Mr. Pinsonneau, was fitted up without delay as a chapel 
and in this improvised temple the Holy Sacrifice was offered up on the 
Feast of Corpus Christi in the presence of the wondering Kickapoo. 
They crowded into the cabin, eager with the savage's ingrained curios- 
ity to know the meaning of the crucifix, the pictures and the priestly 
vestments. 

If ever the future success of a missionary venture seemed assured 
by the difficulties that beset its beginning, it was the case now among 
the Kickapoo. Besides the unfriendly attitude of the Agent, Major 
Richard W. Cummins, which will presently call for comment, there 
was the sudden and critical illness of the Superior of the Mission, 
Father Van Quickenborne, who lay helpless for a month. Moreover, 
there were rumors of a Sioux invasion, which threw the Kickapoo vil- 
lage into a panic. The Sioux were reported to be on the warpath with 
their steps directed towards the lodges of the Sauk and Iowa on the 



17 Billy Caldwell, business chief of the Potawatomi, emigrated with the 
tribe from Chicago in September, 1835. See Illinois Catholic Historical Review 
I : 164, 165, art. "Early Catholicity in Chicago." Caldwell's band of Potawatomi, 
before settling on the reservation near Council Bluflfs assigned them by the 
government, occupied for a while part of the triangular strip of land in north- 
western Missouri known as the Platte Purchase. Here they were visited by 
Father Van Quickenborne. See infra. Chap. 

IS The reference is to the projected mission among the Potawatomi of 
Council Bluflfs. 

10 Van Quickenborne to McSherry, Kickapoo Mission, June 29, 1836. (B). 



34 RE\'. G. J. GARRAGHAN, SJ. 

east bank of the Missouri river about a day's journey from Fort 
Leavenworth. A Sauk warrior started the excitement by reporting to 
the Kickapoo Chief that he had seen the enemy on the march. The next 
day another Sauk announced that the Sioux were close at hand and 
begged the Kickapoo to send relief immediately. The third day, still 
other messengers hurried in from the Sauk with the indentical news 
and the identical petition. The Government troops at Fort Leaven- 
worth were also appealed to for assistance. Seventy Kickapoo warriors 
at once took the field in support of their Sauk allies. The day after their 
departure the report was spread that the soldiers despatched from the 
fort had been routed by the Sioux and the Sauk village burnt to the 
ground and that the victorious enemy was moving fast in the direction 
of the Kickapoo village and the fort. Excitement now ran high. The 
Fathers, after consultation, decided that as soon as the Sioux ap- 
peared, a priest and a lay-brother should make the rounds of the wig- 
wams and baptize the children. Father Hoecken and Brother Mazella 
offered themselves for the task. But the war scare subsided as sudden- 
ly as it arose, diligent search having made it clear that there were no 
Sioux whatever in the neighborhood. -° 

The suspension of work on the mission buildings in pursuance of 
an order received from the Agent gave the Jesuit community a chance 
to perform the exercises of the annual spiritual retreat. All, both 
Fathers and Brothers, discharged this duty in common. The exercises 
were held in the only place available, Mr. Pinsoneau's log-cabin, the 
door of which could not be closed both on account of the sweltering 
heat and in deference to Indian etiquette. The Lidians were now 
treated to a novel spectacle. They would enter the cabin, sit down 
opposite to one of the missionaries as he was engaged in prayer, with 
their gaze riveted upon him, and without so much as a syllable falling 
from their lips, and then, when the novelty of the sight had worn off, 
they would rise and leave. One day, while the retreat was in progress, 
a deputation from six tribes arrived in the Kickaf)00 village to nego- 
I'ate a friendly alliance. The deputies were bent on seeing the black- 
robes' chapel and went there in a body, arriving during the time of 
meditation. They first stood at the door eyeing curiously the furniture 
and praying figures within, but not venturing immediately to enter, 
for with all the members of the missionary party present there was 
scant room for other occupants. In the end, however, one after another 
of the braves stepped over the threshold, offered his right hand to the 
Jesuits, beginning with the priests, and then withdrew, the whole cere- 
mony taking place in the profoundest silence. During the eight days 
that the missionaries gave themselves up to prayer and recollection, no 
Indian ventured to interrupt or disturb them. ^^ 

Father Van Quickenborne's letter of October 10, 1836, to Father 
McSherry tells of the difficulty that arose with the Indian Agent, Major 
Cummins. 



*» /Inn. Prop, lo: 130. 

'» Litterae Annuae, 1836, p. 10. (A). 



THE KICKAPOO MISSION 35 

"Your Reverence will be somewhat astonished that we are as yet in the 
same log-cabin into which we went the first day of our arrival. Soon after 
I wrote to you last the Agent took into his head to advise or rather to order 
us to stop until he could get some further understanding. The letter I brought 
from the War Department requested Gen. Clark and Gen. Clark requested 
the Agent to give me all necessary aid towards establishing a school among 
the Kickapoo. He could not understand the phrase. However, General Qark, 
to whom he had referred the case for decision, has decided that this phrase is 
imperative and has advised the Agent punctually to comply with the order 
given. Since that the Agent has changed and has written to me that any 
assistance he can afford will be cheerfully rendered. We have been thus 
stopped for about two months. I had to send off the workmen I had engaged 
and break the contracts I had made and pay all the expenses. The Chief 
and principal men are favorable to us — we will not be able to go into our house 
this winter — ^it will be a log-house 48 ft. long, 20 ft. wide and 16 ft. high. — 
Brother Mazella is a treasure. I have, since I am here, Tiad another spell of 
sickness. Father Hoecken has been also sick, but again we are all in good 
health. The Kaskaskias, Peorias, Weas, Piankeshaws, whom I visited two 
weeks ago, wish to have a resident priest. I have baptized about forty In- 
dian children and as many more would wish to be baptized, but being grown 
persons, they stand in need of instruction. I have lately received a letter from 
Father General — he is extremely well pleased that your Reverence let me have 
Brothers that will be so useful. On account of opposition made by the Agent 
I have no good opportunity to have an answer from our Rev. Father Superior 
concerning the Brothers your Reverence promised last spring. Perhaps the 
good Brother is already on his way to the Kickapoo village. Father Hoecken 
makes great progress in the Indian language; the Indians are astonished at 
it He is able to converse with them almost on any subject. Upon the whole, 
the persecution we have suffered has been of service to us." 22 

Conflicting accounts leave somewhat in doubt the real motive le- 
hind Major Cummins' instruction to Father Van Quickenborne to stop 
work on his school-building. A letter of the Major to be quoted 
presently implies that the consent of the Indians to the new school had 
not been duly ascertained and put on record with the customary 
formalities. Father Van Quickenborne's letters, on the other hand, 
imply that some personal prejudice or ill-will on the part of the agent 
was the real motive of his opposition. The letter from Gen. Clark 
acquainting the agent with the missionaries' authorization from the 
Indian Office to build a school among the Kickapoo was unaccountably 
deTayed in transmission and this delay will explain why Major Cum- 
mins, in pursuance of instructions issued for the Indian agents gen- 
erally at that period, did not allow building operations to begin at once. 
But he seems to have withheld his consent, even after General Clark's 
communication came into his hands. Under date of July 12, 1836, he 
wrote to Father Van Quickenborne : 

"I have received a letter from the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, also 
received a copy by him from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs on the sub- 
ject of your establishing a school among the Kickapoo. After a careful ex- 
amination of both, I am of the opinion that the War Department as well as 
the Superintendent expect the consent of the Indians and fairly given in the 
usual way before you can establish among them. I would therefore advise you 
not to proceed until a further understanding can be had. I would be pleased to 
see you at my house and will show you the letters above alluded to." 



2- Van Quickenborne to McSherry, Kickapoo Mission, Oct. 10, 1836. (B). 



36 REV. G. J. GARRAGHAN, S.J. 

This letter of Major Cummins, thought dated July 12, reached 
Father \'an Quickenborne only August 4. It is indorsed thus in lead- 
pencil in Father Van Quickenborne's hand-writing: "Received from 
Mr. Kecne ( ?) ( 4//i of August ivho said he had received it from Major 
Cufnmitis the day before." Father Van Quickenborne acknowledged the 

agent's note. 

"Your letter of the I2th ult.," he wrote on August i8, "came duly to hand 
on the 4th inst. As I had the pleasure of seeing you since and as in our con- 
versation you alluded to it, I have not deemed it necessary to answer im- 
mediately, the more so as you were expected here before the time my answer 
would reach you. You advise not to proceed until further understanding can 
be had. To this advice I have submitted. I would be pleased to hear from you 
on the subject." -3 

The trouble was eventually smoothed out by General Clark, to 
whom Cummins had applied for fresh instructions. The Major was 
directed to allow the missionaries to go ahead with their building and 
even to assist them in the undertaking as far as lay in his power. After 
this we hear no more of opposition on the part of the agent. As early 
as October 24, 1836, Father Van Quickenborne was able to forward 
to the Secretary of War the following certificate : 

"I do hereby certify that under the authority of a letter from the Office 
of Indian Affairs of September 2, 1835, the Catholic Missionary Society of 
Missouri has erected on the Kickapoo lands a building for a school, has a 
teacher prepared to enter upon his duties and that there is a prospect of the 
school being well attended by Indian pupils." 2* 

On December 3, Commissioner of Indian Affairs Harris acknowl- 
edged the receipt of this certificate, adding: 

"As soon as the agent's certificate required by the letter to you is re- 
ceived and which is indispensable, the final action in the subject will be com- 
municated to you.' ' 

.A. subsequent letter from Commissioner Harris dated March 23, 
1837, announced that the promised Government subsidy was at hand. 
"I have received your letter of the 13th ult. enclosing the certificate of 
Major Cummins relative to the completion of the Kickapoo school-house and 
the employment of a teacher. I have now the pleasure to inform you that 
these papers are entirely satisfactory and that the sum of five-hundred dollars, 
out of the fund for the civilization of Indians, has this day beeen remitted 
to Captain E. A. Hitchcock, military disbursing agent at St. Louis, with in- 
structions to pay it over to you upon your draft." 

On June 7, 1837, P^ather Van Quickenborne wrote to Commis- 
sioner Harris : 

"I have now the gratification to inform you that my draft upon Captain 
E. A. Hitchcock for the above amount ($500) has been paid. I hope I shall have 
it in my fK»wcr to give you a satisfactory account of the operation of the school 
at the proper time." ^ 



" (A). 

'* Indian Office Ms. Records. 

" Indian Office Ms. Records. 

A description of the school-house erected by Father Van 
Quickenborne is contained in Major Cummins' certificate. "At the request of 
the Rev. Mr. Van Quickenborne on behalf of the Catholic Missionary Society 
of Missouri, I have this day (Jan. 5, 1837) examined a school-house erected 
by him among the Kickapoo of my agency, which is of the following descrip- 



THE KICKL^POO MISSION Z7 

The situation at the Mission as it was in February, 1837, is de- 
scribed by Father Van Quickenborne to a letter to Bishop Rosati. 

"Your favor of January 5th reached me on the 30th of the same month. 
The interest which your Lordship takes in the success of our establishment 
consoles and encourages us. This establishment is situated in the neighborhood 
of Fort Leavenworth on the right bank of the Missouri about 150 leagues from 
St. Louis. (Actual distance 330 miles or no leagues). A post office is to be 
found there and letters for us should be addressed, Fort Leavenworth, Mis- 
souri. For lodging we have had, up to this writing, but a cabin 16 feet by 15. 
We hope to say Mass in our log house of 48 by 20 feet in a few weeks. It is 
exceedingly difficult to secure workmen, especially such as find the place to 
their liking. We have paid as high as $1.50 a day. A carpenter of the kind 
they call here a rough carpenter receives up to $2.00 a day. Our expenses al- 
ready amount to more than $2000.00. From our establishment we make ex- 
cursions to the Kansas river among the Weas, Peorias, Kaskaskias and Pot- 
owatomies. It is a well known fact that the Indians in general are predis- 
posed in favor of Catholic Black-robes. Father Hoecken speaks the Kickapoo 
language well ; but it will be necessary to learn three or four more to be 
able to speak about religion to our neighbors, and then comes the difficulty 
of translating the Catechism into their language. But, with the help of God 
and with patience we can go far. Father Verhaegen can inform your Lordship 
better than I can as to the hopes we have of starting another establishment." ^^ 

III. A SLENDER HARVEST 

What success the missionaries met with in their work among the 
Kickapoo must now be told. It soon became evident that the conver- 
sion of the tribe was a highly difficult task. At the end of 1836 the 
Catholic church among the Kickapoo counted but two members and 
these were children. Better success attended the missionaries on their 
occasional visits to the neighboring tribes. Fifty miles from the Kicka- 
poo village, they baptized fourteen Indian jchildren, performed one 
mairiage ceremony and admitted nine, nearly all adults, among the 
catechumens. -® The cry was soon raised among the Indians that the 



tion, viz: School-house 16 ft. long and 15 ft. wide, wall of hewn logs, one story 
high, cabin roof, one twelve x eight (tight) glass window and one batten door, 
the house pointed with mortar made of lime and sand, the under floor of 
puncheon and the upper floor of plank. I certify on honor that the school-house 
as above described is ready for the reception of Indian children and that the 
Rev. C. Hoecken, teacher, is ready to commence the school and that there is 
reason to believe that if the Agent of the Catholic Church and the teacher 
will use the proper means, that the school will be well attended by the Indian 
children. 

P. S. — It may not be amiss to state that the Rev. Mr. Van Quickenborne 
has a dwelling on hand 49 ft. by 18 ft. the wall of which is two-story high and 
covered in with shingles, which, when finished, is sufficiently large to accom- 
modate a great many persons, — also other buildings, which he does not wish 
reported until finished." 

26 Litterae Annuae, 1837. (A). It is interesting to note that Father Van 
Quickenborne's missionary activities extended to the Kaskaskia Indians among 
whom Marquette established in 1675 on the Illinois river the historic Mission of 
the Immaculate Conception, the proto-mission of the Society of Jesus in the 
Mississippi Valley. Journeying overland, July i, 1835, from the site of Kansas 
City, Missouri, to pay his first visit to the Kickapoo, Father Van Quickenborne 
was agreeably surprised to find that the first Indians he met on the way, a 



38 REV. G. J. GARRAGHAN, SJ. 

Catholic school was not needed. They had a school already, that con- 
ducted by Mr. Berrj-man, the Methodist. Why open another? How- 
ever, the Catholic school was opened in the Spring of 1837 in the log- 
house 48x20 which Father Van Quickenborne had built for the pur- 
pose, and at the end of the year it counted twenty pupils.-^ 

In June, 1837, Father Verheagen, made an official visitation of 
the Kickapoo Mission. Under the title, "Relation d'un voyage chez les 
Kickapoo," a detailed account from his pen of this visit appeared in 
the Annalcs de la Propagation de la Foi. '*' Another account is con- 
tained in an English letter addressed by him to Father McSherry. 

Shawnee and his wife, a Wyandotte, were both Catholics {Ann. Prop., 9: 97). 
Further on he met some Kaskaskia squaws, who, as evidence that some relics 
of Catholic practice had survived among them, were able to make the sign of 
the cross. They were eager to have a black-robe visit their village and revive 
the Catholic life which had flourished among their ancestors, but which had 
now virtually disappeared, owing to the fact that no priest since the passing of 
Father Meurin had been able to deal with them in their own language. They 
assured Father Van Quickenborne that the entire tribe now numbered sixty 
souls, all of them with one solitary exception being mixed-bloods. (General 
William Clark in his Diary gives the number of Kaskaskia, when they passed 
through St. Louis on their way to the West, as only thirty-one. "July 23, 1827. 
The Kaskaskia arrived. The whole remnant of this great nation consists at this 
time of thirty-one soles [sic] ; fifteen men, ten women and six children.") The 
pledge which Van Quickenborne gave these stray PCaskaskia to visit them at 
the first opportunity he redeemed the following year in an excursion from the 
Kickapoo Missin. (Atiti. Prop., 10: 140). Accompanied by a Wea chief, a Cath- 
olic, as interpreter, the misisonary on September 24, 1835, reached the Kaskaskia 
village situated along the Osage about ninety miles south of the Kickapoo. The 
Kaskaskia were now fused with the Peoria, a tribe also evangelized by Mar- 
quette. The entire body of the Peoria, so it appears, and two Kaskaskia had 
gone over to Methodism, alleging in explanation that they deemed it better to 
practice some form of Christianity than none at all, as they should be con- 
strained to do in default of a Catholic priest. Both Kaskaskia and Peoria, having 
made a pathetic appeal for the services of a priest were encouraged by Father 
Van Quickenborne to bring their desire to the notice of the Government agents 
th-it provision might be made for the support of a resident priest. In the course 
of this missionary trip Father Van Quickenborne baptized twenty-five infants, 
refusing the sacrament to a number of other Indian children who had attained 
the age of reason but were without the necessary previous instruction. 

2^ Report of the teacher for the Kickapoo signed by P. J. Verhaegen, 
Superintendent of the Mo. Cath. Miss. Society in Report of the Commissioner 
of Indian .-Iffairs. 1837. .'\nnual cost of the school, about $1500; cost of the 
school-house erected between the two villages of the nation, about $1000; money 
received from Government since opening of school, $500, from other sources, 
$3,080; school unencumbered by debts. Three teachers in the school and two 
other persons employed in connection with it, viz. Rev. C. Hoecken, Superior 
and teacher of English; Rev. F. Verreycdt, teacher of music; G. Miles, teacher 
of penmanship; C. Mazzela, cook and J. Barry, farmer. "These five gentlemen 
devote their attention gratis to the school." Twenty pupils registered viz. Kiak- 
woik, Uapakai, son of the chief, Kikakay, Minakwoi, Papikwon, Akosay, Pem- 
moaitamo, Fataan Fctepakay Nimoiha, Moshoon, Kaminay, Nemat.siata, 
Baptist. "Among them Kiakwoik, Nenopoi, Wapatekwoi and Nimoika distin- 
guish themselves by their progress, especially in penmanship and bid fair to be 
qualified for any employment of civilized life." 

»" Van Quickenborne i Rosati, Kickapootown, Feb. 22, 1837. (C). 

" Ann. Prop., il : 



THE KICKAPOO MISSION 39 

"I returned a few days ago from my excursion to our Indian Mission. My 
trip has been short and delightful. I left St. Louis on the 14th ult. and arrived 
at the Kickapoo village on tTie eve of the Feast of St. Aloysius. The boats that 
navigate tlie Missouri generally do not run during the night on account of the 
numerous snags and sand bars which render its navigation dangerous even in 
daylight; but when I started, the water was so high and the moon shone so 
bright that our captain anticipated no danger from a deviation of the general 
rule. We struck, however, some banks and rode some snags, but without any 
damage to the boat. I did not know, my dear Father, that the state of Mis- 
souri possessed such a prodigious quantity of fertile soil. I regret that you 
were not with me ; you would, I am sure, have been pleased with the truly en- 
chanting pictures which both sides of the river present to the travellers. Do 
not speak of the farms situated on the bluffs between St. Louis and St. 
Charles ; good as they are, when compared with those of Maryland, on which 
you pointed out some prairie grass to me as we rolled along on the cars, they 
sink into insignificance when contrasted with the lands of our Upper Missouri. 
When I was in the East, the beauties and improvements of which I do intensely 
admire, I anxiously looked for one respectable tree and one eminently fruitfid 
spot, but in vain ; in Missouri, I am now more convinced than ever, trees and 
spots of the kind are so numerous that in order to avoid seeing them, one 
must fly to Maryland. What shall I say of the beauties of nature to the 
eye? I thought that the lofty rocks and sublime hills which the canal and 
railroad between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh afforded to my sight could not 
be equaled by any prospect in the West; but even in these, Missouri is not 
surpassed by the East. I know your Reverence thinks I am enthusiastic in my 
account. I pardon the impression under which you labor, because to any one 
who has not seen Missouri, my description must appear incredible. Veni et 
vide.3° The landing is about a mile and a quarter from the Mission house. 
Father Van Quickenborne having been informed of my arrival by a courier, 
came to see me on board the boat and 1 accompanied him to the Indian village 
on horseback. The sitt of the building is one of the most beautiful that could 
be ielected. }n the rear the land is well timbered. On tne right the chief 
has his village and the ground is cleared; on the left lives the Prophet v/ith 
his band and in front there is an extensive valley formed by a chaini of 
hills on which Ft. Leavenworth stands. Our missionaries have a field of about 
fifteen acres on which they raise all the produce which they want. They are 
about five miles from the Fort and have, of course, every necessary opportun- 
ity to procure at that post such provisions as their industry cannot yield. 
Many of the Indians among whom they live are well disposed toward the 
Catholic religion and several of them have expressed a desire of being in- 
structed. However, most of them are still averse to a change of their super- 
stitious practices and vicious manners. Of the 1000 souls that constitute both 
villages, hardly thirty regularly attend church on Sundays. Many come to 
see us on week days and by the instruction which they receive during these 
visits are insensibly to be prevailed to come to hear the word of God. Father 
Van Quickenborne has made but little progress in the Kickapoo language. 
He labors under many disadvantages and at his age he will never conquer 
them ; but Father Hoecken speaks the Kickapoo admirably well. The savages 
call him the Kickapoo Father, a compliment which no Indian easily pays to a 
missioner — to be entitled to it. he must speak his language well. When I was 
at the Kickapoo village, I assisted at one of Father Hoecken's instructions. 
The sound of his horn drew about forty to the chapel at 11 A. M. ; but all did 
not enter it at the appointed time. They are a set of independent beings ; they 
will have their own way in everything to show that they do not act from 
compulsion. There were in the chapel benches enough to accommodate a hun- 
dred persons ; some few preferred them to the floor. They all kept silence 
well and behaved modestly. The Father in surplice knelt before the altar and 
intoned the Kyrie Eleison of the Litany of the Blessed Virgin, the choir, con- 



"Come and see." John, i : 46. 



40 REV. G. J. GARR.\GHAN. S.J. 

sisting of Father Van Quickenborne, the three Brothers and two workmen, 
joined him and the whole Litany was sung with a tone of variations too re- 
fined for my ear. Father Fenwick himself would have failed in an attempt to 
keep the time and hit the notes.^i Such performances suit the Indians ; happily 
they love and admire a mixed and confused kind of music. The instruction 
lasted upwards of half an hour. I heard the words 'piano,' 'mane,' 'iniquo,' — 
I heard 'pas.' "pasa," 'pan,' and 'oikia' and I was tempted to believe that the 
Kickapoo language was a mixture of Latin and Greek. Unfortunately, on 
inquiry, I discovered that the sounds expressed none of the ideas which they 
convey in other language. In the course of a few days I will, Deo dante, 
write to my good Father Mulledy, and together with several interesting items 
relating to the customs of the Indians whom I have visited, I will send him the 
Our Father and the Hail Mary in their language. '- Father Hoecken has 
composed a grammar and is now preparing a dictionary which will be of 
great advantage to such as will henceforth join him in the glorious work 
which our have commenced. Much good can be done among the savages west 
of the state of Missouri. The Potowatomies are no won their way to the 
land which they have to inhabit. They are more than 5,000 in number; more 
than 400 already Catholics, and they (and especially their chief who is a 
Catholic also) are very anxious to have a Catholic missioner established 
among them. I must beg of your Reverence some assistance to comply with 
the request of those unhappy people. The Maryland province has already 
one who distinguishes himself by his zeal, holiness and success, for by his en- 
deavors, by his good example and by his attention to the sick, he has been 
instrumental in procuring baptism to more than 50 children. Would it be im- 
possible to obtain from you three or four more laborers on that extensive and 
fertile vineyard which is now offered to the Society? Dear Father, reflect on 
the condition of the poor aborigines of your country and I am sure that your 
sympathy for their distress will urge you to do something more for their relief." 

The Annual Letters of 1837 dwells on the unpromising outlook 
for missionary work among the Kickapoo. So many obstacles had 
thwarted the labors of the Fathers that it is plain the Mission must 
have succumbed long ago but for the very manifest intervention of 
Divine Providence. The Prophet had roused his followers to more 
than one unfriendly demonstration. Even Pashishi, the chief, who 
had invited the missionaries to the Kickapoo village and brought them 
his eldest son, Washington, fourteen years of age, for religious in- 
struction, assumed for a while a hostile attitude. In the beginning 
curiosity attracted many of the Indians to the chapel. Now the novelty 
was worn oflf and few of them are seen around the mission-house. 
They say: "We want no prayer" (the term they apply to religion); 
"our forefathers got along very well without it and we are not going 
to feel its loss." Even the children showed a marked aversion to every 
form of religion. It was not a desire for instruction, but the hope of 
food, raiment and presents in general that brought them to school. 
Were these to stop, their presence in the schoolroom would be at an 
end. "Who does not .see," exclaims the chronicler, "that obstacles like 
these are to be brushed aside only by Him who changeth the hearts of 
men !" What, then, has reduced the Kickapoo to this wretched condi- 



»> Father George Fenwick, 1801 — 1857, member of the Maryland Pro- 
'vince, S. J. 

»' Father Thomas Mulledy, 1794 — 1860, member of the Maryland Pro- 
vince, S. J. 



THE KICKAPOO MISSION 41 

tion ? The proximity of the whites from whom they purchased whiskey 
and with it the open door to every manner of vice. ** 

IV. DEATH OF FATHER VAN QUICKENBORNE 

On his return to St. Louis, Father Verhaegen, with the concur- 
rence of his advisers, resolved to recall Father Van Quickenborne from 
the Kickapoo Mission and station him in a less trying field of labor. 
Obeying the summons to report in St. Louis, the veteran missionary, 
then only in his fiftieth year, but with health much the worse for the 
hardships of the Indian country, arrived at St. Louis University as 
the July of 1837 was drawing to a close. After a brief stay under the 
roof of the University, he repaired to the Novitiate at Florissant where 
he went through the exercises of his annual retreat, edifying all by his 
pious demeanor and by the public penance which he performed in the 
refectory. To a novice who asked him what was the best preparation 
to make for the Indian Missions, he replied that the best preparation 
was the practice of mortification and self denial. From the novitiate he 
proceeded to St. Charles and thence to the residence of St. Francis 
of Assisi in Portage des Sioux, where he assumed the duties of Su- 
perior in succession to Father Verreydt, who in turn replaced him 
among the Kickapoo. To add to the comfort of the Father, the Su- 
perior of the Mission assigned him the services of a lay-brother, Wil- 
liam Claessens. But Father Van Quickenborne had been only a few 
days in Portage when a bilious fever seized him and reduced him to 
the last extremity. The services of a skillful physician were secured, 
while Father Paillasson, who himself had some knowledge of medi- 
cine, was sent for from the Novitiate. The last sacraments were ad- 
ministered to the patient, who received them with simple piety and 
resignation to the Divine Will. He met death without anxiety or fear. 
About twenty minutes before the end, having called for a looking 
glass, he looked at himself and returned the glass, with the words, 
"pray for me." They were the last words he spoke. He expired without 
agony about eleven o'clock on the morning of August 17, while Father 
Paillason and Brother Claessens were praying at his bedside. The 



33 Verhaegen to McSherry, July lo, 1836. (B). 

34 Litterae Annuae, 1837. (A). The account given of the Kickapoo by 
Maj. Cummins, U. S. agent, in his annual reports to Washington (Reports of 
the Commissioners of Indian Affairs 1837— 1841) are more favorable to the 
tribe than the account given of them by the missionaries. As late as 1841, he 
reports the Indians as given to agricultural pursuits and fairly prosperous. In 
his report for 1838 he writes: "Keanakuck or the Phophet's Band, that con- 
stitute the largest portion of the tribe, have improved rapidly in agricultural 

pursuits the last four years This band of the Kickapoo are making great 

improvement and are approaching fast to a system of farming and government 
among themselves not far inferior to white civilization. They profess the 
Christian religion, attend closely and rigidly to their church discipline and very 
few ever indulge in the use of ardent spirits." Rev. Isaac McCoy, the Baptist 
missionary, protests in his Annual Register, 1836, against calling the Kickapoo 
Christians. 



42 REV. G. J. GARRAGHAN, S.J. 

remains accompanied by many of the parishioners were borne the next 
day to St. Charles, where they were interred at the foot of the cross 
which marked the center of the Catholic graveyard. ^^ 

It will be unnecessary here to attempt to characterize the founder 
of the Missouri Pro\'ince of the Society of Jesus. The outstanding 
traits of his personality must have emerged distinctly in the course of 
the preceding narrative from out the mass of incidents and details 
with which he was so vitally and intimately connected. It will be 
enough to say that nature and grace combined to render Father Van 
Quickenborne admirably fitted to the career of religious pioneer and 
traveling missionary, which he followed for fourteen years in a new 
and unsettled country, in behalf of white settlers and Indians alike. 
He possessed a clear and orderly mind, stored with knowledge of Cath- 
olic theolog}' as ready as it was accurate, a talent for controversy, 
valuable for one called on to deal with the grossest and most ludicrous 
prejudices, and a happy command of the vernacular which he put to 
good account in his sermons and expositions of Catholic doctrine. 
Though his health gave way under the stress of contiuned labor, his 
constitution was naturally a rugged one, suited to endure prolonged 
bodily exertion and fatigue. To mere physical discomfort, to physical 
suffering even, he was steadily indifferent. As an instance of his 
fortitude in this regard, it is recorded that on one occassion while he 
and his no-vices were engaged in cutting timber for the new building 
erected by them soon after their arrival at Florissant, one of the young 
men who was eagerly squaring a log by repeated blows of an ax, had 
the misfortune to let the tool fall on the Father's foot. Though the 
wound was a severe one, Father Van Quickenborne remained at his 
work ; it was only when loss of blood made him about to faint that 
he consented to take a seat and have the wound bound with a handker- 
chief. He attempted to return on foot to the Novitiate, almost three 
miles distant, but was obliged to desist and .allowed himself to be 
placed on a horse which had been sent for him. Burning with fever 
he had to keep to his bed for several days ; then, recovering sufficient 
strength to walk, though by no means a well man, he was back again 
with his novices preparing the timber for the new structure. ^® 

Together with patient endurance of physical discomfort and pain, 
one saw in Father Van Quickenborne a great fund of natural energy. 
It was by persistent personal efforts that he succeeded in collecting 
the money needed to finance his various works of piety and zeal. The 
journey of 1823 from Whitemarsh to Florissant, the building of the 
St. Charles Church and of St. Louis College and the establishment 
of the Kickaixjo Mission are instances in point. Father Verhaegen in 
a letter to a friend comments on Father Van Quickenborne's energetic 
ways. 

"Onr good Father Van Quickenborne is .stationed at St. Charles. He 
is as active as a bee. Madame Lucillc's buildinR is Roing to rack and ruin 



•• Historia Missionis Missourianae. (A). 

•• De Smet, Western Missions' and Missionaries, p. 466. 



THE KICKAPOO MISSION ' 43 

and he is determined not to prop it He will have another house for this very 
useful tonimiinity; he has three-hundred dollars, he will get the rest, thougl^ 
he will wear out six pair ot shoes running through 5jt. Louis on begging 
expeditions."'''^ 

But it was supernatural rather than natural virtue which sup- 
plied the dynamic force to Father Van Quickenborne's apostolic career. 
"Our Father Superior," reported Father Verhaegen, Rector of St. 
Louis College, to Father Dzierozynski, "is a man of exceeding piety, 
full of zeal and most persevering, in a word, endowed with every good 
quality." ^® Like all truly spiritual men, Father Van Quickenborne felt 
that unless the inner life of the supernatural virtues was kept at a high 
level, mere external occupations may starve rather than strengthen the 
soul. 

"I am very well pleased with the trip I have made," he wrote to his 
Superior on returning to Florissant from his first Osage excursion of 1827, "and 
have been amply rewarded by the divine goodness, who has pleased to give me 
a great desire of fraternal charity, obedience and mortification ; I dare entreat 
your prayers that these desires may be brought into effect.39 

The result of this supernatural viewpoint constantly maintained 
in the midst of the most absorbing ministerial labors was a singleness 
and sincerity of purpose that never failed. A certain severity and 
even harshness of manner to those under his charge detracted at times 
from the success of his administration and made him an object of un- 
friendly criticism ; but the severity of manner, tempermental rather 
than deliberate, never obscured what was patent to all, the man's utter 
sincerity and devotion to the best interests of religion. A Father who 
at one time, in writing to a Superior, had expressed himself in un- 
favorable terms of Father Van Quickenborne's government of the 
Missouri Mission, wrote some years later : 

"Father Van Quickenborne has become very dear to us all. * * * 
I am now convinced that, all things considered, he acted according to the best 
of his ability and always had before his eyes, A. M. D. G." 

In the death of Father Van Quickenborne the group of Jesuits, 
who in the twenties of the nineteenth century began to till anew the 
field which had been opened by the labors of Jesuit missionaries in 
the preceding centuries, lost their most valued and successful worker 
and the chief organizer of their pious enterprise. Under his admini- 
tration of the new Jesuit mission in the Middle West and during the 
few years of labor that remained to him after his retirement from office, 
much was accomplished in the way of successful pioneering. The 
foundations of the Missouri Province were laid, an Indian school at 
Florissant was opened and maintained for several years, St. Louis 
University started on its career as a Jesuit institution, many of the 
outlying parishes of St. Louis built up. Catholic missionary work 
among the Western Indian tribes taken up in occasional excursions to 



" Verhaegen to McSherry, Oct. 16, 1833- (B). 

3* Verhaegen at Dzierozynski. 183. (B). 

89 Van Quickenborne to Dzierozynski. Sept. 13, 1827. B). 



44 REV. G. J. GARR.\GHAN. SJ 

the frontier and by the establishment of the Kickapoo Mission and 
the comforts of rehgion brought periodically to the little knots of 
Catholic settlers scattered over Western and Northeastern Missouri 
and Western Illinois. We conclude with a testimony from John Gil- 
mary Shea : 

**To Father Van Quickenborne as the founder of the Vice-Province of Mis- 
souri and the Indian Missions, too little honor has been paid. His name is 
almost unknown, yet few have contributed more to the edification of the white 
and the civilization of the red man, to the sanctification of all."*'' 

V. FATHER VERHAEGEN AND THE INDIAN OFFICE 

Much information of interest bearing both upon conditions in the 
Kickapoo Mission and upon the attitude towards it of government of- 
ficials, is brought out in the correspondence of Father Verhaegen with 
the authorities in Washington in regard to the modest share of public 
money appropriated to his school. Transmitting to the Secretary of 
War under date of Nov. 5, 1837, his first report of the mission school, 
he writes : 

"From the several letters which I have received from our Missionaries 
during the last three months, it appears to me that it is more than probable that 
many of the Kickapoos will leave ere long the land which they occupy and 
repair to the Red River. The Chief had several conversations with the Rev. C. 
Hoecken, during which he stated that his main reason for wishing to move is, 
that his men commit many excesses in drinking spirituous liquors. Intoxication, 
said he, prevails to such a degree among them that in a few years it will 
destroy all my people. I would prefer. Honorable Sir, to see our gentlemen em- 
ployed among tribes that live at a distance from our frontier and I am decided- 
ly of the opinion of our missionaries that the work of civilization would be 
promoted among such tribes in a more effectual manner. I mention these 
things in order that the Department may fully know what obstacles we have to 
surmount at present. If, therefore, our services will be accepted, we are ready 
to go and labor among the remotest Indian nations at any place that may be 
assigned to us. ♦ * * If the Kickapoos go away, what will become of 
the buildings which we have erected and the improvements which we have 
made? Considering the manners and the inconstancy of the Indian tribes, I 
think that to effect any lasting good among them, it is necessary that those 
who labor among them should conform as much as possible to their way of 
living and that expensive buildings should not be constructed on their lands 
before they are permanently settled on farms."*^ 

The allowance in behalf of the mission-school does not appear to 
have been a permanent one, so that Father Verhaegen could count upon 
its annual payment. In March 1839 he inquired of Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs Harris first, whether he might draw upon the Depart- 
ment for the balance of the $500 allowed him when he was in Wash- 
ington in the spring of 1838, and secondly, whether he could rely upon 
further aid from the Government in behalf of the Kickapoo establish- 
ment. 

"Before I conclude." he writes, "I will barely remark to you. Honorable 
Sir, that wc have at present three schools among the Indians and that, should 



«" Shea, Catholic Indian Missions of the United States, p. 466. 
«> Indian Office Ms. Records. 



THE KICKAPOO MISSION 45 

all government aid be refused to me, I would be under the painful necessity of 
carrying on the work with private means alone. No account of the Kickapoo 
School was sent to the Department last year for this only reason, that I could 
add nothing new to the exhibit already forwarded and that, far from increasing, 
the number of pupils, owing to the unsettled and wandering condition of these 
Indians, has averaged but eight during the year." ^2 

To the Indian Office an average attendance of eight appeared to 
indicate too slight a measure of success to warrant a continuance 
towards the school of government support. Accordingly, a communi- 
cation from Mr. Kuntz of the Indian Office to Father Verhaegen in 
the summer of 1839 informed the latter that the appropriation of $500 
in behalf of the Catholic Kickapoo School would thenceforth cease. In 
his distress at this intelligence the Father turned to his friend, Senator 
Benton, to whom he addressed the following protest : 

August ID, 1839. 

Honorable Sir : 

When I had the satisfaction of enjoying your presence during your recent 
visit at the University, I took the liberty of mentioning to you that for some 
reason or other the Department of Indian Affairs refused to pay me a balance 
of $250 due to our Kickapoo school and that I had been informed that all fur- 
ther aid towards same establishment would cease with the expiration of the last 
half year. I have now the pleasure to state, Honorable Sir, that Major Pilcher 
has had the goodness to settle my account up to the ist of Juiy. This is, of 
course, as it ought to be. But, Honorable Sir, I cannot help thinking that the 
whole Catholic population of the United States has reason to complain of the 
withdrawal of the little assistance which Government had hitherto lent me in 
conducting schools among the Indians. The words "whole Catholic population" 
may perhaps surprise j^ou. I will therefore explain myself. You recollect that 
about two years ago all the Bishops of our Church assembled in Council at 
Baltimore. They represent this population. Now it is well known that during 
their session they unanimously requested the Society of which I am a member 
to embark in the work of the civilization of the Indian nation west of the State 
of Missouri. In consequence of their appeal to us, we undertook the work 
and the present Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis is acquainted 
with the success that has attended our exertions. I need not enter into more 
details. Honorable Sir, to convince you that while other denominations are 
patronized in their efforts to ameliorate the condition of the savages, it would 
prove exceedingly painful to my fellow Catholics to hear that they are entirely 
excluded from a share in the funds created by the Government for education 
purpose. I candidly mentioned in one of my letters to the Department that our 
school among the Kickapoos is badly attended and behold, a circumstance which 
exists, I believe, in every school of the kind, is assumed as the ground on which 
the annual allowance is withdrawn. It does not belong to me, Honorable Sir, 
to dictate to the officials of the Government the course which they are to 
pursue; but if I be compelled to give up my labors among the Indians for want 
of public encouragement, I trust that you, in particular, will not be offended at 
my stating to the world the cause of my proceeding. 

I remain, with highest consideration, Honorable Sir, 
Your devoted servant and friend. 

P. J. VERHAEGEN.« 

Father Verhaegen's protest was submitted by Senator Benton on 
November 7 to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with the Senator's 

■*2 Indian Office Ms. Records. 
<3 Indian Office Ms. Records. , 



46 REV. G. J. GARRAGHAN. S.J. 

opinion in favor of the continuance of the grant. In the meantime, 
Major Joshua Pilcher, Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis, 
had also intervened in behalf of the Catholic Kickapoo school. Under 
date of August 19 he wrote to Commissioner Crawford: 

"In looking over the correspondence between him (Mr. Verhaegen), Major 
Hitchcock and the Department on the subject, I found with regret a letter from 
Mr. Kuntz to Mr. Verhaegen discontinuing the little allowance of Five Hundred 
Dollars to the Catholic Mission for civilizing the Indians; and without ques- 
tioning the correctness of Mr. Kuntz' motive, I beg leave to assure both you 
and him that it has been done under a mistaken apprehension of the relative 
degree of usefulness of the different missionaries among the tribes ; as, from 
personal observation, I am enabled and will take the occasion to state that the 
Catholic missionaries are operating more effectually than all the missionaries I 
have seen north of Ft. Leavenworth ; and that so far from being abandoned by 
the Government, there is no Society more deserving its patronage and protec- 
tion. And under these circumstances (with due deference to Mr. Kuntz whose 
decision seems to have been based upon a report of Mr. Verhaegen relative only 
to the Kickapoo school, in which he was honest and candid), I would respect- 
fully recommend that he be reinstated in his allowance and if it be not wholly 
incompatible with other permanent allowances out of the civilization fund, that 
the allowance to the Catholic mission be doubled. These gentlemen go into 
the country with no other view than that of furthering the benevolent objects of 
the government, they carry with them no little 'notions' for traffic, neither do 
they sell the accumulation of property; and however the efforts of all may fail, 
it is obvious that to effect a great change in the moral character of the Indians 
is the constant aim of the Catholic missionaries and that their present efforts 
are directed to that single object without regard to personal comfort or emolu- 
ment." ••* 

The representations of Major Pilcher and Senator Benton had 
the desired effect. Father Verhaegen was informed by Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs Crawford that the allowance of $500 would be con- 
tinued for another year, but that a further continuance of this appro- 
priation would depend on the future success of the school. Father 
Verhaegen, in acknowledging the Commissioner's favor, was too honest 
to promise a success which he could not count on. 

"Permit me, Honorable Sir, to tender you my cordial acknowledgement for 
the favor conferred on the Missouri Catholic Association by the Department. 
My endeavors shall not be wanting to render the school more prosperous than 
it has been last year, but as this cannot be effected without the co-operation of 
the Indians and may, of course, be impeded by circumstances beyond my control, 
I cannot predict what will be the result of my efforts. At all events I will state 
the truth in my communication to the Department, let the consc<iuence be what 
it may." *' 

As a matter of fact, the truth was stated without reserve by 
Father Verhaegen in a letter to Crawford, September 1, 1840. 

"I promised to acquaint you with the success of this (Kickapoo) establish- 
ment and made the necessary inquiries. I learned from the Missionaries who 
conduct said school, that in the course of last year from twenty-five t,o thirty 
pupils have frequented it; but I am bound in justice to add that the number 



** Indian Oflfice Ms. Records. Joshua Pilcher (1700 — 184.3) was appointed 
by President Van Burcn to succeed General Clark as Superintendent of Indian 
AfTairs at St. Louis, on the death of the latter in 1838. Billon, Annals of St. 
Louis in territorial days, p. 254. 

*» Indian Office Ms. Records. 



THE KICKAPOO MISSION 47 

of those who regularly attended averaged only ten. You conceive, Honorable 
Sir, that my expenses for a small Indian school are just as great as they 
would be for a large one, since the teacher is equally to be supplied. Hence, 
should the Department decide that the allowance is to be discontinued, it would 
not belong to me to object to the decision; but I would be unable to meet the 
expenses. Consequently, Honorable Sir, on the decision of the Department will 
depend the continuance or discontinuance of our exertions for the civilization 
and instruction of these Indians." **^ 

VI. THE MISSION SUPPRESSED 

The Government appropriation to the Catholic Kickapoo School 
seems to have been finally withdrawn towards the end of 1840 and 
with the passing of that year the Jesuit Mission among the Kickapoo 
closed its doors. When in May, 1838, Father Verhaegen visited the 
Mission for a second time, he met the chief Pashishi, who implored 
him not to remove the Fathers for at least another year. "It is I who 
invited you to come here. I send my children to your school. You have 
done more good here in a year than others have done in five or six. 
You have cured our children of smallpox, you have befriended us in 
our needs, and you have been kind even to the wicked. The storm 
which makes the thunder roar above your heads will not last forever. 
The Kickapoo will change their conduct. Wait at least for another 
year and then I shall tell you what I think." Within the year Pashishi 
himself, vexed at the annoyance he had to suffer at the hands of ihe 
Prophet and his band, moved with some twenty families to a locality 
about twenty miles distant from the Mission. With the departure in 
1839 of Pashishi and so many of his people, the band favorably dis- 
posed to Mission was practically dispersed and there remained only 
the Prophet's following from whom the Fathers could expect nothing 
but ill-will and even persecution. *'' 

About Christmas 1840, Father Herman Allen of the Potawatomi 
Mission at Sugar Creek passed through Westport, near the mouth of 
the Kansas river, on his way to the Kickapoo Mission on business con- 
nected with the closing of that establishment. He found a fellow 
Jesuit, Father Nicholas Point, residing in Westport at this time as 
parish priest of that frontier settlement and invited him to be his com- 
panion on the journey. Father Point was shocked at what he saw in 
the Kickapoo village. "Here had our missionaries been laboring for 
five years in their midst," he exclaims, "and yet on Sunday during 
Mass you could scarcely see more than one of them in attendance at 
the chapel." He found Kennekuk, the prophet, still lording it over the 
Kickapoo. "By his cool effrontery and persevering industry, this man, 
who is a genius in his way, succeeded in forming a congregation of 
three hundred souls, whom he used to assemble in a church which the 
United States Government had built for him, and palsied all the' exer- 
tions of four missionaries of the Society." Father Point had a chance 
to inspect the prophet's temple, which suggested a stable in its lack of 



*8 Indian Office Ms. Records. 
*^ Litterae Annuae, 1838. (A). 



48 REV. G. J. GARRAGHAN, S.J. 

cleanliness. Yet the Indians listened open-mouthed to the charlatan 
as soon as he began to speak of his revelations. The proof of his mis- 
sion was a chip of wood two inches wide and eight long, inscribed 
with cliaracters symbolical of the doctrines which he undertook to 
teach. ** 

The failure of the Kickapoo to respond to the missionaries' efforts 
in their belialf gave the latter abundant opportunities to exercise their 
ministry abroad. Besides making frequent excursions to the Indian 
tribes south of the Kansas river, they said Mass and administered 
the Sacraments regularly at Fort Leavenworth, five miles from the 
Mission, where to be found among the soldiers a number of Irish 
and German Catholics. On such occasions music was often furnished 
by the soldiers' band, which was likewise heard at the greater church 
festivals in the Kickapoo Catholic Chapel. Such an occasion was the 
Christmas of 1838 when the Prophet himself deigned to be present at 
the Catholic services. Besides attending Ft. Leavenworth the Fathers 
frequently crossed the Missouri river on missionary excursions through 
Jackson, Clay, Clinton and Platte counties in western Missouri. *^ 

The question of continuing or suppressing the Kickapoo Mission 
was frequently before Father Verhaegen and his Consultors in St. 
Louis. At a meeting held April 23, 1838, it was resolved not to abandon 
the Mission, even though the Kickapoo moved away. However, the 
next two years developed such a hopeless situation at the Mission that 
it was decided September 19, 1840, to suppress it. Father Eysvogels 
and Brother Claessens were directed to go to Sugar Creek and Brother 
O'Leary to the Novitiate. °° 

The final incident in the history of the Kickapoo Mission has 
been put on record by Father Point. 

"On the first of May, 1841, Father Point went from Westport in order to 
consume the last Sacred Host which remained in the tabernacle of this poor 
mission. He arrived at the Kickapoo village towards sunset. The first news 
that he heard upon dismounting from his horse was that about a mile from 



*' Recollections of Father Nicolas Point, tr. in Woodstock Letters, from 
French Ms. original in Archives of St. Mary's College, Montreal. 

*» The Kickapoo Baptismal Register (Archives of St. Mary's College, St. 
Mary's, Kansas) contains numerous entries of baptisms adminstered b^ the 
Kickapoo missionaries in Independence and Liberty, Mo., among the French 
settlers at the mouth of th? Kansas and in the counties of western Missouri 
organized out of the Platte Purchase. 

">" The Kickapoo school conducted by the Methodist Episcopal church was 
apparently closed about the s.ime time as the Catholic school, being supplanted 
by the Shawnee Manual I^abor school under the direction of Rev. Thomas John- 
son and J. C. Berryman. The 1839 report of the Kickapoo school is sigend by 
Miss Lee, one of the teachers. "The school numbers sixteen scholars and has 
averaged that for a year or two past. These are tolerably regular, though of 
late through the detrimental influence of the prophet and others, we have found 
it difficult to keep the children in regular and orderly attendance; and it seems 
to me that at present it is almost impracticable to keep the school under good 
discipline and management, while the children can, at any moment when they 
become dissatisfied, abscond and go home with impunity." Report of Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs, 1839. 



o I nyjYf 




THE KICKAPOO MISSION 

V tT « 

/^ / 1 n r • ! . , 

there a pagan was at the point of death, and consequently in great danger of 
losing his soul. He obtained an interpreter without delay and proceeded in 
haste to the house of the sick man, whom he found in despair as regards both 
body and soul, for the only words he uttered were these : 'Everyone deserts me.' 
'No, my brother, everyone does not desert you since I, who am a Black-gown, 
have come to help you, and this is certainly by the will of the Great Spirit Who 
wishes to save you.' At these words the dying man rallies, confidence springs 
up in his heart, the minister of divine mercy speaks to him as is befitting such 
circumstances, and most satisfactory replies are given to all his questions. I 
helped him to repeat the acts of faith, hope and charity, and as death might 
take place at any moment, I asked myself why should I not baptize him with- 
out delay. The remembrance of St. Philip and the eunuch of Queen Candaces 
came to my mind, and regarding this as an inspiration of the Holy Ghost, I 
proceeded forthwith to the administration of Holy Baptism. On the morrow, 
he exchanged this perishable life for, as I hope, that life of bliss which will last 
forever. Was not this the sweetest bouquet which the missionary upon his first 
entrance to the field of labor among the Indians could offer to the Queen of 
Heaven, on the very day when the month consecrated to her honor begins ? 
But how inscrutable are the judgments of God! This same day was the last of 
a mission which had been plunged into the deepest abyss of moral degradation 
by the scandalous conduct of people who pretend to civilization." ^i 

Thus ended in something hke faihire tlie Kickapoo CathoHc Mis- 
sion set on foot by Father Quickenborne as the beginning, long de- 
layed, of Jesuit missionary enterprise among the western Indian tribes. 
As to the Kickapoo themselves, they long remained as they were dur- 
ing the period when the Jesuits sought with vain expenditure of 
energy and zeal to uplift them to a respectable level in civilization and 
morals. Six years after the Father withdrew from the Mission, or in 
1846, Francis Parkman, the historian, visited the Kickapoo village as 
he started from the frontier to pursue the windings of the Oregon 
Trail. 

"The village itself was not far off, and sufficiently illustrated the condition 
of its unfortunate and self-abandoned occupants. Fancy to yourself a little 
swift stream working its devious way down to a woody valley: sometimes 
wholly hidden under logs and fallen trees, sometimes spreading into a broad, 
clear pool ; and on its banks, in little nooks cleared away among the trees, 
miniature log houses, in utter ruin and neglect. A labyrinth of narrow, ob- 
structed paths connected these habitations one with another. Sometimes we 
met a stray calf, a pig, or a pony, belonging to some of the villagers, who 
usually lay in the sun in front of their dwellings and looked on us with cold, 
suspicious eyes as we approached." '* 

^1 Recollections of Father Nicalos Point in Woodstock Letters. 

'^ Parkman, Oregon Trail, p. The Catholic Kickapoo Mission house 

built by Father Van Quickenborne, stood on the farm of C. A. Spencer, by 
whom it was occupied as a residence until 1920, when it was demolished. "The 
old Mission was built of immense native walnut logs, hewn square, notched at 
the ends and fastened together with wooden pegs. The walnut still is considered 
valuable for it is in a perfect state of preservation and so thorough was the 
workmanship of the builders that the building was in a good state of repair 
up to the time workmen recently began to raze it. After its days of usefulness 
as an Indian Mission had passed, the old building was used as a hotel in 1854 
under proprietorship of a man named Hays. The same year A. B. Hazzard 
published one of the first Kansas newspapers, "The Kansas Pioneer" there. In 
"border war" days it was headquarters for the famous organization "The 
Kickapoo Rangers" and in i^S? a United States Land Office was opened under 
its roof, the offce being moved to .\tchison in 1861." Lawrence, Kansas Journal, 
1920. 



4020 



50 REV. G. J. GARRAGHAN. S.J. 

In later years Jesuit missionaries were occasionally brought into 
touch with the Kickapoo. In November 1861, a Father from St. Mary's 
Pottawatomie Mission in Kansas visited them in a ministerial capacity 
and was kindly received ; furthermore, several boys of the tribe were 
in attendance at the St. Mary's Mission school in the 'sixties. But 
resident missionary work among the Kickapoo was never again under- 
taken by Jesuit hands. 

Gilbert J. Garraghan, S. J. 



AN ADVENTURE OF LUCILLE ST. 
PIERRE AMONG THE OSAGE' 



During the Winter of 1847 Miss Lucille St. Pierre, a respectable 
young lady of New Orleans, was sent by her father to St. Louis on a 
special business. Mr. Anthony St. Pierre had, for several years, been 
acting agent for Mr. Benoit De Bonald, a French botanist, whose 
charge was to supply the Paris botanical gardens with a special col- 
lection of a complete North American flora. To succeed with facility in 
this undertaking, Mr. Benoit De Bonald had classified his flora ac- 
cording to the different States and Territories of the Union. These he 
had subdivided into special departments, appointing to the head of each 
persons residing in these places and well capable to conduct this gi- 
gantic work with success. Knowing that Anthony St. Pierre was in 
correspondence with several French merchants of St. Louis, who, long 
since, were dealing with Indians, especially in that part of the Indian 
Territory now in the State of Kansas, he appointed him to see to that 
section of country, and wished him to procure a correct flora of the 
Neosho and Verdigris valleys. 

Mr. St. Pierre, being in rather advanced age, and charged with 
the care of much other business, he thought he would trust this work 
to the care of his daughter Lucille, who was about 20 years of age 
and known by all as well qualified to attend to it. Old Mr. St. Pierre 
in young days had been dealing for some years with the mercantile 
house of Chouteau of St. Louis and was a warm friend of Mr. Edward 
Chouteau as well of Michael Giraud, his main Indian clerk. And now 
he directed to them his daughter, that she might reach safely the far 
Neosho, where these gentlemen were at that time carrying on a very 
extensive trade with the Indians in general, but particularly with the 
Osages. 



1 The account here reproduced is Chapter XL of an unpublished work on 
the Osage Indians by Father Paul Mary Ponziglione, S. J., for thirty years mis- 
sionary at the Catholic Osage Mission, (now St. Paul), Kansas. The MS. is in 
the Archives of St. Louis University. Though certain details of the narrative 
are very probably conjectural only, there can be no doubt that the substance 
of the incident recorded is historically true. The participants are of course not 
invented characters of the author but were all actual persons associated in some 
way with the Osage Catholic Mission. Only here and there has Father 
Ponziglione's often unconventional English been amended by the Editor. 

51 



52 REV. P. M. PONZIGLIONE, S.J. 

It was the 1st of February when Miss Lucille St. Pierre left New 
Orleans, and, after a rather tedious navigation of many days, at last 
landed at St. Louis, where she was most kindly received by the Chou- 
teaus. Mr. Edward being daily expected from his trading post on the 
Neosho, the young lady was requested to delay her departure till after 
his coming. In fact, he was coming a few days after her arrival, and, 
having purchased a large supply of spring goods, by the 12th of 
March, left with Miss Lucille for Kansas City on Captain La Barge's 
Steamboat. The Missouri, not being as yet fairly opened, they ascended 
it very slow, and, meeting with no accident, reached Westport's land- 
ing about the end of the month. Here they became the guests of Mrs. 
Menard Chouteau, a most accomplished lady, known through the 
whole West for her hospitality. Several days having been employed in 
getting ready to cross the 140 miles of desert prairie standing between 
Kansas City and the Neosho, Mr. Edward's outfit left, and, after two 
weeks journey, at last, on the 15th of April, reached the mouth of 
Flat-Rock, where Mr. Edward's residence was. The unexpected ap- 
pearance of Miss Lucille was quite a surprise to Mrs. Rosalia, the 
wife of Mr. Edward Chouteau. This lady was a well educated Osage 
half-breed. She received Lucille with great cordiality and wished her 
to make herself at home with her. But Lucille, knowing that her 
father's preference was that she should rather stay with Mr. Michael 
mentioned gentleman, whose residence was some seven miles up the 
Giraud, declined her kind invitation and went to stop with the now 
Neosho, west of the place where at present stands the city of Erie. 

Mr. M. Giraud. having no children, looked on Lucille as a very 
valuable acquisition to his family and treated her with parental alTec- 
tion. The season of spring, being now beautifully developed, Lucille 
prepared herself for her work and, by the end of May, she had already 
begun her Neosho flora. She is out every day on the high prairies east 
of Giraud's home, looking for blossoms. Not being acquainted with the 
country, Mr. Giraud allows her as a companion and guide in her ex- 
cursions a very interesting Indian child by the name of Angelica 
Mitce-ke, whom he was raising and loved and looked upon as if it had 
been his own. The gentle training Angelica had received from Mr. 
Giraud had so much tempered her wild character that no one could 
believe that there was one drop of Indian blood in her. As she spoke 
the French with a very correct accent, Lucille could not help but love 
her and she now began to consider her and love her as if she had been 
her natural sister. 

Close to Mr. Giraud's home the Neosho is meandering through 
u charming timber land and this was a favorite place of resort for 
our flori.sts during the hot hours of the day, for here the air was cooled 
by large shade trees and the ground was carpeted by a variety of rare 
flowers. On the 27th of June Lucille has just come with Angelica to 
this nice spot, when some young squaws, being on their way to their 
wigwams, happened to be passing by. Well knowing that the French 
girl was collecting flowers, they presented her with a beautiful bouquet. 



LUCILLE vST. PIERRE AMONG THE OSAGE 53 

Lucille was very much pleased at their kindness, and wished to know 
where they gathered such sweet blossoms. To this they simply replied : 
"On the hill far west." Once they had gone, she asked Angelica 
whether she knew the place where these flowers were growing. "Oh, 
yes," was her answer "way yonder on that high bluff" pointing at it 
with her finger. "The boys" she added, "call these flowers CMshunshi 
glasca, which means Love-flower because when they wish to make us 
a nice present, they will bring us a bunch of them." 

This was enough to excite Lucille's curiosity and she makes up 
her mind to go to find the place and make a good collection before the 
blasting heat of July would set in. To this effect ,she told AngeHca, 
that she intended to go to that hill on the next day, "and you, my 
child," she said, "do not forget to take a lunch in your basket, that we 
may not need to come home for dinner." However, noticing that they 
would have to cross the river in a small canoe, she seems to be per- 
plexed in her mind, and, looking at Angelica with some anxiety she 
said : "But, my dear child, I see that we will have to cross the diver, 
and who is going to paddle the skiff for us ?" To this Angelica replies : 
"I will ; I am well used to it. Whenever uncle Giraud wants to go to 
the other side to gather wild onions and strawberries, I always paddle 
the canoe for him." This answer did fully satisfy Lucille and nothing 
more was said about it. 

The sun had risen as bright as ever and the sky looked as pure as 
a nice crystal, when, at the balmy breeze of the 28th of June, our flor- 
ists were out for the West. Hardly had they reached the bank of the 
river, when, in the twinkling of an eye, Angelica leaped in the canoe 
and coasting along with masterly hand she invited her companion to 
come on board. Lucille steps in very cautiously and seats herself at the 
helm; meanwhile that Angelica softly but steadily begins to row. The 
water being very calm in but a few minutes they land on the opposite 
bank. Here, leaving the lunch basket in the canoe, both spring on 
terra firma, and, twisting the line of their little boat to a sapling, both 
start at work. No body living on that side of the river, the ground is 
literally all dotted with quite a variety of flowers. On they are going 
at random, picking up only the choicest, and, at every steep, they ad- 
vance deeper and deeper into the woods whose shades were most agree- 
able. Having been at work for nearly two hours, they began to feel a 
little fatigued and hungry. As the sun was fast advancing toward the 
meridian, they concluded to rest for a while and eat their lunch. "But," 
exclaimed Lucille, "where is the basket, my child? Let us go back to 
the river for we left it in the canoe." At once they start, taking one of 
the several trails close by. They come to the river, indeed, but no canoe 
could be seen. "This is not the place we landed at" says Lucille, "my 
dear AngeHca, let us go farther down." So they do, but nowhere a 
vestige can be seen of their skiff. And no wonder ; for, not having been 
properly hitched, the continual motion of the water had caused the line 
to become looped, and, at last, the canoe floating free, was carried down 
the river. 



54 REV. P. M. PONZIGLIONE, S.J. 

Now, Lucille realized the critical situation they were in, and look- 
ing quite earnestly at Angelica, she asks her whether she knows where 
they are. And, the child, answering very indifferently, "I do not know," 
she cried out: "Oh, my dear, we are lost! \Vliat shall we do? Where 
shall we go?'' The innocent little girl looks all around as one who is 
bewildered, and at once bursts in a most pitiful wailing. Lucille em- 
braced her, and, though she is mixing her tears with those of her com- 
panion, she tries to console her. Seeing that it was useless to depend 
any longer on her as guide, she tells her: "Come on, my love, let us 
go up the river, for I think we left our canoe somewhere higher up." 
And they began to walk up and down without noticing that they were 
frequently returning on their steps. They passed the whole of the long 
afternoon going through the woods, frequently calling loud for help, 
but they were already too far off, and no one could hear them. And, 
lo, night came at last. Broken down with hunger and fatigue, they lay 
on the bare ground for rest. 

Meanwhile, as the two girls were in a state of distress, the mind of 
Mr. Giraud was under a great excitement. The missing of both at 
usual dinner time was a thing quite unprecendented, but Mr. Giraud 
did not make much of it, for, the girls being very familiar with the 
Pappin's family living at a short distance, he supposed that, likely, they 
had gone visiting their friends. When, however, towards evening he 
returned from his trading post on the In-ska-pa-shou creek and found 
out that they were as yet missing, he grew uneasy, and, calling on the 
Indian boy who was herding his horses, he dispatched him to the 
Pappin's residence to bring back the two girls, who, in his opinion, 
most certainly were there. In a very short time the boy returned with 
the message that they had not been there that day. On hearing this, 
Giraud clapped his hands, exclaiming: "By Napoleon, where can they 
have gone?" Here, however, the idea struck him that they might have 
gone down to the Mission to pay a visit to Mr. E. Chouteau who had 
repeatedly invited Lucill eto go to pass a few days with his wife. And, 
if such would be the case, they would not return until the next morn- 
ing. He felt satisfied that certainly this was the case, but, as it was not 
too late, he told the Indian boy to hurry up with his supper and, after 
that, to go down to the Chouteaus to ascertain whether the girls were 
there and return without any delay with an answer. It did not take long 
for the boy to get through his supper, and off he was, flying in a gallop 
aver the prairie to the Chouteaus, and, finding that the two missing 
girls were not there, he at once returned home. It was just getting dark. 
Mr. Giraud was cooling himself on the veranda of his house when, 
hearing the boy coming on the premises, he halloes at him, saying: 
"Well, did you find them?" But he answered that they had not been 
there. At hearing this the old gentleman cries out in a frantic way : 
"Oh, my poor children! where are you gone? What has ever happened 
to you ?" 

It was too late now, and, the night being very dark, all search after 
Ihcm had to be put off to the next morning. That night was a terrible 



LUCILLE ST. PIERRE AMONG THE OSAGE 55 

one for M. Giraud. He could not persuade himself that the two girls 
were lost, yet it was a cruel fact that both were missing. "Would it be 
possible" he now and then would say, "that they have been kidnapped 
by some Indian?" And here all kinds of most villanous crimes would 
parade before his mind. At times he thinks he hears Lucille crying and 
calling on him for protection; then he imagines he sees Angelica 
knocked down senseless by some wicked man, and, in his excitement, 
beating the air with his clenched fists, he would say : "By my honor, 
I shall avenge you both my dear children, if I can only find out where 
you are." This excitement brough upon him a kind of temporary mental 
aberration. That night he never slept and in his drowziness he would 
frequently repeat the names of his dear missing ones. 

At last, the morning of the 29th came, and Mr, Giraud declared 
that he himself would go in search of his children. Calling on his Brave, 
an Indian by the name of Kula-shutze (Red Eagle), he tells him to go 
quick to the prairie and get him his best charger. And, while the Brave 
is gone, he paces through the timber close to his house thinking on what 
he should do and where he should first go. Stepping on the famiHar 
path leading to the river, he follows it almost instinctively to the or- 
dinary crossing. Here, noticing that the canoe had gone from its moor- 
ings ,he wonders who might it be that took it off. At once the idea 
strikes him that, perhaps, the two girls might have got into it, and, 
not being able to manage it, might have drowned. At such an idea, the 
whole of his body shakes as if struck by an electric flash ! He quickly 
examines the trail and, indeed, sees on it very distinctly the footprints 
of both the girls as yet fresh on the ground. This settles the question 
with him ; his dear ones are undoubtedly lost, and he begins to moan 
as a man in despair. The Indians as well as the white employees work- 
ing on his premises hearing him hasten to come to see what might be 
the matter, and, after again and again examining the footprints left 
on the sand, all can come to but one conclusion, that, namely, the two 
unfortunates must have tried to have some sport with the canoe, they 
must have capsized, and both were drowned. All that now remains to 
be done is to search for the bodies. To this effect, two skiffs are pro- 
cured, one from Mr. Pappin, the other from Mr. Swiss, and several 
young men volunteer to run down the river to recover the bodies, if 
possible. Meanwhile, as this is going on, Mr. Giraud, feeling more 
nervous than ever, comes to Osage Mission to take advice from Mr. 
Edward Chouteau concerning the best way to follow in notifying Lu- 
cille's parents concerning this most terrible accident. But there was no 
time to lose. Edward Chouteau quickly calls on his friends and starts 
them down along the river, sounding the Neosho and searching every 
nook and point where, generally, large amounts of driftings are left 
by the main current. This done, he advises Mr. Giraud to return to 
the house and resign himself to what has happened. "And take time," 
says he, "do not be too quick in informing Lucille's parents about this 
unfortunate affair until we get more information." 

Twenty-four hours have now passed since the two girls had left 



56 REV. P. -M. PONZIGLIONE. S.J. 

home. Having had nothing to eat, after rambling up and down the 
whole preceding day to no purpose, it is no wonder if both were 
fatigued and exhausted. In such a condition both lay down on the bare 
gfround to take some rest. Angelica, unconcerned about the dangerous 
situation they are in, soon falls asleep and looks as happy as a child 
can be in its couch. Not so with Lucille ! That night was a frightful 
one for her. Indeed, there was no rest for her, not so much on account 
of the novelty of her lodging, as for the noise kept up during the whole 
night by the hooting of owls and wild parrots as well as by the con- 
fused barking of wolves lurking through the woods in search of some 
carrion. She had never been used to that sort of serenade and, being 
naturally most sensitive, her imagination saw terrible visions. She 
thought tliat surely hostile Indians were camping in the vicinity and 
that the noise she heard was coming from them. She trembled for fear, 
thinking that, after a while, some of them hunting around might dis- 
cover her and Angelica, and, in such a case, they both would be killed. 
.At last, about daylight, she stands up for a few minutes looking all 
around and, noticing that everything was quiet, she moves a little 
further up where the grass seems to be more glossy, and, stretching 
herself on it, tries to get some sleep, if possible. And, lo, meanwhile 
she is gazing at the morning star lightly rising over the horizon and 
shining most brilliantly through the trees, she feels as she was charmed 
by an invisible power and gradually it rapt her into a calm slumber, in 
which she could have hardly passed a couple of hours, when at once 
she is awakened by the screaming of Angelica, who, having raised her 
head and found out that Lucille was no longer by her side, thought her- 
self to have been abandoned by her. Her fear, however, was soon dis- 
pelled for in but a few minutes she noticed her companion coming to 
her. Oh, how happy the poor child did feel in seeing her again. Here 
both lookeil around to see whether they might recognize the place they 
were in, but all in vain. Everything was new to them; silence reigned 
supreme in the forest and was only occasionally interrupted by sud= 
den gushings of wind through the trees. 

Lucille had been educated by pious and devout parents, who, from 
her childhood ,had taught her to fear God and, at the same time, to 
trust in His assistance, especially in moments of danger. Now, the un- 
expected adventure calls to her mind all those salutary teachings, and, 
full of confidence in God's power, looking at Angelica with motherly 
love, "My dear child." she says, "we are lost and likely will have to 
die in these woods. God, however, can save us both if it so pleases 
Him. Let us both kneel down and pray to Him to be merciful to us." 
Having said this, both kneel and pray most fervently for a while. Next, 
standing up to see in what direction they had better go, they conclude 
to follow up the river, always in hopes of finding their canoe. And, 
now they are starting when an idea strikes Lucille's mind and she says 
to herself, why could wc not leave here some mark that we might 
recognize the place in case that in our wandering around, we might re- 
turn to this spot. Besides, who knows that after time, people, passing 



LUCILLE ST. PIERRE AMONG THE OSAGE 57 

by this place, directed by this mark, may find our remains and notify 
our friends about our death. Here she takes from her head a large red 
silk handkerchief and tied it to a limb of a tree standing by and over- 
looking the river. Next, noticing at a short distance a buffalo's skull 
well bleached by the weather, she writes on the flat bone of the fore- 
head: "We are lost; have nothing to eat; are going to die. O, you that 
happen to find our remains, for God's sake bury us both together. Lu- 
cille and Angelica, June 29th, 1847." Having placed the skull in a show- 
ing position at the foot of the same tree, they go along through the 
woods, not knowing where, and look for wild fruits for both are 
hungry. 

The men sent by Edward Chouteau to look for the bodies of the 
supposed drowned girls returned about sun-down saying that they had 
neither found or heard anything concerning them and, as the river was 
yet high and its current quite swift, it would be useless to look after 
them any further, for by this time they were out of reach. Hearing 
this Edward showed great distress in his countenance and, after a 
while, exclaimed : "Poor girls ; this is too bad, but no one can help it.'' 
The sun had sunk in the far west and in Edward's house it looked as 
if a funeral had taken place in it. Knowing with what anxiety Mr. Gi- 
raud was expecting some information, he springs on his horse and hur- 
ries to his friend's residence. He finds him pacing to and fro on his 
veranda. As soon as Giraud notices his coming, he calls on him with 
great excitement, saying: "Well, what news, my friend?" "No news," 
was the cool reply that sounded through the air. This answer strikes 
Mr. Giraud as if it had been a thunderclap. Tears streamed from his 
eyes. His sobs for a while do not allow him to utter a single word. At 
last he cries out: "My dear friend, we will have to give them up! But, 
tell me, what shall I write to Lucille's father? He had trusted her to 
my care ; he wanted me to be a father to her, and I have lost her, and 
so have I lost her that I can give no account of her. Oh, Edward, get 
me out of this trouble ; do you write for me to him, for my grief is 
such I am unable to do it." Mr. Edward promised that he would attend 
to it, and returned to his family. 

He hardly had gone when a sturdy young man, by the name of 
Isaac Swiss, an Osage half-breed, who was taking care of Mr. Giraud's 
store on the "In-ska-pashu", stepped in and, throwing on the floor 
half a dozen of nice ducks, said : "Mr. Giraud, here I am, as you see ; 
to-day I had very good luck ; I did not miss a single shot, but I was not 
quick enough to overtake a big deer, whom I met at the crossing of 
the creek. As the fellow sighted me, he whirled at once, and, upon my 
word, he did jump and run. il never before did see the like. I followed 
him through the timber between brush and briars, when the buck 
plunged into the river and swam to the other side. I lost my game." 
Having given his account of his adventure, he sat down to fix up his 
pipe and have a good smoke. Then he continued : "Mr. Giraud, trade is 
very good at present, but when will your summer goods come in ? The 
Indians are anxious to leave on the usual hunt but have neither powder 



58 REV. P. M. PONZIGUONE, S.J. 

nor lead. In how many days do you think our teams will return from 
Kansas City?" "In a few days" Mr. Giraud replied, "my goods are 
due, but the late rains made the roads so bad that the boys cannot travel 
fast." "But, now," said he, "you had better go to take your supper 
for it is getting late." 

After supper Isaac returned to the veranda to enjoy the fresh air, 
and, seating himself comfortably on an old box, fills up his pipe and, 
haveing eemitted from his mouth two big puflfs of smoke, he said : 
"well, Mr. Giraud, "did you, to-day, see any of the surveyors?" "Why, 
no," replied the old gentleman, asking: "Did you see any of them.''" 
"O, no, sir," he answered, "but I saw their signal about two miles be- 
lo wour store. I suppose they must have crossed the river south of 
Trading Post." "Why, is it possible?" Giraud remarked with some ex- 
citement, "this is good news, Isaac ! I, indeed have not seen any of 
them to-day, but, as you well know, I am expecting them, for, as I told 
you other times, they are talking of opening a coach road from In- 
dep)endence, Missouri, to Santa Fe, New Mexico, and it would be of 
great advantage to us if this road would pass by our store. Now, tell 
me, Isaac, do you think the river will be fordable by to-morrow morn- 
ing?" "Not at this point" was Isaac's reply; "but," said he, "it will be 
likely fordable at the upper crossing." Here Mr. Giraud stood up and 
said: "Well, I think so, myself. See, now, my boy, we must not lose 
the opportunity of seeing these surveyors, and induce them by all 
means to run the road by our store for this would increase our busi- 
ness considerably. I think the best we can do will be that to-morrow 
morning we hurry up and overtake them ; I am confident we will suc- 
ceed." 

And now Mr. Giraud retired to his room for rest. Isaac needs 
neither room or bed ; he just lies down on a pile of buflfalo robes under 
the porch, and, as the cowboys are used to say, he soon sleeps as sound 
as a log. 

The morning of the 30th was as bright as one could wish it. A 
gentle breeze from the east was cooling the atmosphere and making it 
very agreeable for an early riding. Mr. Giraud and Isaac were both 
on the move in search of the surveyors. Coming to the upper ford of 
the Neosho, they had no difficulty in crossing it. "Now," Mr. Giraud 
asked Isaac, "on what direction was it that you saw the flag," Isaac 
pointed to the west. Then both turn their course up the river between 
brushwood and fallen trees, following no road, for, in fact, there was 
none. They had been going for about half an hour, when Isaac, always 
in good humor, cried out: "Hello, Mr. Giraud, look way yonder; there 
is the surveyor's flag. "Why," replied Giraud, after looking at it very 
attentively, "that is not the regular flag, but, perhaps, they have dropped 
the real one somewhere and that might be a substitute for it. Anyway 
let us keep on and, once we will be on their tracks, we will soon over- 
take them, for they cannot be very far. However, as we 5o not know 
what kind of people we might meet, let us load our guns to be ready 
for our defense, if needed, for you know, my boy, that of hte several 



LUCILLE ST. PIERRE AMONG THE OSAGE 59 

negroe? who ran away from their masters in Missouri have been nest- 
ling through these woods and they are a very desperate set of fellows. 

Both loaded their rifles and on they kept traveling till they came 
to the place and saw that the supposed flag was nothing else than a red 
silk handkerchief hanging from a branch of a tree. Mr. Giraud looked 
at it most carefully, and, at once, exclaimed: "Isaac, oh, dear, this is 
Lucille's handkerchief ! Yes, I know it well ; I bet her mark is on it !" 
Alighting in a great hurry, he almost steps on the buffalo skull, which 
stood at the foot of the tree. At first, he had not taken notice of it, but 
now, as it was in his way, he looks at it with attention and sees some 
writing on it. At the sight of it, he seems to be bewildered; just as if 
he had seen a ghost. A convulsive sensation comes over him ; he looks 
as if he were under the influence of a charm. However, he soon re- 
covers his presence of mind, and stooping down he reads the writing. 
He recognizes the hand ; he understands the meaning of the notice, and, 
standing up, with a countenance full of excitement, he cries out: 
"Thanks be to God we came on their tracks ; they may, as yet, be aHve. 
O, Isaac ; I now know all about it. This is not a surveyor's flag, as you 
thought, but it is a signal of distress put up yesterday by Lucille and 
Angelica. Who knows where they may be at present ! But, they cannot 
be very far from this place. We must find them. Suppose you keep 
going on west along the river and I shall at the same time go south. 
Not to get astray one from the other let us have an understanding. If 
you happen to meet them, fire, at once, two consecutive shots, and I 
shall come to you. In the case I should find them I shall do the same, 
and you will come to me. 

Here they start leading their horses by the bridle, stepping very 
cautiously, and taking notice of every inch of ground as they advance 
on their way. Mr. Giraud has already walked a distance of nearly two 
miles, when he discovered them. They both were lying on the ground, 
apparently as if sleeping. It is easier to imagine than to describe what 
were the feelings of the old gentleman at that moment. He first calls 
on Lucille, next on Angelica, but receives no answer. He approaches 
more closely and sees that they are alive, but in such a state of ex- 
haustion that they are unable to speak or move. However, they are both 
conscious, and, seeing the famihar face of their friend, their eyes 
sparkle with joy, a smile comes on their lips. Mr. Giraud, without any 
delay, gives the conventional sign, and, in a short time, Isaac is gal- 
loping to the spot. As soon as the old gentleman sees him coming, he 
exclaims: "My boy, hurry home as fast as you can and tell Wha-ta- 
hinka that I found' my two children ; they are both living, but so weak 
that for a couple of days they won't be able to move from this place. 
Tell him to stop all other work, and bring his wife here to take care 
of them. Next tell my housekeeper to give you a lunch for them for 
they had nothing to eat during the two last days." Isaac did as he was 
ordered, and in about two hours returned with the lunch. 

Wha-ta-hinka, who was an old and faithful servant of Giraud's 
family, understood at once what the emergency was calling for. He 



60 REV. P. M. PONZIGUONE, S.J. 

quickly had a couple of pacing horses ready, and, in the afternoon, he 
and his wife came with a regular outfit and plenty of provisions. As 
he was approaching to the place, his wife began to cry and lament in 
a most heartrending strain, just as if she had lost some of her children. 
She kept up her doleful tune for quite a while, as it is customary 
among the Osages when they meen a friend they have not seen for a 
long time. And. having complied with what she looked upon as a duty 
of sympathy, she goes to work and in less than one hour she had put 
up a very comfortable wigwam. In this Mr. Giraud, with that adroit- 
ness characteristic of a French gentleman, moved his two protegees, 
and, seeing that the good squaw had brought with her an abundance 
of whatever might be needed, he returned to his house and dispatched 
Isaac down to Osage Mission to inform Mr. Chouteau of all that had 
happened. The good news soon spread all around, and people all over 
the settlement felt happy in hearing how the two missing girls had been 
found. 

By the end of three days, the 3rd of July, they had both recovered 
and were able to return home. Now, all Giraud's friends came to con- 
gratulate him and wished to hear from Lucille the account of their ad- 
venture. And she would again and again repeat all the story of their 
getting lost when looking after flowers ; how, having missed their 
canoe, they became confused in mind and, not knowing the place, they 
kept moving to and fro without percieving that they were going 
astray, and most certainly they would have died of exhaustion had not 
God in His mercy directed Mr. Giraud to their steps. 

And now, that everything was again running in good order, Mr. 
Giarud, willing to show how happy he felt for having recovered his 
dear children, sent a runner to inform all his friends that on the coming 
of the next full moon he would have a great feast and wanted them to 
know that everyone was invited to it. To make the invitation more at- 
tractive, lie announced the following programme, namely, eight large 
beeves would be killed and everyone would have plenty to eat. During 
the day there would be difTerent amusements, such as ball-play, horse- 
races, foot-races, sack-races and at night would take place a grand 
war dance. In a word, nothing would be omitted that might anyway 
contribute to render the feast most agreeable. 

Lucille never expected that Mr. Giraud would give such a public 
and solemn mark of joy and go into such an expense on her account. 
She felt very much confused, and calling on him, she said: "My dear 
friend, I am under a thousand obligations to you for the way you have 
treated me since my coming to your house, but, most particularly, I 
am indebted to you for having saved my life. And now, I feel very 
proud for the honor you intend to bring me by inviting all the Osages 
to come and feast on my account, but, please listen to me for one mo- 
ment ; before that day comes, I wish you to do me a favor. You must 
know that on the morning that I hung my handkerchief to the tree on 
which you found it, I and Angelica calculated to travel the whole day 
in search of our canoe. However, being sure that we were lost, and, 



LUCILLE ST. PIERRE AMONG THE OSAGE 61 

knowing that without a special assistance of God, we would never be 
able to get out of our terrible situation, before going any farther we 
both knelt down and prayed to God to save us ; nay, we promised that 
if we would ever return home, we would go to Osage Mission church 
and offer our thanksgiving to God through the hands of the Immaculate 
Virgin. Having finished our prayer, we started, but we had hardly ad- 
vanced two miles, when a heavy dizziness came over us. We staggered 
and fell ; we were so weak that we could no longer speak and remained 
in such state till God directed you to find us. Now, it would not be right 
for us to take part in such a public rejoicing as you are preparing on 
our account, without first going down to the Mission to fulfill our vow. 
To this most earnest request Mr. Giraud replied very kindly that they 
were right in being thankful to God for, indeed, they had a very nar- 
row escape. "For," said he, '*it was a very great wonder that you both 
did not perish in those woods, as has been the case with several others 
before you. The coming of Isaac to my house was really providential, 
and neither he nor I had the slightest idea of going in search of you 
when we rode out to look for the supposed surveying party. As, there- 
fore, God has heard your prayers, it is most proper for you to give 
Him thanks. Hence, whenever you make up your mind to go down to 
the Fathers' Church, let me know and I, myself, shall have the pleasure 
of bringing you there." 

Lucille and Angelica having agreed to go to the Mission on the 
next day, Mr. Giraud told them that he would be ready to comply 
with their wishes. In fact, about 10:30 the next morning, he started 
with both of them and by noon they were alighting on Edward Chou- 
teau's premises. There is no need of telling with what most sincere 
marks of affection they were received. Mrs. Rosalia, Edward Chou- 
teau's wife, was almost out of herself for joy in seeing two most dear 
friends over whose supposed loss, but a few days before, she had shed 
so many tears. Towards evening, the two girls, accompanied by Mrs. 
Rosalia, came up to the Mission to make arrangements with Father 
Schoenmakers. The Father felt very happy in seeing them and told 
them that at 7 o'clock the ne;s:t morning Father John Bax would be 
ready to offer up the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass for them. 

On the next day, at the appointed hour, they came up to the 
church together with a number of their friends. The two girls, each one 
carrying a beautiful bouquet of the choicest flowers the season could 
afford, after bowing before the image of the Immaculate Virgin, laid 
their offering on the altar. Here Father Bax begins the Mass, during 
which he addresses a few appropriate words to the people, advising 
them to always trust in the kind assistance of Divine Providence, and 
never to forget to be thankful for favors received. Mass being over, 
the whole party returned to the Chouteaus, where throughout the whole 
day, large numbers of Indians came to congratulate the two girls. 

And now the full moon of July has come. Though in midsummer, 
a gentle breeze which is prevailing promises a nice day for out-door 
exercises. Since very early in the morning the town crier has been 



62 REV. P. M. PONZIGUONE. S. J. 

proclaiming with a stentorian voice the programme of the feast, call- 
ing all to come and take part in the common rejoicing. The wide roll- 
ing prairie east of Mr. Giraud's residence is the chosen spot where the 
feast is to be celebrated. 

A number of Osages who have come during the preceding night 
are stirring about and looking after their horses. The squaws are at 
work ; some stretching awnings, others making temporary lodges. 
Stout looking young girls are going to the next timber to gather dry 
wood to make fire ; meanwhile others are busy packing water from 
the Neosho up to their camps. Quite a crowd of froHcking children are 
gamboling around, playing all sorts of antics, and diving into the river 
like a flock of ducks. As the sun is getting higher, the hum of many 
voices, resembling the murmuring of the wind through a forest, is on 
the increase, and one might fancy he was transported by magic to one 
of the most frequented thoroughfares of a large city where a big mar- 
ket is going on. 

At an early hour Mr. Giraud sends for the principal men and 
makes them a present of eight fat beeves, requesting them to see that 
each family has a good share in the distribution of the meat. A party 
of Braves, having driven the steers to a nook of the praifie close to 
the timber, butcher them at once, and allow everyone to have as much 
of meat as they need. At 2:30 P. M., the Kettletender, whose duty is 
to superintend feasts of this kind, takes his buffalo drum, and ac- 
companied by a few young men, marches to the center of the ground 
allotted for the sports and having enkindled a fire, they sit around it 
and began to sing their traditional Tho-hi-hun to the sound of their 
tom-tom. 

Now everyone knows that the time for the public games has come. 
Behold long lines of men, women and children, all wrapt in gorgeous 
blankets of different colors, moving from every direction, all coming 
to take their seats on the green sod, according to their different clans. 
On the higher part of the prairie Lucille and Angelica, the heroines of 
the feast, occupy chairs o f honor. Next to them are Michael Giraud and 
Edward Chouteau and his wife. The balance of the people are squatting 
on the grass, forming, as it were, two large wings, brilliant for the 
variety of the nice colored blankets and the richly embroidered tunics 
and leggings worn by them. 

A war whoop opens the entertainment. Numbers of young Bucks 
whose bodies are all bedaubed with showing colors, advance to the 
center of the arena, and, without any preliminaries, begin to play foot 
ball. Their appearance is that of a gang of Satyrs emerging from the 
near forest. So rapid and grotesque are their evolutions, that they 
seem to have all their limbs duplicated, so quick are they turning up 
and down to catch the ball. This play is followed by several others, but 
that which gives more merriment than all is the sack-race. In this the 
competitors are twelve boys about fifteen years old. Mr. Giraud himself 
helps them to get into their sacks, and Lucille has the fun of tying the 
same around their neck. They stand all in a row, looking like Egyptian 



LUCILLE ST. PIERRE AMONG THE OSAGE - 63 

mummies. Here Lucille claps her hands, and, lo, they all start. But, 
alas, they had advanced only a few steps when, at once losing their 
balance, one after another all tumble to the ground. And, spite of all 
their efforts, none of them can ever succeed in getting up for in trying 
to arise they entrap themselves more and more and are again brought 
down. The whole is a real treat for the people who, seeing the vain 
efforts made by the poor fellows in order to arise on their feet, are 
laughing most merrily, and try to encourage them with great vocifera- 
tions to try once more. The noise now following is such that the boys 
become excited and no longer know what to do. However, always con- 
fident that with a quick move upward they might succeed in taking 
a standing posture and go a few steps farther, they now and then 
make a dash, as it were, at the air, but with no result, for they fall 
again and roll over the grass to the the great amusement of the people. 
And now Lucille thought that this play had been going on long enough 
and requested Mr. Giraud to let the boys out of their sacks, and, since 
they all had contributed so much to the general merriment, she de- 
clared that it was but right that each one should receive a premium. 
Mr. Giraud agreed perfectly with her, and immedietely handed to her 
twelve nice red scarfs, of which she presented one to each of the boys. 
This most amusing entertainment was followed by horse racing. 
These races took place in succession ; the first being run by ten horses ; 
the second by four; that is to say, those four who proved to be the 
best in the preceding, and the two who were superior in this, ran the 
third, the swiftest of the two receiving the premium. The young men 
who ran the horses had no hindrance of any sort on their persons ; 
the different colors with which they were painted all over making most 
all the garments they had on. They rode their steeds bare-back with 
no other bridle than a thin lariat twisted around the lower jaw of the 
beast, and, as in riding they were leaning on the neck of their horses 
having their feet entwined with the forelegs of the same, looking at 
them from a distance one could not but fancy he saw a squad of Cen- 
taurs running over the country. The races were a success, and Lucille 
felt very proud when she was requested to hand the prize to the win- 
ner. With this the greatest part of the programme was over and the 
people returned to their camps. 

The twilight was fast passing away and night gradually spreading 
its darkness, like a pall, over the earth, when a beautiful full moon 
appeared with silvery radiance, to enlighten the whole country. Hark ! 
the tom-tom is again sounding and all the men quickly arising don 
their blankets ; the squaws huddle their smaller children on their neck 
and, driving the balance of the Httle ones before them, following one 
another in a long line, return to the play ground to assist at a great 
war dance. 

The small fire the kettletender had enkindled in the morning in 
the center of the arena is now turned by the same into a big bonfire. 
Everyone is on the tip-toe watching who will be the Braves that will 
form the dance. And, behold, presently some twenty stalwart savages, 



61 REV. P. M. PONZTGUONE. S.J. 

each a well known old warrior, step out from different points and at 
once form a large circle around the fire. Some of them have horns 
protruding from their head=gear ; others ar ecovered with loose buffalo 
robes dragging long tails ; most have their faces covered with the mask 
of some wild animal ; all exhibit the appearance of incarnate demons. 
Their bodies are daubed with large spots of white, red. green and 
yellow paint. They are armed with long spears from which are hang- 
ing the scalps of their enemies. And now their dance begins with a 
general whoop. They all start leaping and gesticulating like infernal 
furies around the big bon-fire. Their motions seem to be threatening 
everybody ; their dance, properly speaking, is no dance at all, but rather 
a war drilling in which they feign to attack or strike their enemies in 
thousands of different ways. This very wild play lasted till late in the 
night, when the men got so exhausted by their continual jumping and 
stamping the ground that they had to give up and lie down to rest on 
the very spot. With this the whole feast was over. 

On the next morning Lucille and Angelica resumed their ordi- 
nary excursions after flowers and, taught by their own experience, are 
more cautious in their ramblings through the counti^y. 

Rev. Paul M. Po.-vziclionf., S. J. 



NOTES 



SoRA THE Home of Bishop Rosati 

Bishop Joseph Rosati, as is well known, was bom in the town 
of Sora, in the Kingdom of Naples. It may interest the readers of our 
Review to learn where Sora really is, and what were its other claims 
on our interest besides being the birthplace of the first Bishop of St. 
Louis. In the days of Bishop Rosati's youth the Kingdom of Naples 
was the immediate neighbor of the Patrimony of St. Peter, and Sora 
lay on the very boundary of the two States, on the Liris, "the river 
taciturn of classic song" as Longfellow calls it in imitation of Horace. 
It was in 1859 that Ferdinand Gregorovius, the historian of the City 
of Rome, visited Sora and gave a beautiful description of it, which 
was published in his "Wander jahre in Italien" (vol 2.) : We would give 
the substance of this article in English : 

"In the morning Sora displayed itself as a tolerably clean and 
modern city with some good streets, industrial life and bustling traffic. 
The river Liris, that flows through the city, comes along in emerald 
waves between two rows of high poplars, soft and dreamy like a Ger- 
man river. A wooden bridge leads to the quay. Many a beautiful spot 
along the shore invited me to rest and meditation. For all around the 
city stretches the well cultivated Campagna, gardens and vineyards, 
through which well kept roads lead to the neighboring cities. 

Sora lies leveled in this wide valley of the Liris, which gradually 
rises amid the mountain and loses itself in the distance. Immediately 
above the city a bare brown mountain, rises like a pyramid, high, steep 
and rugged into the blue of heaven. It is crowned with the picturesque 
ruins of the ancient castle, called Sorella which are of as deep brown 
color as the mountain itself. In the shadow if this natural pyramid 
lies Sora, in idyllic quiet, now all modernized, but once the mighty city 
of the Volscians. Sora has never changed its name, although it be- 
came in the course of time, Samnite, then Latin and at last Roman. 
In the Roman period Sora gave birth to the three Decii, the celebrated 
Attilius Regulus, the family of the Valerii, among them the orator 
G. Valerius, the Lucius Mummius, names well calculated to give re- 
nown to Sora. During the early Middle Ages Sora is mentioned as a 
city on the boundary which the Lombard dukes of Beneventum fre- 
quently attacked and plundered. Probably it was then Byzantine. After 

65 



66 NOTES 

being held by Lombard Counts Sora fell into the hands of Emperor 
Frederick II who destroyed it. Restored, the city became the property 
of the powerful Counts of Aquino, who possessed almost all the land 
between the Voltumus and the Liris. Then Charles of Anjou made 
the Cantelmi, who were kin to the Stuarts, Counts of Sora, and Al- 
phonso of Aragon raised Sora to the rank of a duchy, whose first duke 
was Nicolo Cantelmi. Under Pius II. his captain Napoleon Orsini 
conquered Sora and annexed it to the Roman State. King Ferdinand I. 
of Naples confirmed the cession; but Sixtus IV. withdrew the posses- 
sion from the church, and gave it to his nephew Lionardo della 
Rovere, as a marriage gift. Later on Gregory XIII. bought Sora from 
the Duke of Urbino for his nephew Don Giacomo Buoncompagni, in 
whose family, afterwards called Buoncompagni Ludovisi, the beauti- 
ful place remained until the beginning of the 18th century, when it 
again passed into the hands of the King of Naples. In Rome there is 
still a Palazzo di Sora, and a ducal title di Sora, as the only reminders 
of the former glories of a Roman family. Under the rule of this 
Rovere a very remarkable man was bum in Sora, Caesar Baronius, 
the great historian of the Church. So very beautiful, harmonious and 
dreamy a place as the valley of the Liris really is, should have been the 
birthplace of some poetic genuis like Horace, Ovid, or Ariosto. But it 
was not to be. Instead of these servants of the muses, these flowery 
fields produced warriors and lastly orators ; indeed, in their constant 
change of scene they may well serve as an inspiration for an in- 
exhaustible natural eloquence full of images and figures of speech. 

Caesar Baronius was born October 31, 1538. He is the Muratori 
of the church, whose Annals he has written from the Birth of Christ 
to 1588. The first volume appeared at Rome in 1588, a work of giant 
effort, based on Vatican materials, priceless as regards its materials 
and grand in its execution. He died the 30th day of June 1607." 

Thus far Gregorovius who styles Baronius the last of the great 
names of Sora. But this great Baronius was not to be the last of Sora's 
great men. Joseph Rosati might with greater propriety claim the title. 
For although his work was done on the very edge of civilization, amid 
the rude conditions of frontier-life, in an uncultivated country, it 
proved to be of even greater importance to the church and the world 
than that of some of the early warriors and orators of Sora, in the 
foundation and upbuilding of one of the greatest dioceses of the 
world. 

And so we bid good bye to 

"The Land of Labor and the Land of Rest, 
Where medieval towns are white on all 
The hillsides, and where every mountain's crest 
Is an Etrurian or a Roman wall," 

as Longfellow says, understanding better than before what a sacrifice 
it must have been to the gentle studious dreamy Joseph Rosati to leave 
his home for ever for the pathless wilderness by the mighty Mississippi. 



NOTES 67 

Diamond Jubilee of the Diocese of Galveston 

March 14, 1922, was a great day for the city and diocese of Gal- 
veston, Texas, celebrating its diamond jubilee. On March 14, 1847, 
the cornerstone was laid for St. Mary's Cathedral, Galveston; in the 
same year the diocese of Galveston was erected, comprising the entire 
Republic of Texas. 

The first priest from the United States who entered Texas, was 
Very Rev. John Timon, Visitor of the Lazarists, at the Barrens, Mo. ; 
he was asked by Bishop Blanc of New Orleans to investigate the state 
of affairs amongst the Catholics of Texas. He arrived at Galveston 
in December 1838. After him came Father Anduze; he visited Gal- 
veston, Houston and Nacogdoches (at this latter place Father Antonio 
Diaz de Leon had been secretly killed by the fanatical American 
frontiersmen, Nov. 4, 1834). In 1840 Fathers G. W. Hayden and E. 
Clark come from Kentucky and visited nearly every settlement in 
Texas. In the meantime Father Timon accepted the appointment as 
Prefect Apostolic and sent Rev. John Odin, C.M., to Texas with full 
authority. Father Odin estimated the Catholics in Texas at 10,000; 
in seven months he and his fellow priests heard 911 confessions and 
baptized 478. 

The bulls erecting the Republic of Texas into a Vicariate 
Apostolic were issued July 16, 1841, and Father Odin was appointed 
Bishop of Claudiopolis and assigned to the new Vicariate. In 1847 he 
was transferred to the newly erected diocese of Galveston. 

The festivities to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the erec- 
tion of the diocese of Galveston and the laying of the cornerstone of its 
Cathedral opened Monday evening March 13, 1922, by a reception 
held in the Cathedral Hall, where an exhibit of academy and parochial 
school work was shown. This display proved a diversion for all leisure 
moments not taken up with the exchange of greetings and congratu- 
lations. 

The following i5ishops from the province of New Orleans had 
come to honor the occasion : Archbishop Shaw of New Orleans, the 
bishops Drossaerts of San Antonio, Lynch of Dallas, Morris of Little 
Rock, Allan of Mobile, Van de Ven of Alexandria and Jeanmard of 
Lafayette. 

Members of the Fourth Degree, Knights of Columbus in full re- 
galia escorted the procession from the Cathedral Hall to the Cathedral, 
at 9.45, Tuesday morning. Archbishop Shaw celebrated the Pontifical 
High Mass. Other ministers of the Mass included: Archpriest, Very 
Rev. J. M. Kirwin, V. G. ; M. F. Winne, C. M. ; Very Rev. A. J. 
Bruening, Chancellor ; deacon of the Mass, Rev. J. S. Murphy, LL. D., 
subdeacon of the Mass, Rev. Joseph Pelnar; masters of ceremonies. 
Rev. L. J. Reicher, Chancellor; J. T. Fleming, M. J. Leahy, E. J. 
Walsh, acolytes, etc., seminarians from La Porte. 

Archbishop Glennon of St. Louis preached the sermon ; the prelate 
of St. Louis had been invited, because of the first American priest who 
came to Texas, Father Timon, came from the Barrens, Perry Co., 



68 NOTES 

Mo. ; the first priest who laid down his Hfe for the sick at Galveston, 
was a St. Louis priest, Father Paquin (born at Florissant, Mo.) ; and 
the present bishop of Galveston, Msgr. Christopher Byrne, was bom 
in Missouri and was a St. Louis priest to the day of his consecration. 
So it was quite becoming, that to St. Louis a place of honor should 
be given at the celebration of the Diamond Jubilee. A number of 
priests from St. Louis accompanied their Archbishop to do honor to 
their former fellow worker in the diocese of St. Louis, Bishop Byrne 
of Galveston. 

At one o'clock, in the Galvez Hotel, a luncheon was served to the 
visiting prelates and priests. The toasts were answered by Archbishop 
Shaw, Bishop Morris and Bishop Droessaerts. 

The most interesting feature of the celebration was the historical 
pageant in the evening at the great City Auditorium. Not a seat was 
unoccupied in both galleries. Every available foot of standing room at 
the rear of the building was taken, and enough turned away to have 
filled the aisles had the fire regulations permitted it. 

Nothing went to mar the well-drilled perfection of the fifteen tab- 
leaux in which the heroic, romantic and picturesque history of Texas, 
secular and religious, was presented. As if animated to life from the 
pages of some old history book, the somber-gowned fathers trod the 
wilderness paths shoulder to shoulder with the Spanish explorers. They 
lived again against the gray back-grounds of the old Spanish missions, 
surrounded by the Indians whom they had brought to the faith. Inci' 
dent by incident the story unfolded, until finally St. Mary's Cathedral 
as it is today, its twin spires aspiring to heaven, was flashed on the 
screen amid a storm of applause which almost rocked the auditorium. 

Very Rev. J. M. Kirwin, Vicar General of the diocese, rector of 
St. Mary's and president of St. Mary's Seminary at La Porte, in the 
character of History, stood at the left side of the stage and told the 
story which each tableau illustrated. As his voice, by sheer power and 
timbre overcoming the poor accoustics of the auditorium, finished with 
each recital, the curtains parted and a life-sized picture faithfully por- 
traying the scene as history has given it, was revealed. 

The tableaux were far and away beyond the class of ordinary 
amateur eflfort. Their preparation and arrangement was the work of 
Rev. Father Kirwin. They were presented under the direction of Rev. 
M. S, Chataignon. 

Following is a sketch of the tableaux in the order of their presen- 
tation : 

"Quii'ira Was Ahvays Just Beyond." Personnel : Coronado, Father Juan 
De Padilla, proto-martyr of the United States; Father Juan De La Cruz, Indians. 

"Death of La Salle, A. D. 1667." Personnel: Father Zcnobius, Father 
Anastasc, La Salic, Lachevcque. 

"Founding of San I-rancisco De Los Tejas, A. D. 1690." Personnel: De 
Leon, Father Massanct, three other Franciscans, soldiers, Indians, processional 
cross, etc. 



NOTES 69 

"San Antonio De Valero, A. D. 1718. The Alamo, A. D. 1722." Personnel: 
Fray Antonio De San Buenaventura y Olivarez, Fray Miguel Nunez. Baptism 
of first child at the mission, sponsors, etc. 

La Purissima Conception. Personnel : Father Gabriel De Vergara, two other 
Franciscans. Indians, etc. 

5oM Jacinto Battlefield. Personnel : General Sam Houston, General Sydney 
Sherman, Surgeon N. D. Labadie, soldiers, etc. 

Father Timon Coming to Address the Congress of the Republic of Texas, 
Houston, January, 1839, present site of Rice Hotel. Personnel : Father Timon, 
C. M. ; Father Llebaria, C. M. ; General Sam Houston, Mirabeau B. Lamar, 
president of the republic of Texas; David Burnet, vice president 

Bishop Odin. Personnel : Bishop Odin, workmen, etc. (building the first 
church in Galveston). 

Battle of Galveston, January i, 1863. 

Battle of Sabine Pass, 1863. 

Bishop Claude Marie Dubois. 

Bishop Gallagher. 

The Morning After the Storm, igoo. 

The Cathedral. 

The tableau based on the battle of Galveston most profoundly 
stirred the audience, if applause is any indication. The scene showed 
Lieutenant Sydney Sherman, son of the general, lying wounded in 
Ursuline Convent, which was transformed into a military hospital, at- 
tended by the sisters, priests and surgeon. The storm of cheers showed 
how dearly Galveston cherishes this tradition. 

Emotion almost too deep for applause was awakened by the tab- 
leaux representing the morning after the storm of Sept. 8, 1900. It 
showed the little inmates of St. Mary's Orphanage lying still and dead 
amid the wreck of furniture and toys, which was all that was left of 
the orphanage. The Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word, con- 
ducting the institution, had tied their little charges to them, seeing 
that all was lost, and thus perished with them. 

During a brief interlude following the showing of the tableaux 
Rev. Father Chataignon led the school children in the singing of sev- 
eral songs. 

A feature which rivaled in interest the tableaux was the two reels 
of moving pictures showing various Catholic institutions in the diocese 
and state. 

The first reel began with a view of the Alamo at San Antonio, 
followed by the missions of San Jose and Conception. Next came the 
Galveston institutions, churches, schools and hospital. If the drama was 
silent, the audience was far otherwise. View of the schools included 
groups of the students at play and exercises. The children had the de- 
lightful experience of seeing themselves in the movies. They respond- 
ed with a gleeful clamor. 

Succeeding scenes showed institutions at Houston, Waco, Austin, 
Beaumont, Westphalia, West and other points in the diocese. 

Wednesday morning, March 15, the festivities were concluded 
with a Pontifical Mass of Requiem, celebrated by the bishop of the 
youngest diocese of Texas, Msgr. Lynch of Dallas. 

F. G. H. 



70 NOTES 

The Daily Amerika's Golden Jubilee 

In anticipation of the fiftieth anniversary of its first appearance 
the St. Louis Catholic daily Amcrika, a German-American newspaper, 
published a large Jubilee Edition on Easter Sunday this year, with a 
beautiful letter of encouragement from the Archbishop of St. Louis. 
Under its strong and faithful CathoHc editors, Dr. Eduard Preuss, 
tlie well-known Convert from Lutheranism, and his son Dr. Arthur 
Preuss, now Editor of the Fortnightly Revie7v, then of Mr. F. P. 
Kenkel, now director of the Central Bureau of the Central Society, 
and at present under the energetic editorial management of Mr. John 
Otto Pfeiffer, the Amcrika has done yeoman service to the Church in 
this country as well as to the successive generations of its German 
readers. Under all its editors the Amcrika did not confine its efforts 
to the living presence, but was also very efficient in opening up once 
more the bright vistas of the past, and so its voluminous work is the 
very best record and source-book for the historian of the Church in the 
Middle West. We think our readers will be glad to have a copy of the 
letter of Archbishop Glennon, as of one who takes the deepest interest 
not only in the health and progress of the Church under his jurisdiction 
but also of the heroic past of the Church in the Mississippi Valley : 

Archbishop's House 
Saint Louis 

March 24, 1922 
The Amerika, 
18 South 6th St., City. 
Gentlemen :- 

I am very much pleased to hear that you are about to celebrate the 
Golden Jubilee of that worthy Catholic Paper, the Amerika ; and I 
hasten to offer you heartfelt congratulations. 

A rumor of your intended suspension, owing to changed condi- 
tions, made public some time ago, caused me considerable worry. 1 felt 
that after your long and honorable service, your discontinuance 
would mean in a sense defeat and humiliation. 

Hence when your management took heart again and continued 
the publication, and proposes to give us each day a better and more 
interesting paper, there is, I believe, every reason for renewed con- 
gratulations. 

We are glad that your fiftieth anniversary is with the "quick" and 
not with the dead. 

Yours sincerely 

*i* John J. Glennon, 
Archbishop of St, Louis. 

We would add only this that the Jubilee number of the Amerika 
contains, besides a number of valuable historical articles the best his- 
tory of the diocese of St. Louis we have by the Rev. F. G. Holweck. 



NOTES 71 

In regard to the Osage Indian-Nation, one of the early cares of 
our Jesuit Missionaries in Indian Territory, Mr. Homer Croy, writes 
in Leslie's: 

"The Osage Indians were once in Southern Kansas and got from the Gov- 
ernment $40 a year for giving up their land. On farms they were settled and 
here tried to scratch out a living, but it was pretty tough scratching, for in the 
early days Kansas was no bed of roses. The Indian Territory was then being 
laid out into a State and into this new section the Osages were moved and it 
was their luck to draw, seemingly, the worst part of Oklahoma. Harder scratch- 
ing than ever it was. so hard that the transplanted people yearned for their 
cyclones and grasshoppers. Among the sagebrush and alkali they moved, wres- 
tling mightily with the soil, until 1915, when a few men with greasy overalls 
came through calculating and testing and digging. Pretty soon a black, gush- 
ing, bewildering flood rose. 'Oil ! Oil !' the cry went out. More people came, 
more oil rigs went up, and the rush was on. It became the scene of the wildest 
oil excitement. From all over the world people poured in; towns sprang up al- 
most over night and canvas cities rose where the prairie dog a few weeks be- 
fore had picked his teeth in contentment. A 'blanket' method of proportioning 
oil was arrived at. Thus, instead of all the money going to a few Indians on 
whose land the liquid wealth chanced to be found, it was to be divided equally 
between all members of the tribe. The first year, 1915, each member of the tribe 
received $170.25. The following year each and every Indian whose name was 
on the Government books received, to have and to hold, $2608. In the course of 
time the year 1919 rolled around and the good oil Santa Glaus left $5171 in their 
stocking, and all they had to do in return was to be an Indian. And then the 
year 1920 folded its tent and stole away and they found themselves $10,091 
richer. Each year the sum gets bigger. Each year just being an Indian gets to 
be a better-paying job. One of the last bills President Wilson signed was one 
extending Indian oil protection until 1946. Up to that time the land will be 
leased out to white operators and the profits turned over to the Indians. After 
that the Indians will have to shift for themselves." 

Whether this temporal prosperity will really benefit the Indians, 
may be doubted. If only a small part of this income had been available 
in Father Verhaegen's time, what wonderful results might ha-ve been 
obtained. 



From an odd volume of the Magazine of Western History we 
transcribe the following interesting notices : 

During French and English domination in the west, there were promulgated 
a number of important state papers and documents, some of which have an 
immediate bearing on our early history. These last named are of interest to the 
historian, and are frequently sought for; but it sometimes happens (although 
they have all been published) that much difficulty is experienced in finding them. 
Few of the libraries in our country have all of them. We name the principal of 
these state documents, giving citations to the books in which they may be found : 

I. — French Domination: (i) Daumont de Saint Lusson, Proces-verbal, June 
14, 1671, in Margry, vol. i, pp. 96 — 99. (2) La Salle, Proces-verbal, March 14, 
1682, in Margry, vol. ii, pp. 181 — 185. (3) La Salle, Proces-verbal, April 9, 1682, 
in Margry, vol. ii, pp. 186—193. (4) Perrot, Minute of Taking Possession of the 
Country of the Upper Mississippi, May 8, 1689, in New York Golonial History, 
vol. ix, p. 418. 

II. — English Domination: (i) Preliminary Treaty of Peace with France 
(Fontainebleau), November 3, 1762, in Gentleman's Magazine, vol. xxxii, pp. 
569 — 573. (2) Definite Treaty of Peace with France (Paris), February 10, 1763, 
in Gentleman's Magazine, vol. xxxiii, ppp. 121 — 126. (3) Proclamtion of King 
George (Court of St. James), October 7, 1763, in Gentleman's Magazine, vol. 
xxxiii, pp. 477 — 479. (4) The Quebec Bill (1774), in 14 George III, Statutes at 
Large of Great Britain, chapter 83. 



72 NOTES 

Within a comparatively recent period an unusual interest has been awaken- 
ed in everything appertaining to the first exploration of the northwest by John 
Nicolet. This has called out one book and several lengthy articles devoted to the 
career of his indomitable explorer in America. But of his early life in France 
nothing is kiwwn. M. Henri Jouvan, a distinguished scholar of Cherbourg, is 
now engaged upon his history before leaving his native land. In speaking of 
Nicolet. M. Jouvan writes that the names of his father and mother — Nicolet and 
Delamer — are very common through the country where he resides. "A parish, 
distant two miles from Cherbourg, with a population of only eight hundred 
souls, numbers thirty-seven families named Nicolet, and nearly as many named 
Delamer." We may soon expect from the able pen of M. Jouvan a full account 
of Nicolet's life before embarking for Canada, in 1618; also some account of 
bis ancestors. 



From the very interesting and important letters of Bishop Francis 
Patrick Kenrick, the brother of our own Peter Richard, to the Allen 
Family of Philadelphia, as published in the current numbers of the 
Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia, 
we would quote a sentence in reference to Chief Justice Roger Brook 
Taney (Chief Justice 1836 — 1864). "I hope George Allen will be an 
eminent lawyer, as well as an excellent Christian. We have here (in 
Baltimore) several very practical Catholics of the profession, some of 
them converts. The Chief Justice, who no longer resides here, is most 
exemplary. He receives the sacraments with great simplicity and edifi- 
cation." A list of converts, whose names occur in the Kenrick- Allen 
correspondence is given on page 21 of the December Number. 



We are highly gratified at the interest shown by a far-eastern pa- 
per, the Brooklyn Eagle, in our Centenary of Statehood, which came to 
a close since our last issue : 

"Missouri is today as free as Maine, and vastly richer in natural resources, 
with about four times the population of the "free State" admitted to balance this 
"slave State" under the Clay compromise of 1820. From Thomas Hart Benton, 
JO years a United States Senator, to Champ Clark, several times Speaker of the 
House she has been represented by strong men in national legislation as Maine 
has. Both commonwealths have had worthy ideals and admirable enterprise. That 
in the Missouri compromise the irrepressible conflict between North and South 
was staved off for 40 years is a common belief of students of American history. 
* • * The proviso that slavery would enter no part of the Louisiana Purchase 
north of .36 degr. 40m. thereafter, if it had not been repealed in the passage of 
the Kansas-Nebraska bill, might have indefinitely delayed the clash of civil war. 
Missouri was a "border State" when the clash came. In the "Crisis" Winston 
Churchill has popularized the struggle to keep her in the Union, the brave work 
of Carl Schurz, the drilling of German immigrants in St. Louis to fight seces- 
sionists, if necessary. Missouri was kept loyal. All of the North, all of the 
South, all of the West, sypathiz.e with Missouri's pride in her celebration; her 
pride in a hundred years of achievement. She deserves all the fine things she 
can say about herself, and all the fine things her neighbors can say about her. 
There are bigger states in our great family of commonwealths, but no better 
State to live and flourish in than Missouri." 



NOTES 75 

gained a complete and final victory. Here is what he writes to Bishop 
Rosati : 

"Want of time alone has prevented me from keeping you advised of our 
affairs here, as they transpired. I did endeavor to write occasionally to the good 
bishop of Vincennes in the kind of hope that through him at least you would 
hear from me, as I have no doubt you were aiding us with your holy prayers. 
Thanks be to God, everything, has so far, gone in favor of his Holy Church. 
Our trustees are broken down in their spirit and power of domination, which 
had oppressed the Church of N, Y. frqm its origin — and what; is better, 
they have been subdued by the nergy of Catholic Faith, and Catholic feeling 
working in the hearts of the laity themselves. There is here now, but one 
party — that is the Catholic Church. This has conquered, and the humiliation 
of defeat is not manifested. The trustees have separated from Mr. Levins, 
and the congregation have separated themselves from the trustees, except so far 
as the latter conform to the Pastoral Address of the Bishop and the Resolu- 
tions, etc. It is a revolution and I trust a happy one in its consequences for 
religion." 



DOCUMENTS FROM OUR 
ARCHIVES 

DIARY OF BISHOP ROSATI 
1825 
JANUARY. 

1 Saturday. Early in the morning, Confessions of the Broth- 
ers. Mass in the chapel- Assisted in cope at the high 
Mass, during which I preached to the people on the Cir- 
cumsicion. After Mass, exposition of the Bl. Sacrament; 
Te Deum, Veni Creator Spiritus and Benediction. Vespers 
in the church. 

2 Sunday. Confessions. Mass in the chapel. At half past 
nine, in the church, baptized solemnly Nathanael Stephen 
Parker, a man of about thirty years of age, who, not hav- 
ing as yet given his name to any sect, coming to know the 

fn^duTt °^ Catholic teaching, embraced the truth, and prepared himself 
with great zeal and diligence for the reception of Baptism. 
Before Baptism, and during the administration of it, I ex- 
plained the ceremonies. At 11 A. M., assisted at High 
Mass, during which Mr. McGilligan^ preached the sermon. 
Vespers in the church. 

3 Monday. Spiritual Conference for the Seminarians on the 
dispositions with which we ought to begin the present 
year. Mr. Loisel.'' Mass in the chapel. Wrote to the 
Right Rev. Bp. of New Orleans and to Fr. De Neckere. Fr. 
Caretta' left for St. Louis ; I gave him testimonial letters 
of his Ordination. 

4 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community, as yes- 
terday. Mass in the chapel. Received a letter from Mr. 
Rozier and another from Fr. Dahmen. 

5 Wednesday. Mass early in the morning. Confessions of 
the Nuns. In the evening confessions of the Seminarians- 



1. Cr. St. Louis Catholic Historical Review, Vol. II, p. 330, n. 72. 
i. Cf. Ibid., p. 334, n. 88. 
t. Cf. Ibid., p. 331, n. 76. 

76 



DOCUMENTS 77 

6 Thursday. Epiphany. Early in the morning Confessions 
of the Brothers. At 11 o'clock, Tierce, Pontifical Mass 

LtSers'tJfFr during which sermon. Pontifical Vespers, after which ser- 
McGiiiigan mon by Mr. Paquin. Fr. McGilligan left for Ireland ; I 
gave him dimissorial letters. 

7 Friday. Chapter; went to confession; Mass in the chapel. 

8 Saturday. 1 confession. Mass in the chapel ; in the eve- 
ning Confessions of the Seminarians. 

9 Sunday. Letter to Mr. Rozier, in which I enclosed a letter 
of credit for 254-y^ dollars which, by order of the Bp. of 
New Orleans, ought to be paid to me ;* wrote 21y, to Fr.. 
Portier, a letter recommending Fr. Caretta ; 31y to Fr. 
Moni; 4th. to Fr. Borgna; 5th. to Fr- Dahmen. 

Early in the morning. Confessions of the Brothers. Mass 
in the chapel. 3 Confessions. Assisted at the High Mass, 
during which I preached on the Gospel. The public life of 
Christ cannot be imitated either by all Christians, or in 
every particular ; but the examples of his private and hid- 
den life are proposed to all Christians, and we can imitate 
it in every particular. These examples are proposed to us 
in the Gospel of today ; zeal and diligence in the worship 
of God ; humility, obedience, etc., progress in virtue etc. 
Vespers in the church, after which sermon by Mr. Vergani- 

10 Monday. Early in the morning Spiritual Conference for 
Seminarians : The imitation of the private and hidden life 
of Jesus Christ. Saucier.^ Mass in the chapel. 

11 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community: The 
exercise of the presence of God. Bro Blanka,^ and Mr. 
Paquin.'^ Mass in the chapel. Fr. Dahmen^ comes from 
Ste. Genevieve. 

12 Wednesday. Mass early in the morning. Fr. Odin^ made 
his vows. 

13 Thursday. Mass early in the morning. Conference to the 
Sisters on the imitation of the hidden life of our Lord. Fr. 
Dahmen leaves. , 

14 Friday. Early in the morning, Chapter. Went to confes- 
fession. Mass in the chapel. Fr. Cellini^" went to Kas- 
kaskia. to say Mass there, and to visit afterwards the 
Catholics dwelling in the neighborhood of that town. 



4. Cf. Ibid., 359, n. 172. 

6. Cf. Ibid., 331, n. 74. 

e. Cf. Ibid., p. 340, n. 104. 

7. Cf. Ibid., p. 329, n. 67. 

8. Cf. Ibid., p. 317, n. 17. 

9. Cf. Ibid., p. 311, n. 80. 

10 Cf. Ibid., p. 322, n. 38; p. 350, n. 141; p. 353, n. 153; p. 359, n. 172; p. 363, n 180. 

He had come to the Barrens from Louisiana on November 5, 1824. 



78 DOCUMENTS 

15 Saturday. Mass early in the morning. Confessions of the 
Nuns. In the evening confessions of the Seminarians. 

16 Ilnd Sunday after the Epiphany. Early in the morn- 
ing confessions of the Brothers. Mass at 6:15 in the 
church. Remained at home ; Fr. Odin preached. Vespers 
in the church ; sermon by Mr. Loisel. 

17 Monday. Spiritual Conference for the Seminarians: The 
zeal for our own perfection. Mass in the chapel. Tucker.^^ 

18 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community. The 
imitation of the hidden life of our Lord. 

19 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. Return of Fr. Cellini 
from the State of Illinois, where he baptized a girl of twen- 
ty years of age and gave communion to thirty persons of 
both sexes. Received a letter from Fr. De Neckere-^^ 

20 Thursday. Mass in the chapel. Received a letter from 
Fr. Niel, to whom I gave permission to draw up a petition 
to the State Legislature for the incorporation of the Col- 
lege, on the condition that the direction and administra- 
tion of said College should always remain free from all 
dependence, etc. 

21 Friday. Chapter. Went to confession. Mass in the 
chapel. Wrote: 1st., to Fr. Bigeschi ; 2nd., to Fr- Baccari 
a letter of recommendation ; 3rd., to Fr. Rosti ; 4th., to Fr. 
De Neckere; 5th.. to Fr. Potini ; 6th., to the Rt. Rev. Bp. 
Flaget. 

22 Saturday. Mass in the chapel. Confessions of the Nuns. 
In the evening confessions of the Seminarians. 

23 Third Sunday after the Epiphany. Confessions of the 
Brothers. Mass in the chapel. I did not assist at High 
Mass- Vespers in the church. 

24 Monday. The perfection of all our ordinary actions.^* 
Mass in the chapel. 

25 Tuesday. Conversion of St. Paul. Early in the morning. 
Confessions of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Assisted 
at High Mass in the church. 



U. Cf. Ibid., p. 342, n. 108. 

12. Thi» must be the letter written from .St. Michael's, La., on November 8, 1824. 
^Original in Archives of St. Louis Archdioc. Chancery). Father Rosti has gone to Grand 
Cotcau. Himself came to see Bishop Du Bourg at White Hall: the Bishop has decided to 
keep him (De Neckere) with him in New Orleans during the winter, as he thinks De 
Neckere's return to Missouri would be dangerous for his health. Saw Mrs. Smith, just con- 
valescing, before leaving Grand Cotcau; she begs earnestly I'"r .Cellini, in order to prevent 
further trouble, to annull the donation (See St. Louis Catholic Historical Ret)icw, 'Vo\. Ill, 
p. 363. n. 180). During her sickness she had signed a i)aper to the same effect. Fr. Cellini 
ought not to be permitted to go back to (irand Coteau. I'r. Porticr's has oi»ened a College 
in the F.piscopal building (old L'rsulinc Convent). A subscrijition is going on at St. 
Michaet'i for the building of the Sacred Heart Convent; has reached $2200 and there arc 
hopes of completing within a week the amount necessary. Yellow fever still prevalent 
in New Orleans. The paper referred to above was signed by Mrs. Smith and five witnesses; 
it tra* in form of will and testament; as she has recovered it has no legal value. 

IJ. Clearly the subject of the weekly conference for the .Seminarians. 



DOCUMENTS 79 

26 Wednesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community : The 
benefit of our vocation. Mass in the chapel. 

27 Thursday. Mass early in the morning. At 6 o'clock Con- 
ference to the Nuns on the Election of a new Superior. 

28 Friday. Chapter. Went to confession. Mass in the 
chapel. Wrote to the Right Rev. Bp. of New Orleans. De- 
parture of Fr. Cellini." 

29 Saturday. Mass in the chapel. In the evening Confes- 
sions of the Seminarians. 

30 Septuagesima Sunday. Early in the morning Confessions 
of the Brothers. Mass at 6 o'clock in the church. Assisted 
at High Mass in which I preached on the Sunday Gospel : 
Few are saved, because few wish to be saved, etc. Vespers 
in the church. Sermon by Mr. Saucier. 

31 Monday. Spiritual Conference for the Seminarians on 
the virtue of humility. Mr. Mascaroni.^^ Mass in the 
chapel. 

FEBRUARY. 

1 Tuesday. Mass early in the morning. At 6 o'clock con- 
fessions of the Nuns. In the evening Confessions of the 
Seminarians. 

2 Wednesday. Purification of the B. V. Early in the morn- 
ing Confessions of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. At 
8:30 went to the Convent for the election of the Superior. 
Sister Benedicta^® was elected Superior, and Sister Barbara 

decrionVAhe ^ean. At 10 o'clock went to the church for the Blessing 
Superioress of of the Caudlcs and Mass, during which I preached. At 
oi'sShem' 3 p. m. Vespers in the chapel. 

3 Thursday. Mass in the chapel. At 8 o'cflock went to the 
Convent for the installation of the Superior. I talked on 
the duties of the Superior to the Sisters, and the duties 
of the Sisters to the Superior. In the evening received 
through the mail three letters of the Rt. Rev. Bp., of New 
Orleans, of which two of the 28th of December and the 
third of January 8.^^ 



14. Cf. St. Louis Catholic Historical Review, Vol. Ill, p. 348, n. 134. 
14. He was going to Rome, by way of New Orleans. 

16. Sister Benedicta Fenwick. Ibid., Vol. 1, p. 163. 

17. Original in Archives of St. Louis Archdioc. Chancery. The first letter complains 
that Rosati wrote only once since his return to the Seminary in the preceding summer. Mrs. 
Smith was sick unto death, but has recovered. Her dispositions were that the late dona- 
tion be annulled, and after deducting from the estate what she had promised to Perrodin 
and his wife, three-quarters of the rest should, according to the S"tate law, go to her 
mother, and the remainder to the Congregation of the Mission. Bishop Rosati should ob- 
tain from Fr. Cellini that the latter deed the property to a board of priests of the Congre- 
gation who would hold it in trust under certain conditions. The donation inter z-ivos to 
Fr. Cellini, most ill-advised, yet is valid before the law. It must be rendered equitable, by 
enabling the donor to fulfill previous obigations; and the means here proposed would have 
this effect. Bishop Rosati should oppose Cellini's return to Grand Coteau; should he come 



80 DOCUMENTS 

4 Friday. Chapter. Went to Confession. Mass in the 
chapel. Wrote to the Rt. Rev. Bp. of New Orleans. 

5 Saturday. Mass in the chapel. Received a letter from 
Fr. Niel through a girl whom he wished to be received in 
the Convent. In the evening Confessions of the Semi- 
narians. 

6 Sexagesima Sunday. Early in the morning Confessions 
of the Brothers. Mass in the church. Heard confes- 
sions at home. Assisted at High Mass in the church and 
preached on the Sunday Gospel. Vespers in the church ; 
sermon by Mr. Paquin. 



bacfl icvenheless he will be suspended. — Bishop Rosati should open negociations with the 
holders of the title to the Church block in St. Louis, in order to purchase that title from 
them: he could offer to pay $500.00 annually for six years, and secure at once the title 
made to himself and the Ecclesiastical Superior of the Church of St. Louis. — Fr. Niel may 
be given either his Exeat or Dimissorial letters ad tcmpus, as Bp. Rosati will deem it fit. 
He ought not to be entrusted with the getting of a collection in Europe. That Fr. Janvier 
come to St. Louis to take his place is out of question. — Father Audizio insists on a change; 
he might do well at Kaskaskia; otherwise, may be sent down, and given as assistant to t'r. 
Millet who has consumption. — Send Carretta at once to Lower Louisiana. Fr. De Neckere 
is spending the winter at St. Michael's, and doing well. Everybody at Grand Coteau is well 
pleased with Fr. Rosti. At St. Joseph's all is well; and so is Father Tichitoli. — Approves 
the regulations introduced by Bishop Flaget in the Loretines' Rule. — When a note of Rosati 
to Rozier is paid, there will remain of the money sent by the Pope $254.25 — Send an Ordo 
ferpetuus. 

2nd Letter of same date (the former had been really written on December 27, but was 
posted only the next day). Received your two letters postmarked November 22. You are 
complaining: though I am pained at some of your expressions, I understand your feelings. 
Your determination to withdraw from Lower Louisiana all your subjects is unjust, inso- 
far as it is contrary to our agreements and a poor recognition of my willingness to part, in 
favor of your Congregation, with excellent subjects. In view of these circumstances, sus- 
pend all transactions in my name concerning the Church property in St. Louis. I will have 
also to call to Lower I^uisiana those of my priests who are in Missouri. — ^Ilave nothing to 
say in regard to your projects touching Mrs. Smith's property, or your arrangements con- 
cerning Fr. Potini, which I deem fraught with danger. — Impossible to go to Missouri in the 
spring; have had trouble and expense enough in Louisiana. — You are mistaken in believing 
that Fr. De Neckere does not fare better in the Soutli. If you recall him you will be answer- 
able for his death. Should you take Fr. Rosti from Grand Coteau, then you must send me 
Fr. Saulnier to replace him. — Do not dispose of Fr. Audizio until you hear again from me. 

The original of the third letter is dated January 9, 1825. Bishop Du Bourg confesses 
that his preceding letter was written under the influence of a strong emotion, caused by 
Kosati's letter of November 22, 1824. He is now perfectly si'lf-possessed. 1° Rosati should 
.icccpt .Mrs. Smith's donation. Himself (Du Bourg) wrote so to Mrs. Smith before F'r. 
Cellini's departure; but received no answer, as Rosati himself received no answer from 
her. If, therefore, she remains firm in her intention (which is doubtful), Rosati must ac- 
cept. Still Mt. Perrodin has a right to some part of the estate, as is evident from his own 
testimony, and the testimony of Frs. Jeanjean and Brass.ic. Mrs. Smith may have for- 
gotten her promises; but ecjuity demands they should be fulfilled, even though strictly speak- 
ing the law might be against his claim, which is not certain, for lawyers push him to bring 
the matter to court (whicli he refuses to do), and offer their services gratis. Anyway 
Relipon cannot be served at the expens of equity and justice; and a lawsuit would be a 
tremendous scandal. — 2° Mrs. Smith map be encouraged to go to the Barrens. But Rosati 
would be wrong to centralize in Missouri all his resources in men and material means of 
support. The property offered in the La Fourchc District for a Seminary will prove a good 
source of income. Should Rosati refuse to start this new cstablshment, then he (Du Bour^) 
»,ouId have to look elsewhere, and would b<- obliged to claim the jtrict of his holdings in 
Missouri: the mill, the St. Louis lots, the River des Peres property and the negroes. More- 
over, having a house in L<»uisiana would permit to utilise the subjects who ciniiot stand the 
climate of Missouri, and would eventually increase the chances of multiplying vocations. 
Calling back Frs. De Neckere, Tichitoli and Borgna will be tantamount to condemn them 
to death. Rosati is right in deprecating the isolation of his men: the remedy is to have in 
Louisiana a common ccnlt-r, which will be affordtfl by the establishment at La Fourche. 
If he calls back Rosti from Grand Coteau, he must send down Saulnier; for every one 
whom Rosati recalls to Missouri Du Bourg will call one of his priests from Missouri. — 
Pritini gives subject of concern. — Rosati's reproaches concerning the ajipointment of De 
Neckere to Grand Coteau arc based upon incorrect understanding of the facts. — Fr. An- 
duze went too far when he threatened Ceillini with censure. — Bishop Flaget writes that 
among Fr. .N^-rinckx's papers some letters were found in which Rosati encouraged his in- 
tention of leaving Kentucky and pass over Missouri: the good Bishop was very much af- 
fected by this discoverv. — Du Bourg is anxious to have an answer, which he hopes will 
be according to bis wishes. 



DOCUMENTS 81 

7 Monday. Spiritual Conference for the Seminarians : Nec- 
essity and qualities of prayer. Mr. Feigan.^^ Mass in 
the chapel. Received a letter from Fr. Audisio. Answered 
the Rt. Rev. Bp. of New Orleans.^" 

8 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community, on 
the government of the tongue : Motives ; Means. Bro. 

Fr."Nie*r Harriugton.^^ Mass in the chapel. Wrote letters: 1st., 

to Fr. Niel, in answer to various queries : (a) Women of 
bad character, living in places of debauchery ought to be 
separated from the communion of the Church, and received 
only when they have repaired the scandal; (b) All those 
who, in contempt of the Church's laws, contract marriage 
before the Judge, are to be separated from the church ; and 
dn order to prevent anyone from invoking the plea of 
ignorance, for three consecutive Sundays the people are to 
be publicly warned that henceforward those who will con- 
tract such marriages, or who, having contracted them, will 
neglect to be reconciled with the Church, will be refused 
ecclesiastical communion; 2nd., to Fr. Audisio; 3rd., to 
Fr. Dahmen. 

9 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. Confessions. 

10 Thursday. Mass in the same place. 

11 Friday. Chapter. Went to confession. Mass in the same 
place. 

12 Saturday. Mass early in the morning. At 6 o'clock Con- 
fessions of the Nuns. In the evening. Confessions of 
the Seminarians. 

13 Quinquagesima Sunday. Early in the morning Confes- 
sions of the Brothers. Mass at 6 o'clock in the church. 
Assisted at High Mass in which Fr. Odin preached. After 
Mass I talked to the people about enlarging the present 
church before Easter. Vespers in the church. 

14 Monday. Early in the morning Spiritual Conference for 
the Seminarians on the proper keeping of the Lenten sea- 
son: Motives; Means. Mr. Thompson.'^ Mass in the 
chapel. 

15 Tuesday. Early in the morning. Spiritual Conference of 
the Community, as yesterday. Mass in the chapel. Wrote 
1st., to Fr. Dahmen; 2nd., to Mr. Rozier. 



18. What this letter, which has not been preserved, may have been like, we may 
well gather from the first words of Bishop Du Bourg in answer thereto: "My good and 
very Dear Brother: Your last two letters filled my soul with sorrow, by manifesting to me 
the pain which your own soul is filled with. There was a misunderstanding; and yet our 
hearts were made to live in unison. Now all is cleared up." 

19. Cf. St. Louis CathoKc Historical Review, Vol. Ill, p. 349, n. 139. 

20. See above, Note 18. 

21. Cf. St. Louis Catholic Historical Review, Vol. Ill, p. 346, n. 124. 

22. Cf. Ibid., p. 344, n. 120. 



g2 DOCUMENTS 

16 Wednesday. Early in the morning G)nfessions. Mass in 
the chapel. Excavations made for the foundations of the 
addition to the old church. At 10 A. M., Pontifical Bless- 
ing of the Ashes. Preached- High Mass by Fr. Odin. 

17 Thursday. Mass in the chapel. 

18 Friday. Early in the morning, Chapter. Mass in the 
chapel. Went to Confession. 

19 Saturday. Mass early in the morning in the chapel. Con- 
fessions of the Nuns. In the evening Confessions of the 
Seminarians. 

20 1st. Sunday in Lent. Early in the morning Confessions 
of the Brothers- Mass at 6 o'clock in the Church. As- 
sisted at High Mass ; preached on the Sunday Gospel : 
Christ going into the desert, fasting in the desert, and 
joining prayer to fasting, tempted by the devil, etc., gives 
us examples how we should fly from the world, etc., etc. 
Vespers in the church ; sermon by Mr. Hamilton. 

21 Monday. Early in the morning Spiritual Conference for 
the Seminarians (Mr. Labadie^^), on the necessity and 
qualities of mental prayer or Meditation. Mass in the 
chapel. 

22 Tuesday. Early in the morning Spiritual Conference of 
the Community, on the necessity and qualities of Medita- 
tion : Bro. Palelli-* and Mr. Timon- Mass in the chapel. 

23 Wednesday. Mass early in the morning, during which 
Bro. Sargiano'^'^ made his vows. Fr. Odin and Mr. Timon 
set out, etc. 

24 Thursday. Mass in the chapel. Conference to the Nuns 
on the virtues to be specially practiced during the Lenten 
season. Examination of the Novices and the Postulants. 
In the evening, through the mail, received letters from the 
Bp. of New Orleans, of January 3 ;^*' one from Fr- Tichi- 
toli of January 8; another of January 13; from Fr. Biges- 
chi, of January 14; from Fr. Saulnier, St. Louis, January 
31 ; and from Fr. Dahmen, of today. 

25 Friday. Early in the morning, Chapter. Went to Con- 
fession. Mass in the chapel. 



M. Cf. Ibid., p. 345, n. 122. 

2*. Cf. Ibid., p. 344. n. 117. 

i». Cf. Ibid., p. 341, n. 107. 

2«. Original in archive* of St. Louiii Archdioc. Chancery. This letter had been solicited 
by a certain J. C. Chignard. who had come to St. Louis in 1818 from Martinica, a.sking to 
be ordained, and had left in rath<r suspicious circumstances. Since then, he had roamed 
much through the United States, had gone back to France, and finally returned to New 
Orleans, begging Bishop Du llourg to receive him in the S'eminary. His disedifying con- 
duct in the past in New Orleans prevents the Hishop from accepting him; but perhaps Bp. 
Ro«ati could see his way of receiving him for his future Diocese. — Bishop Rosati did not 
■ee hit way, and declined to receive him in the Seminary. 



DOCUMENTS 83 

26 Saturday. Early in the morning, Confessions of the Sis- 
Ordination ^^^^- ^^ ^ o'clock in the church said Pontifical low Mass 
No. 6 and ordained to the Deaconship Peter Verg-ani " and 

John Paquin,28clerics of our Congregation. In the eve- 
ning Confessions of the Seminarians. Answered Fr. Saui- 
nier affirmatively in regard to the girl who wishes to 
come to the Convent. 

27 2nd. Sunday in Lent. Early in the morning, Confessions 
of the Brothers. Mass at 6 o'clock in the church. Con- 
fessions. Assisted at High Mass, during which I preached 
on today's Gospel. After Mass, election of the Trustees 
of the parish : 1st., John Moore; 2nd., John Bapt. Moran- 
ville;" 3rd., Francis Miles. It will be their duty to collect 
every year from the Congregation fifty dollars for the 
lights, the altar wine and other expenses ; and to see that 
at the proper time the stones, the lumber, lime, etc. are 
prepared for the building of the new church. John Moore 
will attend to the collection in 1825; John Bapt. Moran- 
ville, in 1826; and Francis Miles in 1827. Vespers in the 
church. Received letters from Frs. Niel and Saulnier. 

28 Monday. Early in the morning Spiritual Conference for 
the Seminarians, on interior mortification. Mass in the 
chapel. Answered the Bp. of New Orleans, declaring I 
could not receive Mr. Chignard in the Seminary. 

MARCH. 

1 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community, as 
Register ycstcrday. Mass in the chapel. Answered Fr. Niel, and sent 
No. 7 him testimonal letters in view of the collection etc. 

2 Wednesday. One Confession. Mass in the chapel. 

3 Thursday. Mass in the chapel. Conference to the Nuns. 

4 Friday. Chapter. Went to confession. Mass in the chapel. 

5 Saturday. Mass early in the chapel. Confessions of the 
Nuns. In the evening Confessions of the Seminarians. 

6 Ilird Sunday in Lent. Confessions of the Brothers. Mass 
at 6 o'clock in the church. During High Mass preached. 
Vespers in the church. 

7 Monday. Spiritual Conference to the Seminarians." 
Mass in the chapel. 



IT. Cf. St. Louis Catholic Historical Review. Vol. Ill, p. 342, n. 109. 

28. A lapsus calami: the baptismal name of Paquin was Joseph. 

29. A nephew of the saintly Father Moranvilie of Fells Point, Md. Had come west 
with Bishop Du Bourg in 1817 and settled at the Barrens, where he married later on; 
some of his descendants are still in Perryville, Mo. 

80. Blank Space, evidently left to write the subject of the conference. 



84 DOCUMENTS 

8 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Couunity. ^^ Mass 
in the chapel. 

9 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. 

10 Thursday. Conference to the Nuns. Mass in the chapel. 

11 Friday. Chapter. Went to confession. Mass in the chapel. 

12 Saturday. Mass in the same place. Confessions of the 
Nuns. In the evening Confessions of the Seminarians. 

13 IVth Sunday in Lent. Confessions of the Brothers. Mass 
at 6 o'clock in the church. During High Mass preached. 
Vespers in the church. 

14 Monday. Spiritual Conference to the Seminarians. ^^ 
Mass in the chapel. 

15 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community. '^ 
Mass in the same place. 

16 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. 

17 Thursday. Mass in the same place. Conference to the 
Nuns. 

18 Friday. Chapter. Went to confession. Mass in the same 
place. Confessions of the Seminarians. 

19 Saturday. S. Joseph. Confessions of the Brothers. Mass in 
the chapel. High Mass in the church. 

20 Passion Sunday. Mass in the church at 6 o'clock. During 
Dimissoriai High Mass preached. Vespers in the church. After Vespers 
A?chb^°o/''^ received most welcome news of the return of Fr. Borgna ^* 
to^Mr* Bouiiier ^° ^^^ Orleans. Greeted Fr. De Neckere, who had landed 
for this Mission at Bfazeau with Mr. BouUier, ^^ subdeacon from Lyons. 

31 Monday. Early in the morning Spiritual Conference to 
the Seminarians on the thought of the Passion of Christ. 
Mass in the chapel. At 4 o'clock, arrival of Fr. Permoli, ^® 



•1. Do. 

31. Do. 

83. Do. 

34. Cf. St. Louis Catholic Historical Review, Vol. Ill, p. 144, n. 3. He had returned 
to New Orleans on January 27, 1825. 

36. "John Boullicr was born in Roanne, Loire, (France), in the Diocese of Lyons on 
September 12, 1801. He was the son of a well-to-do silk merchant. But the bright hopes 
which the world might hold out for him did not tempt him. Fervently and generously he 
gave himself to God early in life, and gave himself unreservedly. Not satisfied with leav- 
ing the world to embrace the clerical state, he determined to complete the sacrifice by 
leaving his native country, in order to bring help to the souls scattered through the vast 
region of America. He had not yet completed his theological studies, but was already in 
subdeacon'* orders when, hearing of the rlcparture of some evanK>--lical laborers for Mis- 
souri, he joined them" (Notice of Father John Boullier, C. M., 1801— 1HS3; in Archives 
of the Mother House of the Congregation of the Mission, Paris). Mr. Boullier was one of 
the recruits made by Father Anthony Blanc during a trip to France in 1824. 

8«. Father Bernard I'ermoli, C. M., was born at Piacenza, Italy, on February 26, 1797. 
Entered in the Novitiate in Rome, the 2Sth of November, 1815, he was some time later 
■rat back to the Alberoni College in his native City, as a student. There he made his vows 
and was ordained in due lime. When Father Borgna returned to America, in the fall of 
1824, be obtained to take along with him Vr. Permoli. (Archives of the Free. Gen. of the 
C. M., Rome. America P. IL Priests of the Congregation). 



DOCUMENTS 



85 



unersTArch-P'"'^^^ °^ ^^^ Congregation from Rome, sent here with Fr. 
bishop of ^^ Borgna and of Mr. Chalon " cleric from Lyons. Through 
Ch^ufn" "^ them I received letters: 1st from Italy, of Frs. Baccari, 
De Pace Sr.. Ceracchi, De Pietri ; two of my brothers, one 
of my brother-in-law, one of my cousin Rosati and another 
of my cousin Senese, and one of Fr. Acquaroni ^^ ; 2nd, 
from Louisiana, of Frs. Rosti, Tichitoli, Borgna, Brassac, 
Portier, Bigeschi ; a most beautiful golden chasuble, a pec- 
toral cross of gilded silver, etc. 

Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community, as yes- 
terday. Mass in the chapel. 
Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. 

Thursday. Mass in the same place. Conference to the 
Nuns. Confessions of the Seminarians. 
Friday. Feast of the Annunciation of the B. V. Celebrated 
Pontifical Mass in the Nuns chapel, where I received the 
vows of four Novices and gave first communion to the 
girls etc., etc. Exposition of the Bl. Sacrament. 
Saturday. Mass in the chapel. Today the new sanctuary 
added to the old church was completed, and the altar was 
placed in it. 

Palm Sunday. Mass in the Community chapel. Blessing of 
the Palms, Procession, to which I assist in cope ; preached. 
Vespers in the same place. 
Monday. Mass in the chapel. 
Tuesday. Mass in the same place. 

Wednesday. Mass in the same place. Confessions of the 
Nuns in the morning, and of the Seminarians in the after- 
noon. Office of Tenebrae in the church. 
31 Maundy Thursday. Confessions. Solemn Pontifical Mass 
in the church ; preached after the Gospel. Communion of 

Consecration of *^^ Clergy and of a very great number of persons present. 

the H. Oils Consecration of the Holy Oils of the Catechumens, of the 
sick and the Holy Chrism. After Vespers washed the feet 
of twelve clerics. In the afternoon Office of Tenebrae etc. 



22 

23 

24 

25 



Vows of four 
Lorettines at 
Bethlehem 



26 

27 

28 
29 
30 



APRIL 

Good Friday. Performed the function in the church. In 
the afternoon Offite of Tenebrae. 

Holy Saturday. Blessing of the fire, of the Fount, etc., and 
celebrated Pontifical Mass in the church. In the evening 
Confessions of the Seminarians. 



3T. Gabriel Stanislaus Chalon, was born at Sury, in the diocese of Lyons, France, on 
January 30, 1805 and was a cousin of Father, later Bishop, Michael Portier. He had not 
yet received tonsure when he came to the Seminary. 

38. Cf. St. Louis Catholic Historical Review, Vol. Ill, p. 318, n. 20. 



86 DOCUMENTS 

3 Easter Sunday. Confessions in the church. After the 
chanting of Tierce, celebrated solemn Pontifical Mass in 
the church, during which Mr. Timon preached the ser- 
mon. Pontifical Vespers in the church. 

4 Monday. Mass in the chapel. Confessions. Assisted in 
cope at the High Mass and preached. Vespers in the church. 

5 Tuesday. Mass in the chapel. Vespers in the church. 

6 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. 

7 Thursday. Conference to the Nuns. Mass in the chapel. 

8 Friday. Chapter. Went to confession. Mass in the chapel. 

9 Saturday. Confessions of the Nuns. Mass in the same 
place. Confessions of the Seminarians. 

10 Low Sunday. Confessions of the Brothers. Mass in the 
chapel. Assisted at High Mass ; preached. Confessions in 
the church. Vespers. 

1 1 Monday. Spiritual Conference for the Seminarians. " 
Mass in the same place. 

12 Tuesday. Conference of the Commtmity. *° Mass in the 
same place. 

13 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. 

14 Thursday. Conference to the Nuns. Mass in the chapel. 

15 Friday. Chapter. Went to Confession. Mass in the chapel. 

16 Saturday. Confessions of the Nuns. Mass in the same 
place. Confessions of the Seminarians. 

17 Hnd Sunday after Easter. Confessions of the Brothers. 
Mass in the chapel. Confessions in the church. High Mass. 
Fr. Odin preached. 

18 Monday. Spiritual Conference for the Seminarians. ** 
Mass in the same place. 

19 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community. ** 
Mass in the same place. 

20 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. 

21 Thursday. Conference to the Nuns. Mass in the san%e 
place. 

22 Friday. Chapter. Went to Confession. Mass in the chapel. 

23 Saturday. Confessions of the Nuns. Mass in the same 
place. Confessions of the Seminarians. 



••. S'pacc for the •ubject Irft blank. 

««. Do. 

«i. Do. 

43. Do. 



DOCUMENTS 87 

24 Illrd Sunday after Easter. Confessions of the Brothers. 
Mass in the chapel. Confessions in the church. Assisted at 
High Mass and preached. Vespers in the church. 

25 Monday. Feast of St. Mark. Mass in the chapel. Litany 
and solemn Procession in Pontifical vestments. High Mass. 

26 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community. Mass 
in the chapel. 

27 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. 

28 Thursday. Conference to the Nuns. Mass in the chapel. 

29 Friday. Chapter. Went to confession. Mass in the same 
place. 

30 Saturday. Mass in the chapel. Confessions of the Nuns. 
In the eveneing Confessions of the Seminarians. 

MAY 

1 IVth Sunday after Easter. Mass in the chapel. Confessions 
of the Brothers. Confessions in the church. Assisted at 
High Mass, and preached. Vespers in the church. 

2 Monday. Spiritual Conference for the Seminarians. ** 
Mass in the chapel. 

3 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community. Mass 
in the chapel. High Mass in the church. 

4 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. 

5 Thursday. Conference to the Nuns. Mass in the chapel. 

6 Friday. Chapter. Went to Confession. Mass in the chapel, 

7 Saturday. Confessions of the Nuns. Mass in the chapel. 
In the evening Confessions of the Seminarians. 

8 Vth Sunday after Easter. Confessions of the Brothers. 
Mass in the chapel. Confessions in the church. Assisted at 
High Mass and preached. Vespers in the church. 

9 Monday. Rogations. Mass in the chapel. Litany, Procession 
and High Mass in the church. 

10 Tuesday. Rogations. Everything as yesterday. 

11 Wednesday. Rogations. Everything as yesterday. In the 
evening Confessions of the Seminarians. 

12 Thursday. Accension of our Lord Jesus Christ. Confes- 
sions of the Brothers, also of the people in the church. 
After the chanting of Tierce I celebrated pontifical Mass 
and preached. Pontifical Vespers in the church. 

13 Friday. Chapter. Went to confession. Mass in the chapel. 

14 Saturday. Mass in the chapel. In the evening Confessions 
of the Seminarians. 



48. Do. 



88 DOCUMENTS 

15 Sunday within the Octave of the Ascension. Confessions 
of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Confessions at home. 
Assisted at High Mass and preached. Vespers in the 
church. 

16 Monday. Spiritual Conference to the Seminarians on the 
necessity of vocation and the means to know it. Mass in 
chapel. I sent Thomas Moore, ** who has a bad cough and 
suffers in the chest, to Mr. James for his health. 

17 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community on the 
preparation for the feast of Pentecost. Mass in the chapel. 

18 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. 

19 Thursday. Mass early in the morning in the chapel. Con- 
ference to the Nuns on the preparation for the feast of 
Pentecost, and on the obedience to be shown to the Su- 
periors in regard to the various changes which may be 
made in the Rules. 

20 Friday. Chapter. Went to confession. Mass in the chapel. 
Received letters from Fr. Dahmen, Fr. Van Quickenborne 
and Mother Eugenie.*^ 

21 Saturday, eve of the Pentecost. Early in the morning Con- 
fessions of the Nuns. At 9 o'clock I blessed the Fount in the 
church and celebrated solemn Pontifical Mass. At 2:15 
P.M. Confessions of the Seminarians. 

22 Pentecost Sunday. Early in morning Confessions of the 
Brothers at home, then Confessions of the parishioners in 
the church. At 11 o'clock, after the chanting of Tierce I cel- 
ebrated solemn Pontifical Mass, during which Mr. Timon 
preached the sermon. Sent letters: 1st., to the Bp. of New 
Orleans ; 2nd., to Fr. Borgna ; 3rd., to Fr. Rosti ; 4th., to 
Fr. Acquaroni. Pontifical Vespers in the church, after 
which I heard one Confession. 

23 Monday. Mass in the chapel. Two Confessions. Assisted 
at High Mass in pontifical vestments; after Mass addressed 

Confirtn ^" exhortation to the candidates for Confirmation, and ad- 

27 ministered Confirmation to 27 boys and girls. At 3 P. M. 

Vespers in the church. 

24 Tuesday. Confessions of four Brothers and one extern. 
Mass in the chapel. High Mass in the church. 

25 Wednesday of the Ember Week. In the morning, during 
meditation time in the Community chapel, I received Bro. 
Leonard Smith among the Brothers of the Congregation, 
after an exhortation. 2 Confessions. Mass in the chapel. 
Arrival of Frs. Olivier ** and Dahmen. Had the fever. 



«4. Cf. St. Louit Catholic Historical Review, Vol. III. p. 330, n. 75 

«>. MaHame Eugenia Aude, Superioress of the S. Heart, at Grand Coteau. 

**. Father Donatian Olivier, the venerable Missionary of Prairie du Rocher, III. 



DOCUMENTS 89 

26 Thursday. I did not say Mass, owing to sickness. 

27 Friday. Did not say Mass. Departure of Frs. Olivier and 
Dahmen. 

28 Saturday. Did not say Mass ; neither did I hear the Con- 
fessions of the Seminarians. 

29 Trinity Sunday. Heard Mass in the chapel. 

30 Monday. Did not say Mass. 

31 Tuesday. Did not say Mass. 

JUNE 

1 Wednesday. Said Mass in the chapel. In the evening heard 
the Confessions of the Seminarians. 

2 Thursday. Feast of Corpus Christi. Said Mass in the 
chapel. Celebrated Pontifical Vespers and carried the Bl. 
Sacrament at the Solemn Procession. Sermon by Mr. 
Tim on. 

3 Friday. Mass in the chapel. 

4 Saturday. Mass in the chapel. In the evening Confessions 
of the Seminarians. 

5 Sunday within the Octave of Corpus Christi. Confessions 
of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Assisted at Vespers. 

6 Monday. Spiritual Conference for the Seminarians, on 
the Devotion to the Holy Eucharist. Mass in the chapel. 

7 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community, on the 
Devotion to etc. Mass in the chapel. 

8 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. Received a letter of Fr. 
Richard. " Wrote to Uncle Gaetano. 

9 Thursday. Mass early in the morning. Conference to the 
Nuns on the Bl. Sacrament. 

10 Friday. 1 Confession. Chapter. Mass during Meditation. 
Mr. Timon made his vows. Went to confession. Wrote to 
Fr. Saulnier, asking him to inquire whether a means could 
be found in St. Louis to send money to Arkansas to pay 
taxes for the church property. ** 

11 Saturday. Mass early in the morning. Confessions of the 
Nuns. In the evening Confessions of the Seminarians. 

12 IlIrd Sunday after Pentecost. Early in the morning Con- 
fessions of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel, after which 
heard the Confessions of some parishioners. Assisted at 
High Mass, during which I preached on drunkenness. "Do 



47. Father Gabriel Richard, P. S". S., of Detroit. 

48. The church property here mentioned seems to be the property donated to the 
Bishop by Mr. J. F. Mulletti (cf.-^f. Louis Catholic Historical Review, Vol. Ill, p. 351, 
n. 143). 



90 DOCUMENTS 

not err : neither fornicators, nor adulterers . . . nor drunk- 
ards. . . .shall possess the kingdom of God." I Cor. v, ii. *" 
Thus did the Apostle speak to Christians recently converted 
to the true faith from the superstitions of paganism. Such 
was the corruption of pagan morals, that the worst vices 
were indulged in without the least restraint or the least 
shame by countless numbers. "Do not err" etc., said the 
Apostle. The religion which you are professing is holy etc. 
Oh, would to God that in our times the faithful born in the 
bosom of our most holy church, nurtured from their very 
first days with the milk of her most holy and pure doctrine, 
should not be in need of the like admonitions ! But, alas ! 
adultery, theft, drunkenness fill the earth. Drunkenness is 
prevalent everywhere, neither etc. One would think it has 
become lawful. "Do not err," my Brethren, etc., drunkards 
shall not possess the kingdom of God. Would that I were 
able to impress upon your minds an horror for this horrible 
vice. I shall endeavor to do so, by showing you that the 
drunkard is his own worst enemy, insofar as he hates all 
the goods which could be his, either in this Hfe or in the 
next. To three general kinds may all these goods be re- 
duced: 1. the goods of fortune; 2. natural goods; 3. Super- 
natural goods. To all these goods the drunkard is opposed, 
aijd this in a most particular way. For it was said in general 
of all sinners that "they that commit sin, are enemies to 
their own souls" "^ ; however, deluded by the appearance 
of some good, they mistake temporal things for the things 
eternal, and the false for the true. But what will the drunk- 
ard receive in exchange for his soul which he sacrifices? 
Nothing. Riches etc. ; honors ; pleasure, etc. ; none of these; 
nay more, he jeopardizes his natural goods ; his health, his 
intellectual faculties, his life itself etc.. and moreover, his 
supernatural goods ; grace, merits, glory, etc., etc. Vespers 
in the church. 

13 Monday. Spiritual Conference for the Seminarians, on 
avoiding tepidity as injurious to God, the neighbor and our- 
selves. Mass in the chapel. 

14 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Commuity. '^ Mass 
in the chapel. 

15 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. Went to confession. 

16 Thursday. Mass in the chapel. 

17 F"riday. Chapter. Went to confession. Mass in the chapel. 



«•. Bishop Roaati muit have written this refereaoe from memory; the text quoted Vy 
kill) ii found in / Cor. ri, 9. 
•o. Tcb. xii, 10. 
ti. Space iot tbe tubject left blank. 



DOCUMENTS 91 

18 Saturday. Mass early in the morning. Confessions of the 
Nuns. In the evening Confessions of the Seminarians. 

19 IVth Sunday after Pentecost. Early in the morning Con- 
fessions of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Confessions. 
Assisted at High Mass during which I preached on the 
various manners of cooperating in the sin of drunkenness. 
Vespers in the church. 

20 Monday. Spiritual Conference for the Seminarians, on 
the means to be employed for avoiding tepidity. 1. the de- 
sire of fervor ; 2. prayer ; 3. vigilance ; 4. eschewing small 
defects, etc. Mass in the chapel. Return of Father De 
Neckere from a Mission to the Catholics of the State of 
Illinois, and Kaskaskia. In the evening Confessions of the 
Seminarians. 

21 Tuesday. Mass in the chapel. High Mass in the church, 
during which the panegyric of St. Aloysius Gonzaga was 
preached in EngHsh by Mr. Saucier. Vespers and Compline 
in the church, 

22 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. 

23 Thursday. Mass in the chapel. Received a letter from Fr. 
Saulnier. 

24 Friday. In the morning Confessions of the Brothers. 
Went to Confession. Mass in the chapel. Assisted at High 
Mass in the church. Vespers and Compline in the chapel. 

25 Saturday. (Fr. De Neckere heard the Confessions of the 
Nuns). Mass in the chapel. In the evening Confessions of 
the Seminarians. Received a barrel of sugar and a sack of 
coffee from Fr. Borgna of New Orleans. "^^ 

26 Vth Sunday after Pentecost. Confessions of the Brothers. 
Mass in the chapel. Assisted at High Mass in the church, 
during which I preached on vanity in dress, and showed 
it to be opposed to Religion, chastity and justice. Vespers 
in the church, 

27 Monday. Spiritual Conference for the Seminarians, on the 
exercise of the presence of God. Mr. Loisel, Mass in the 
chapel. Answered Fr. Saulnier's letter. 

28 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community, on the 
care to be taken on small things, whether good or evil. Bro. 
Pifferi ", Mr. Timon. Mass in the chapel. In the evening 
Confessions of the Seminarians. 

29 Wednesday. In the morning Confessions of the Brothers. 
Pontifical Mass in the church after the chanting of Tierce, 
Pontifical Vespers in the church. Received the following 
letters: L of Fr. Baccari, 15 February of this year; decree 



82. This whole sentence is written in French in the Diary. 

e«. Cf. St. Louis Catholic Historical Review. Vol. Ill, p. 343, n. 116. 



92 DOCUMENTS 

of the same for this Mission ; 2. of Fr. Boccardo, Genoa. 
September 27, 1824; of the Bishop of New Orleans, two 
May 24" and 26"; 4. of Fr. Borgna, May 28; 5. of Fr. 
Dahmen, to whom the aforementioned letters were ad- 
dressed, and who, being absent from Ste. Genevieve, was 
unable to forward them sooner. 
30 Thursday.Mass in the chapel. Received a letter from Fr. 
Niel written from Washington. 

JULY 

1 Friday. Went to Confession. Heard two Confessions. 
Chapter. Mass in the chapel. 

2 Saturday. Mass in the chapel. Started a letter to Fr. Bac- 
cart. In the evening Confessions of the Seminarians. 

3 Vlth Sunday after Pentecost. Confessions of the Brothers. 
Mass in the chapel. Confessions. Letter to Fr. Baccari, 
Vespers in the church. 

4 Monday. Mass in the chapel. 

5 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community, on the 
zeal for our own perfection. 

6 Wednesday. 1 Confession. Mass in the chapel. 

7 Thursday. Mass early in the morning. Conference to the 
Nuns. 

8 Friday. Chapter. Went to confession. Heard 1 Confes- 
sion. Mass in the chapel. 

9 Saturday. Mass early in the morning. Confessions of the 
Nuns. In the evening Confessions of the Seminarians. 

10 Vllth Sunday after Pentecost. Confessions of the Brothers. 
Mass in the chapel. Confession of a lay person. At half 
past eight, I administered solemn Baptism to an adult, 
an adult named Eugene Evans, after an exhortation and explammg 

the ceremonies. During High Mass I preached on the neces- 
sity of knowing the law of God. Vespers in the church, 
after which sermon by Mr. Saucier. 



54. Drijfinal in .\rchivcs of St. F.ouis .\rchdioc. Chancery. Thanks Rosati for announc- 
ing the arrival of two youni? negrcsscs. Advises him to come flown to Louisiana to treat 
different affairs which cannot he communicated by letter; will pay trip expenses. For this 
reason refuses to Fr. BorKna, who, anyway has been absent too much, to go up to the 
Barren^.— N coming from Florida; has placed Fr. Ganihl at Mobile; Fr. Maenhaut is well 
pleased at Pen^acola. — No Sifters can be sent from Kentucky: their rule was too austere and 
rapidly undermining the health of many. I^ct the Sisters of Fiethlehem .idopt the same miti- 
gation of their rule as will be imposed upon the Kentucky Sisters. — Fr. Martial has come to 
Sew Orleans to recruit boys for the College of I'.ardstown; takes everything, good and bad; 
there is rumor that one of those he took along was killed by his schoolmates at Louisville. 

5». Original in Archives of St. I^uis Archdioc. Chancery. — A pious Irish widow, very 
industrious, wishes to be received in the Monastery of Rethlehem. One of her boys is 
learning a trade; she would take with her a girl of hers, aged 9, and pay $50.00 yearly to 
the Convent for her; and would place her boy, of the same age, at the Seminary, paying 
1100.00 for him annually. — Urges again Rosati to come South. — Do not change Rosti and 
Potinl. Cellini has sailed. It is rumored that Tichitoli is thinking of going back to Milan. 
Refuse him the permission, and send hlni to me. 



DOCUMENTS 93 

11 Monday. Spiritual Conference for the Seminarians. Mo- 
tives and means of avoiding venial sins. Mass in the chapel. 

12 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community : That 
we ought to perform our ordinary actions well. Mass in the 
chapel. 

13 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. 

15 Thursday. Mass early in the chapel. Conference to the 
Nuns, on the obligation to tend to perfection. 

15 Friday. Chapter. Went to confession. Mass in the chapel. 

16 Saturday. Mass early in the morning. Confessions of the 
Nuns. In the evening Confession of the Seminarians. 

17 Vlllth Sunday after Pentecost. Confessions of the Broth- 
ers. Mass in the chapel ; preached at High Mass. Vespers 
in the church. 

18 Monday. Mass in the chapel. Pontifical first Vespers in the 
church. In the evening Confessions of the Seminarians. 

19 Tuesday. St. Vincent de Paul. Confessions of the 
Brothers. Pontifical Mass in the church, during which 
panegyric by Mr. Timon. Pontifical Vespers in the church. 

20 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. 

21 Thursday. Mass in the same place. 

22 Friday. Mass in the same place. Chapter. Went to con- 
fession. At 5 P. M. I left the Seminary, on my way down 
to Louisiana, according to the desire of the Right Rev. Bp. 
of New Orleans, in order to have with him a talk about 
certain affairs regarding the good of our Congregation and 
of the whole Diocese. At 9 o'clock, we reached Mr. James', 
where we took supper and spent the night. 

23 Saturday. Early in the morning we set out, and came to 
Ste. Genevieve at 6 o'clock. 

24 IVth Sunday after Pentecost. Mass in the church of Ste. 
Genevieve. 

25 Monday. In the same place. 

26 Tuesday. In the same place. 

27 Wednesday. Having received word that the boat which 
I was waiting for was to remain longer in St. Louis, in 
order not to spend here my time uselessly, I returned to 
the Seminary. 

28 Thursday. Mass in the Community chapel. 

29 Friday. Chapter. Went to Confession; Mass in the 
chapel. 

30 Saturday. Mass in the same place. Confessions of the 
Nuns. In the evening Confessions of the Seminarians. 

31 Sunday. Confessions of the Brothers. Mass in the 
chapel. 



94 DOCUMENTS 

AUGUST. 

1 Monday. Mass in the chapel. 

2 Tuesday. Started for Ste. Genevieve, news having come 
that another boat was soon to pass there. 

3 Wednesday. At Ste. Genevieve. 

4 Thursday. Remained in the same place waiting for the 
boat. 

5 Friday. Went on board the SteivhenvUle, Capt. Com- 
stock. Starting from Ste. Genevieve, the same day we 
reached the village called Cape Girardeau, whence 

6 Saturday. at 6 o'clock we arrived at the mouth of the 

7 Sunday. Ohio, in th^ morning we passed New Mad- 

8 Monday. rid. The rest of the journey we made 

9 Tuesday. slowly, amidst very great difficulties and 

10 Wednesday, dangers, especially when we reached the 

11 Thursday. place caJled Point e Chicau; during the 

12 Friday. night a part of the river bank fell into the 

13 Saturday. river, threatening to engulf the boat in the 

water ; we were scarcely able, by firing all 
the boilers, and putting up all the steam 
possible, to get away from the falling river 
bank. 

14 Sunday. At 2 P. M., we reached Natchez. There I 
heard of the dangerous illness of Father Gallagher; I 
went to the upper part of the city to see the sick priest, 
whom I found beginning to feel better and out of danger 
of death ; returned to the boat, I resumed my voyage, but 
was disappointed not to be able to say Mass anywhere the 
next day, feast of the Assumption of the B. V. 

15 Monday. At 2 o'clock P. M., we passed in sight of the 
parish of Pointe Coupee. 

16 Tuesday. At 4 a. m., I landed at the town of Donaldson' 
ville; went straightway to Father Brassac's, by whom the 
same morning I was driven to Assumption, where I had 
the pleasure to meet the Rt. Rev. Bishop of New Orleans, 
who had come with Fr. Dussaussois to celebrate the feast 
of the Assumption. After I had been greeted by Frs. 
Bigeschi and Tichitoli, the Bishop and I had a long and 
exhaustive talk about the matter which had brought me 
on this journey. He, moved by the great difficulties be- 
setting the progress of the Seminary at the Barrens on 
account of the latter's scanty income; wishing, moreover, 
to provide Lower I^juisiana with another Seminary of our 
Congregation, spoke at length of the necessity of such a 
foundation, affirming that it would prove most helpful 
even to the churches and the Seminary in Missouri. His 



DOCUMENTS 95 

opinion was, therefore, that I should, as soon as possible, 
devote all my energies to this foundation ; that I should 
leave in the Seminary at the Barrens one, or maybe, two 
priests, with the boys of the lower classes, and go with all 
the rest to Lower Louisiana, to conduct the Seminary and 
College there to be erected. My soul was pierced to the 
quick at hearing this ; and I represented to the eager pre- 
late the dismal condition into which the church of Mis- 
souri was to be plunged, destitute as it would be of all 
spiritual help. But on his retorting with vehemence that 
my refusal to consent to this capital project was tanta- 
mount to bringing ruin upon the whole Diocese, I found 
it impossible to resist any longer; I gave my consent, and 
have written to the Vicar General of our Congregation to 
obtain his approval. 

17 Mass in the church of the Assumption, where today and 
the following days I have enjoyed the company and con- 
versation of the Bp. of New Orleans. 

18 Mass in the same place. 

19 Mass in the same place. 

20 Saturday. Mass in the same place. 

21 XII Sunday after Pentecost. Mass in the same place. 
Assisted at High Mass, during which I preached. Ves- 
pers in the church. Arrival of Fr. Blanc, Sr., from 
Pointe Coupee ;^® he came for the purpose of seeing me. 

22 Monday. Mass in the same place. Arrival of Fr. 
Potini." 

23 Tuesday. Mass in the same place- Departure of the Rt. 
Rev. Bp. of New Orleans and of Fr. Blanc. 

24 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. 

25 Thursday. Mass in the same place. 

26 Friday. Mass in the same place. Received letters from 
Frs. Moni'* and Borgna of New Orleans, in which they 
expressed the desire that I should go down there, affirm- 
ing that no danger of sickness is to be feared. 

27 Mass in the same place- 

28 XIII Sunday after Pentecost. Mass early in the morn- 
ing; after Mass, started for Donaldsonville, where I ar- 
rived before High Mass ; there I found the Bp. of New 
Orleans, who was set out the same evening for the visita- 
tion of Opelousas, Avoyelles. Natchitoches and other 
neighboring parishes. We therefore bade each other 
goodbye. 



56. This is Father Anthony Blanc, the future Bishop of New Orleans. 

87. Cf. St. Louis Catholic Historical Review, Vol. Ill, p. 319, n. 26. 

58. This is evidently the short letter dated, New Orleans, Augrust 17, 182S. Original 
in Archives of St. Louis Archdioc. Chancery. — All await eagerly Bp. Rosati's coming to 
New Orleans. The City is now free from sickness; at any rate he will be able to stay at the 
Ursulines with Fr. Richard. Fr. Borgna is anxious to talk to him. Sends fifty Mass Inten- 
tions. On Fr. Moni, See St. Louis Catholic Historical Revieu), Vol. Ill, p. 324, n. 47. 



96 DOCUMENTS 

29 Monday. Returned to Assumption. 

30 Tuesday. Left with Fr. Tichitoli for St. Joseph, in view 
of visiting Fr. Potini ; we arrived there at 11 A. M. 

31 Wednesday. Mass in the church of St. Joseph. After 
tlinner we started with Fr. Potini. Reached Mr. Potier's 
in the evenings and remained there over night. 

SEPTEMBER. 

1 Thursday. In the morning returned to Assumption. 

2 Friday- Bidding goodbye to Frs. Bigeschi, Potini and 
Tichitoli, I left for Donaldsonville, where I arrived a 
little before midday, and went on board the boat for 
New Orleans. 

3 Saturday. Early in the morning we reached New 
Orleans. I went to see Fr. Borgna, by whom I was taken 
first to the College, then with Fr. Sibourd to the Monas- 
tery outside the city, for the purpose of not exposing my- 
self to the danger of the contagion of the yellow fever. 
Was most kindly welcomed by the Nuns, and lodged in 
the house of the chaplain and the guests, where I will 
enjoy the society of the very pious Fr. Richard.'^^ Re- 
ceived the visits of Frs. Carretta,"'' Janvier,*^^ Portier,"^ 
Jeanjean,®^ Michaud*^* and Moni. 

4 XlV'th Sunday after Pentecost. Mass in the Nuns' chapel. 
Vespers and Benediction of the Bl- Sacrament in the same 
place. Wrote to Fr. De Neckere. 

5 Mass in the same place. Wrote to Fr. Rosti, at Grand 
Coteau. to remain there until the Bp. of New Orleans 
sends another priest. 

6 Tuesday. Mass in the same place. 

7 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. 



.'>B. Father Richard- not to be confounded with l-"r. Ciabricl Richard, P. S. S., of De- 
troit — had come to Louisiana at the same time as Mother Duchesne and her companions, 
reaching St. Louis on the 20th of .^ugust 1818. He was first assigned to St. Charles, thus 
remaining in close contact with the Sacred Heart Nuns. Mother Duchesne gives of him the 
following description: "A priest after God's heart. His thin, extenuated frame and austere 
thoughtful countenance gives him an ascetic appearance more likely to inspire awe than 
to attract; but he is a man of highest merit who, in spite of his cold mariner and extreme 
reserve in conversation, was most devoted and kind hearted." (Hannard-Fullerton: Life of 
Madame Duchesne, p. 184). Some- time after the departure of the Community to Klorissanl. 
Fr. Richard himself was transferred to Louisiana, where he was appointed Chaplain to the 
Ur»u1ine». During the epidemic of yellow fever which afflicted New Orleans in 1822,^ Father 
Richard was attacked Ijy the disease; liut "heaven", wrote some time later Mr. Odin, "did not 
wish to deprive the Mission of such a holy man." (Annates de la Propagation de la Fox, 
Vol. I, Fasc. V, p. 66). .As may lie seen from these i|uotations, and from the apiircciation 
of Rosati himself who styles him "piissimi sacerdotis", everyone who knew Fr. Richard 
entertained a very high opinion of him. 

•0. Cf. St. Louis Catholic Historical Rnirw. Vol. III. p. 331, n. 76. 

•I. Cf. Ibid., p. 325, n. 51. 

62. Cf. Ibid., n. 50 

•». Cf. Ibid., p. 324, n. 48. 

•4. Cf. Ibid., p. 325, n. 52. 



DOCUMENTS 



97 



9 
10 
11 
12 

13 
14 



15 

Encyclical of 
Leo XII and 
Bull of Indic- 
tion of Jubilee 



16 

17 
18 



19 
20 

21 



22 



23 



24 
25 
26 



Thursday. Mass in the same place. Took dinner with 

Fr. Portier and all the other priests of the city and its 

immediate neighborhood. 

Friday. Mass in the same place. Wrote to Fr. Mina. 

Saturday. Mass in the same place. 

XVth Sunday after Pentecost. Mass in the same place. 

Monday. Mass in the same place. Wrote to the Bp. of 

New Orleans.®® 

Tuesday. Mass in the same place. 

Wednesday. Mass in the same place. Received a letter 
from Fr. Bigeschi and the Circular of the Vicar General 
of our Congregation. 

Thursday. Mass in the same place. Received the En- 
cyclical letter of our Holy Father Leo XII, and the Bull 
of indiction of the Jubilee. 

Friday. Mass in the same place. Visited the Nuns with 

Fr. Sibourd. 

Saturday. Mass in the same place. 

XVIth Sunday after Pentecost. Mass in the same place. 

Vespers, Benediction of the Bl. Sacrament in the same 

place. 

Monday. Mass in the same place. 

Tuesday. Mass in the same place. Received a letter 

from Fr. Mina. 

Wednesday. Mass in the same place. Wrote: 1, to Fr. 

De Neckere to tell him to send the manuscript of the 

Ordo to the printer in St. Louis ; 2, to Fr. Saulnier, to tell 

him he should look after the printing of the same. 

Thursday. Mass in the same place. Paid a visit to Frs. 

Moni, Jeanjean, Janvier, Portier and Carretta. Received 

letters from Frs. Odin and De Neckere.^® 

Friday. Mass in the same place. Answered Fr. Odin's 

letter, telling him to go to New Madrid, to send the Ordo 

to St. Louis, to tell Thomas Moore and the Nuns to get 

ready for their trip to Louisiana. 

Saturday. Mass in the same place. 

Sunday. Mass in the same place. 

Monday. Mass in the same place. 



65. This letter has not been preserved; but from Bp. Du Bourg's answer, dated 
Natchitoches, October 4, we may gather some of its contents. Father Bernard de Deya was 
raising some difficulties about the property he intended to donate for a Seminary in the 
Bayou La Fourche district. Rosati has written to Father Rosti that he is to recall him 
from Grand Coteau. 

66. Original in Archives of St. Louis Archdioc. Chancery. The letter is dated from 
Ste. Genevieve. August 14. Had started for St. Louis, but the heat and his weakness com- 
pelled him to stop at Ste. Genevieve. Asks permission to go back to Europe; his brother has 
offered to pay the trip expenses; not to delay too much asks from Bp. Rosati a loan of the 
sum necessary. 



98 



DOCUMENTS 



27 

28 
29 



30 



Tuesday. Mass in the same place. Received letters from 
Frs. Bigeschi and Tichitoli. 
Wednesday. Mass in the same place. 
Thursday. Mass in the same place. Came to New 
Orleans, and took dinner at the College with Fr. Portier 
and other priests. In the evening returned to the Monas- 
tery. 

Friday. Mass in the Nun's chapel. After dinner left the 
Monastery and came to New Orleans, to stay in the 
Bishop's residence. 



1 

Confirmed S 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 



Confirmed 1 

8 

9 
10 

11 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 



OCTOBER. 

Mass in the Bishop's church, after which gave Confirma- 
tion to five girls. 

XlXth Sunday after Pentecost. Mass in the same place. 
Monday. Mass in the same place. 
Tuesday. Mass in the same place. 
Wednesday. Mass in the same place. 
Thursday. Mass in the same place. Took dinner with 
the Assistants of the Cathedral and other priests. 
Friday. Mass in the same place. Confirmed one girl. 

Saturday. Mass in the same place. Took dinner at Mr. 
Du Bourg's*'^ with several priests. 
Sunday. Mass in the same place. 

Monday. Mass in the same place. Took dinner at Mr. 
Barthe with Frs. Sibourd and Borgna. 
Tuesday. Mass in the same place. Took dinner at Mr. 
Fogliardi. 

Wednesday. Was sick of the fever. 
Thursday. Same. 
Friday. Same- 
Saturday. Same. 
Sunday. Same. 
Monday. Same. 
Tuesday. Same. 
Wednesday. Same. 



«7. Pierre F. Du BourK, the Hishop's brother, for many years a prominent resident 
of New Orleant. An "Annuaire" for 1809 shows he was then, with the title of Maior, in 
command of the volunteer force of Louisiana, then the Territory of Orleans. Paxton 6 New 
Orleans Directory for 182.3 styles h'im "Commissioner and Consul of the King of Sar- 
dinia," with place of business. 53 Ricnville Street, and residence 85 Maine, that is, Du- 
maine street. The house is still standing. Pierre F. Du Hourg, though he was the Bishop's 
brother, and on friendly terms with some members of the clergy, yet was quite active and 
prominent in Masonic circles. (See Paxton's New Orleans Directory above cited). Besides 
bis residence on Dumaine Street, he had near the city a country place, named 'Plaisancc', 
froin which the present Pleasant Street has received its name. 



DOCUMENTS 99 

20 Thursday- Same. 

21 Friday. Same. 

22 Saturday. Same. 

23 XXIInd Sunday after Pentecost. Mass in the Bishop's 
church. 

24 Monday. Mass in the same place. 

25 Tuesday. Mass in the same place. 

26 Wednesday. Mass in the same place- 

27 Thursday. Mass in the same place. 

28 Friday. Mass in the same place. 

29 Saturday. Mass in the same place. Took dinner at Mr. 
Barthe's with the Consul of France. Wrote letters: 1, to 
Fr. Tichitoli ; 2, to Fr. Potini ; 3, to the Bishop of Charles- 
ton ; 4, to Fr. Acquaroni ; he must abandon the idea of 
returning to the parish of Portage, which will be here- 
after administered by the Jesuits ; he is given the choice 
between New Madrid, Kaskaskias, etc. 

30 XXIII Sunday after Pentecost. Mass in the same place. 

31 Monday. Mass in the same place. Wrote to the Most 
Rev. Archbishop of Iconium, Secretary of the S. Congr. 
of Propaganda. Heard the confession of a woman. 

NOVEMBER. 

1 Tuesday. Celebrated solemn Pontifical Mass in the 
Cathedral. In the evening Benediction of the Bl- Sacra- 
ment in the Bishop's church. Confirmed a girl. 

2 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. 

3 Thursday. At 11 o'clock went on board the Packet and 
at 5 o'clock landed at the church of St. John the Baptist, 
where I was welcomed with great delight by Frs. Mina 
and Audizio. 

4 Friday. Mass in the church of St. John the Baptist. 

5 Saturday. Mass in the same place- Wrote to Fr. 
BorgTia®* and to Fr. Bigeschi. To the latter I insisted 
that he should proceed most cautiously in regard to the 
affair of the foundation of the new Seminary, lest the 
Seminary be in debt before it even begin to exist. 

6 XXIVth Sunday after Pentecost. Mass in the same place. 
Assisted at High Mass, during which I preached on the 
gospel of the day: Jesus taught in the form of a parable, 
in order to accommodate Himself to the human intellect; 



«8. Original in Archives of St. Louis Archdioc. Chancery. Charmed with Father Mina. 
Does not know whether he will go to St. Michael's as Fr. De la Croix is not at home. Ex- 
pects Father Borgna the following Wednesday (November 9). Recommends him not to 
forget the provisions, also to ask from Mr. Fogliardi the picture of Father Dc Andreis, and 
to bring it along; and to retnind Fr. Portier he promised to send a bed to Fr. Dahmen. 



100 DOCUMENTS 

the householder is God infinitely good, who shows him- 
self to be a father, and wants us to treat him as sons; he 
sowed; the time of his present life is the time of sowing; 
he who does not sow shall not reap ; he who soweth spar- 
ingly, shall also reap sparingly; and he who soweth in 
blessings, shall also reap in blessings f^ good seed, that 
is, faith, grace, etc. ; in His field; you are God's husband- 
ry. *°. An enemy; that is, the devil, the world, our old 
man, etc. ; IVilt thou that we go and gaiUer it up ^^ ? God, 
by supporting the sinners, manifests His patience, His 
goodness. His justice. In the time of the harvest; then 
will be thetime of rendering an account, etc., etc. 

7 Monday. Mass in the same place. Wrote to Fr. Tichitoli. 

8 Tuesday. Mass in the same place. Wrote to Fr. Brassac 
and to the Bp. of New Orleans. At 2 o'clock, the same 
Bishop with Fr. Jeanjean fills us with considerable joy by 
his unexpected arrival. The proposed foundation of the 
new Seminary is once more the object of our conversa- 
tion ; I urged upon the Bishop the difficulties besetting 
the contemplated foundation, and, after weighing them 
carefully, we concluded that it is of the utmost import- 
ance that, before anything be done. I should find out what 
our priests in the state of Missouri think of the matter. 

9 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. At half past seven 
P. M., the Bishop of New Orleans and I, together with Fr. 
Jeanjean and Fr. Audizio, went on board the General Brown 
these gentlemen bound for Donaldsonville, the last men- 
tioned coming with me to the Seminary. We stopped until 
10 o'clock to load the boat. 

10 Thursday. At 10 o'clock we leave the wharf, and at one 
in the afternoon we pass in front of Donaldsonville; the 
Bishop and Fr. Jeanjean are taken to the village in a skiff. 
At 8 p. m., we pass Baton Rouge. 

11 Friday. A little after midnight, as we were surrounded by 
fog, we were obliged to stop during four hours- At half 
past five we came to the town of Fort Adams. 

12 Saturday. At 2 A. M. we arrive at Natchez, where we 
stopped about three hours. At 1 p. m. we passed the place 
called Petit Gouffre'^ 



•». II Cor., ix, 7 

TO. I Cor. iii, 9. 

71. Matt, xiii., 28. 

T2. At a distance of about 20 mile* (by the river) above Natchez. Fifteen miles higher 
up. if the Grand Gouffrt, apparently the one described by Charlevoix: "Were it not for 
a Natchez who had asked me to accompany me to return to his home, I would have been 
Io«t in a whirljjool, which no one among my guides was aware of, and which is detected 
only when one i* already so caught up in it that it is impossible to escape. It is on the 
left hand fgoing down strc.im, therefore towards the east bank) at the foot of a huge Cape. 
(Journal tTun Voyaot dans I'Amirique. Letter XXX. Paris, MDCCXLIX, Vol. VI, p. 168). 
Both "Gouffren" are marked on the "Draught of the Rivrr Mississippi" annexed to Pittman'« 
Emroptan SeltlemenU on tkt Misiittippi River (Cleveland, 1906). 



DOCUMENTS 101 

13 XXVth Sunday after Pentecose. At 2 a. m. we came to the 
village^^ of Wicksburg, and in the evening at half past 
six we passed along the island called He aux Cerfs. 

14 Monday. At half past three, we stopped- At 5 P. M. we 
passed the place called Pointe Chicau. 

15 Tuesday. At 8 A. M. we arrived at the mouth of the 
Arkansas river. Wrote to Fr. Van Quickenborne, at St. 
Ferdinand, advising him to send to the Seminary two 
young men of his Society who are to be ordained, as I 
will have the Ordination on the Saturday of the Ember 
week before Christmas. At 11 o'clock we arrived at the 
mouth of the White River. About noon, we stopped to 
unload some merchandise. 

16 Wednesday. Wrote to Mr. Demaillez^* that, if he has 
still the desire of receiving Orders, he should come to 
the Seminary. At half past eleven A. M., we reached the 
village of St. Helena. At 1 :30 P. M., we arrived at the 
mouth of the Arkansas River." 

17 Thursday. At 8 A. M. we arrived at the village^® called 
Memphis- 

18 Friday. At 6 A. M. we started from the place ca,lled 
Plumb Point. At 2 p. m. we passed the place Neiv-cut-off. 

19 Saturday. At half past one in the morning we passed 
New Madrid. At 3 P. M. we came to the mouth of the 
Ohio. 

20 Sunday- At about 9 o'clock we arrived at the village 
called Cape Girardeau ; and after landing some merchan- 
dise and a few passengers we continued our trip. The 
voyage has been very slow, the smoke and fog obstruct- 
ing the view of the right course we should keep. 

21 Monday. At about 10 o'clock, the boat got stuck in shal- 
lows ; but soon it could extricate itself, and after that we 
continued our trip slowly and cautiously. At 4 P. M. we 
reached the Birds' farm. There the crew unloaded on 
the river bank my baggage and that of Fr. Audizio ; we 
ourselves went on horseback to the Seminary, a distance 
of about ten miles. We were received with great joy by 
all ; with no less pleasure did I greet the priests, the Cler- 
ics the boys and the Brothers of the Seminary. 

22 Tuesday. . In the morning I went to see the Nuns, and I 
told those of them who are to go to Louisiana to be ready 



78. Oppidulum. 

74. One of the Seminarians of Malines who had sailed for America with Father Ne- 
rinckx, entered the Jesuit Novitiate at White Marsh, Md., on October 6, 1821. Hesitating 
about his vocation, he left the Novitiate, and later on we find him in St. Louis teaching in 
the Academy founded by Bishop Du Bourg. 

76. Evidently a slip of the pen: the General Brown had passed the mouth of the Ar- 
kansas the day before at 8 a. m. The river here intended is obviously the St. Francois rirer. 

76. Oppidulum. Memphis had just been started only a few years before. 



102 DOCUMENTS 

to start next Sunday. I found everybody in good health, 
but the affairs of the house in wretched shape; debts have 
been contracted ; the provisions are exhausted, and the 
bams empty. Rain failed to come in due time; hence 
the Indian corn was dried up and scorched before matur- 
ity ; moreover, this summer's unprecedented intense heat 
burned up all harvests, and whatever grain could be saved 
and stored up was devoured by wheat-worms. We had to 
buy at once wheat and corn ; hence almost all the money 
which had been given me by priests of New Orleans, I 
have spent in buying a few necessaries, and paying off 
some of the outstanding debts. What I shall do after 
this, how I will be able to meet the necessary expenses, 
I know not. But "thy Providence, O Father, governeth 
all things."" This is my only gleam of hope. "In the 
Lord have I hoped ; let me never be confounded. "^^ 

23 Wednesday. Mass in the Seminary chapel. In the 
morning we found our baggage, both that which had 
been unloaded at the place of our landing, and that un- 
loaded at Ste. Genevieve, arrived home without any acci- 
dent. The things landed at Ste. Genevieve had been pur- 
chased and sent by Fr- Borgna. There were : a little bar- 
rel of white wine for the celebration of Mass, two barrels 
of rice, two sacks of salt, three hundred pounds of coffee, 
two barrels of sugar, one bottle of sulfuric acid ; a box 
full of sundry medicines, a basket full of small bottles of 
oil, some dried fish and many other things for the Semi- 
nary. 

Father Dahmen came from Ste. Genevieve to the Semi- 
nary to see me. Mr. Feigan,^® who had remained for 
about two years in the Seminary as a pupil, and whom I 
judged unfit for Orders, particularly on account of his 
defect of knowledge, was told by me to turn his views 
elsewhere. 

24 Thursday. Mass in the chapel. I read the letters sent 
here during my absence. Received one from Fr. Van 
Quickenborne. 

25 Friday. Mass in the chapel. Chapter. Went to Confes- 
sion. Answered the letter of the Archbishop of Balti- 
more. I assembled all the priests of our Congregation, that 
is, Fr. De Neckere, Assistant Frs. Dahmen, Permoli and 
Odin, and manifested to them the Bishop's desire of erect- 
ing another Seminary in Louisiana, and the utility which 
might be derived therefrom for Religion in general, and our 
Congregation in particular ; the means which the Bishop 



TT. WUd. xiv, 3. 

19. Pt. XXX, I. 

T*. Cf. St. Lonit Calkolie Historical Review, Vol. Ill, p. 349 n. 139. 



DOCUMENTS 103 

thinks of employing to realize it ; the very great difficul- 
ties to be encountered in employing these means, and the 
harm eventually to result from this project for this Semi- 
nary at the Barrens and for practically all the Catholics 
of the State of Missouri and of the neighboring country, 
owing to the lack of priests. All these things being duly 
weighed before God, it was unanimously resolved that the 
Bishop of New Orleans should be begged to postpone the 
erection of that new Seminary in Louisiana until we had 
the money and the men necessary for the undertaking. I 
therefore wrote to the Bishop for that purpose. 

26 Saturday. Mass in the chapel. I answered Fr. Saulnier 
that I cannot furnish from the Seminary teachers for the 
College of St. Louis ; the parish of that City is, according 
to the determination of the Bp. of New Orleans, to be ad- 
ministered by the Jesuit Fathers, accordingly neither Fr. 
De Neckere, nor Fr, Audizio are to be sent there. I em- 
powered Fr. Saulnier to sell a female negro slave, but in 
such conditions that another of the same value should be 
bought in her place. I recommended him to take good care 
that the lots bought from Mr. O'Connor should not be 
lost and etc. 

27 1st Sunday of Advent. Mass in the chapel. At about nine 
o'clock went to the Monastery. I spoke to the Nuns who 
were to leave for Louisiana^" and bade them goodbye. 
Those that were sent were : Sister Johanna *^, Superior, 
Sister Regina *-, teacher, and Sister Rose ®^. Thomas Moore 
went with them for his health ; to him I confided letters : 
L for the Bp. of New Orleans;®* 2. for Fr. Tichitoli ; 3. 
for Fr. Bigeschi ; 4. for Fr. Brassac. To Mr. Feigan I gave 
other letters: I. for Fr. Borgna ; 2. for the Superior of our 
Congregation ®°, and 3. for Fr. Rosti, requesting the latter 



80. They were to go to the Assumption Parish, in the La Fourche District, where Fr. 
Bigeschi had been preparing a house for them. - 

81. Sister Johanna Miles. Cf. St. Louis Catholic Historical Review, Vol. I, p. 163. 

82. Sister Regina Cloney. Cf. Ibid. 

83. Sister Rose Elder. Cf. Ibid. 

84. From Bp. Du Bourg's answer (New Orleans, December 9), we see that this letter 
communicated to the prelate a curious protest of the Archbishop of Baltimore against ap- 
proving Fr. De Theux, S. J., who had just come to Missouri; Bishop Rosati also notified tnc 
decision of the priests of the Seminary, reached at the meeting convened on the 26th., 
concerning the proposed foundation in Louisiana; he likewise acquainted Bishop Du Bourg 
with the dismal condition in which he had found things at the Seminary, as recorded in 
the Diary, under date of November 22. 

85. This letter is particularly important, as it acquaints us in detail with the various 
stages of the transaction concerning the Seminary at La Fourche. "After my first conver- 
sation with Bishop Du Bourg at Assumption," writes Bishop Rosati, "we separated, he to 
visit the parish of Natchez, and I to go down to New Orleans, and wait there for an op- 
portunity to return to the Seminary. On account of the excessive summer heat I had to 
delay longer than was anticipated, and I paid tribute to Louisiana by being sick two weeks. 
Meanwhile, speaking of the new foundation with Father Borgna and the other priests of 
the City, I began to doubt the feasibility of the project. To carry it out, the Bishop of New 
Orleans is reckoning on a subscription; now, according to the judgment of all these eccle- 
siastics, this subscription will not net much; nay more, it would be unwise to launch it, 



104 DOCUMENTS 

to pay $42 to Mary Layton.'® 

Assisted at High Mass, during which Fr, De Neckere 

preached the sermon. Vespers in the church. 

28 Monday. Spiritual Conference for the Seminarians on the 
motives and means of sanctifying this season of Advent 
(Mr. Girardin"). Mass in the chapel. I resumed my 
classes, 1st. of Theology, at 8:30 a. m. ; 2nd. of Philosophy, 
at 10 a. m. and 3rd. of Greek, at 4 p. m. 

29 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community (as 
yesterday). Mass in the chapel. 

30 Wednesday. Confessions of the Brothers. Mass in the 
chapel. High Mass in the church. Vespers also there. 

DECEMBER 

1 Thursday. Mass in the chapel. Received a letter from Fr. 
Saulnier and from Madame Duchesne. 

2 Friday. Chapter. Went to confession. Mass in the chapel. 

3 Saturday. In the morning Mass in the chapel. Confes- 
sions of the Nuns. In the evening Confessions of the 
Seminarians. 



because, as subscriptions have already been resorted to this year to build two Monasteries 
ia Louisiana, another would be too much of an imposition on Catholic generosity. When 
Bishop Du Bourg came back from his visitation tour, which produced much good, I laid 
before him my difficulties. Whereupon he told me that, in order to make the foundation of 
the Seminary a success: 1. he intended to buy a house and a plantation, that is, cultivated 
land, adjacent to the uncultivated land which has been donated for the foundation of the 
Seminary: this purchase might be concluded by the immediate payment of $3,000 and the 
obligation to pay a yearly life-interest of $1,200 to the owner, who is a man 74 years of 
age, but enjoying good health. 2. In order to have the funds necessary to build the College 
and furnish it, he would ask a loan from the State Hank: this establishment exacts an 
interest of 7 per cent and the annual payment of one-fifth of the principal. 3. To put in 
cultiration the land on which sugar-cane may be raised, he would enter into partnership 
with some one who would attend to the cultivation; the surplus realized over and above 
the expenses would be equally divided. All this appeared to me very objectionable, and_ I 
communicated my misgivings to the Bishop, telling him that, before coming to any definite 
conclusion, I would have to consult our priests on my return to the Barrens. 

"Thanks be to God, after a steamboat voyage of eleven days, I reached the Seminary 
on the 21st inst. I convcncfl the Council, laid Ijcfore them what has been explained above: 
and their observations were as follows: 1. It would be dangerous for us to run so much 
into debt; crops are uncertain; we might expose ourselves to bankruptcy, and would he 
forced to sell everything to the disgrace of the Congregation and Religion at large. 2. The 
number of our jirifsts is too small to be 'livi'lcd into two houses; it will he difficult to find 
one capable of being Superior; this division will oblige us to withdraw the priests from 
the missions where they are now so fruitfully employed; ag^ain, it would be unjust to do 
violence to the reasonable inclination these confreres have for the works of the holy 
ministry, if we were to compel them to spend the greater part of their lives in teaching 
rradinif, writing, spelling, etc. 3. It looks like downright injustice to abandon Upper 
Louiaiana, that is to say, the State of Missouri, and practically to deprive of workers a 
country where there is such immense fruit to harvest. 4. ••"inafly, we ought to write you 
about this whole affair and wait for your answer. 

"Observations a* just as the above cannot be wantonly disregarded. In consequence, I 
have written to Bishop Du Bourg to wait a few more years before establishing this new 
Seminary; in the meantime we may come by the means and the subjects taht will enable 
ut to undertake the work without running into debt and ruining the house already estab- 
lished." (Original in Archives of the Procurator General C. M., Rome.) 

*<. Marv I-ayton, a native of the Barrens, was the first American recruit of the Ladies 
of the Sacrea Heart; she had been missioned from Florissant with Madame Eugenie Aud6, 
to start the house of Grand Coteau. 

•T. Cf. St. Louis Catholic Hiitoricat Review. Vol. Ill, p. 345, n. 122; p. 347, n. 130. 



DOCUMENTS 105 

4 Ilnd Sunday of Advent. Confessions of the Brothers. Mass 
in the chapel. Confession of Eu. S. and others. Assisted at 
High Mass during which I preached on the Sunday's 
Gospel. Vespers in the church. 

5 Monday. Mass in the chapel. 

6 Tuesday. Mass in the same place. Answered Fr. Saulnier 
that I leave to Mr. Demaillez the choice either to remain in 
St. Louis or to come here. 

7 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. Received John Boul- 
lier^^ subdeacon, into our Congregation. Confessions of 
the Seminarians. 

8 Thursday. Conception of the B. V. In the morning Con- 
fessions of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Assisted in 
cope at High Mass and preached a short sermon after the 
Gospel. Vespers in the chapel. 

9 Friday. Chapter. Went to confession. Mass in the chapel. 
Wrote to Fr. Saulnier, and sent him ten copies of the 
Catechism in English and twenty pictures of Prince Hohen- 
lohe. 

10 Saturday. At about two o'clock in the morning we were 
awaken by the shouts of our workmen, and rushed to the 
Convent to fight the fire which had broken out there. The 
kitchen building and everything it contained were com- 
pletely destroyed. Mass at 3 :45. In the evening Confes- 
sions of the Seminarians and of Eu. S. 

11 Ilird Sunday of Advent. In the morning Confessions of 
the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Assisted at High Mass. 
during which Fr. Odin preached. Vespers in the church. 
Class of Holy Scripture: Pss. 22 and 23. 

12 Monday. Early in the morning Conference for the Semi- 
arians : Motives and means of observing the Seminary 
Rules (Mr, Jourdain**^), 

13 Tuesday. In the morning after half an hour of meditation, 
the Circular letter of Fr. Baccari for 1824 was read in the 
chapel ; it was read in English in my room to those who do 
not know Italian, Mass in the chapel. 

14 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. In the evening return of 
Fr. De Neckere, accompanied by Fr. Dahmen. 

15 Thursday. Mass in the chapel. 



88. In the letter to Father Baccari, above quoted in Note 85, Bishop Rosati said: "We 
liave a postulant, Mr. Boullier, a S'ubdeacon from Lyons, who is a pupil of the Seminary, 
where he has completed his course of Theology. He has been here since last March, and 
has edified us all by his conduct. He has already acquired a good command of English. I 
shall ordain him Deacon on the Saturday of the Ember week in Advent, and receive him 
into the Novitiate on the Day of the Immaculate Conception. I hope he will be a good 
subject." 

89. Cf. St. Louis Catholic Historical Review, Vol. Ill, p. 342, n. 110. 



106 DOCUMENTS 

16 Friday. Chapter. Went to confession. Mass in the chapel. 
EMfnination Departure of Fr. Dahmen. Examination of Mr. Boullier, 
for orders who was approved for Deaconship. 

17 Saturday of the Ember Week. Early in the morning Con- 
fessions of the Nuns. At nine o'clock solemn Pontifical 
Mass in the church, in which John Boullier, subdeacon of 

Ordination o^^ Congregation was promoted to the Diaconate. In the 
evening Confessions of the Seminarians and of Eu. S. 

18 IVth Sunday of Advent. Early in the morning Confessions 
of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Confessions. Imme- 
diately before High Mass, received letters from Fr. Van 
Quickenborne, Madame Duchesne, and three from Fr. 
Saulnier. Did not assist at High Mass, during which Mr. 
Timon preached the sermon, and recommended to the 
charity of the parishioners the Sisters of Bethlehem, whose 
kitchen had been consumed by fire. For the same motive 
I wrote to the Superioress of the Ursulines at New Or- 
leans. ^° 

19 Monday. Early in the morning Spiritual Conference for 
the Seminarians, on the virtues practiced by Christ in the 
mysteries of His Incarnation and His Nativity. Answered 
the letters, 1. of Fr. Van Quickenborne, telling him I can 
ordain at any time the candidates whom he will sent here; 
2. of Madame Duchesne; 3. of Mr. Dignus ; 4. of Fr. Saul- 
nier. 

20 Tuesday. In the morning Spiritual Conference of the Com- 
munity Bro. Palelli,®^ on the spirit of our Institute. 1st. 
We ought of necessity to possess it, if we wish to be worthy 
of our name of Missionaries ; if we wish to exercise the 
functions of the Missionaries ; otherwise we would be dead 
members, corrupting the other members of the same body. 
2. We should regard as the spirit of our Institute the prac- 
tise of the virtues which St. Vincent calls the spirit, or the 
soul, of our Congregation: a) in reference to God it is 
a spirit of fervor and devotion to the glory of God ; b) in 
reference to the Superiors, it is a spirit of respect and 
obedience; c) in reference to the Congregation, it is the 
love of the common good, which is exhibited in the fulfill- 
ment of all our obligations and particularly such as are 
special to our office ; d) in reference to the neighbor, it is a 
spirit of zeal for his salvation, which is exercised by direct- 
ing to that purpose our functions, our studies, our prayers 



to. Biihop Du Bourg heard of this accident from the ITrsulines, and amiably com- 
nUined to Biinop Rosati that the latter had concealed to him, out of too great regard for 
nil feeling*, this event. The Urmilincs sent a number of things to Rcthlehem, in answer 
to Bishop Rosati's appeal; and Bishop Du Bourg added one bale of cotton, and six pieces 
of cloth. (letter of February 4, 1836). 

»i. Cf. Si. Louu Cathohc Historical Retnew. Vol. Ill, p. 344, n. 117. 



DOCUMENTS 107 

and all our good works; e) in reference to ourselves, it is a 
spirit of mortification and patience; f) in reference to our 
Confreres, it is a spirit of the most perfect charity and 
friendly union. Pastoral Letter, on the Nullity of Mar- 
s« Register riages, to all the Pastors and Missionaries of the Diocese 
Mass in the chapel ®^ 

21 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. Wrote a letter to all the 
Pastors and Missionaries of this district, to notify to them 
the Decree of the S. Congregation of Propaganda, approved 
by Pope Leo XII, whereby Marriages celebrated without 
the presence of the Pastor and of two witnesses, in places 
in which the priest can be had, are declared null and in- 
valid. Fr. Audizio set out for St. Louis. 

22 Thursday. Early in the morning Mass in the chapel. Con- 
ference to the Nuns in their house. 

23 Friday. Early in the morning Chapter. Went to confes- 
sion. Heard Confessions. Mass in the chapel. Wrote to 
Frs. Tichitoli and Borgna. ®^ 

24 Saturday. Vigil of the Nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ. 
Early in the morning Mass in the chapel. At 5 :45 heard the 
Confessions of the Nuns. At 9 o'clock assisted at High 
Mass in the church. At 2 P. M., Confessions of the Semi- 
narians. At half past three, solemn Pontifical First Vespers 
in the church. At half past four, confessions of the Brothers 
and of others. At 7 o'clock, after hearing other confessions 
and that of Ch. Eu, went to bed. 

25 At 1 A. M. arose, and after hearing a few Confessions, 
went to the church, where, after the solemn chanting of 
Matins I celebrated Pontifical Mass, during which I 
preached: "I bring you good tidings" etc. After Mass and 
the solemn chanting of Lauds, I said the second Mass — 
a low Mass — , and heard confessions. At 11 o'clock, solemn 
Pontifical Mass in the church, after the chanting of Tierce. 
Fr. De Neckere preached the sermon. At 4 o'clock solemn 
Pontifical Vespers in the church. 

26 Monday. At 6 o'clock came to the Monastery, where I 
gtvethe celebrated Pontifical Mass, and, after the Gospel, blessed 
Lorett*o the habit of the Society of Loretto, and gave it to Mary 

Canal, a girl of 17 years of age, who took for her religious 
name Mary Joseph. After the ceremony I addressed to her a 
short exhortation. The time in which you take the religious 

»8. Entered in the Regrister entitled Copiae Litterarum et Documentorum Officialium a 
Rmo. Josepko Rosati Epo., under No. 8. 

'•• Original in Archives of St. Louis Archdioc. Chancery. — Had sent to Borgna a 

i5 n ^°"''' *•"* '*•* ''°*' forgot to take it. S'ent a copy of Fenelon. Speaks of the fire 

at the Convent, and of the failure of crops that year. Wishes to interest Fr. Borgna in the 

case of an Irishman who has been, so far, unable to raise enough money to bring over his 

family from Ireland. 



108 DOCUMENTS 

habit is eminently fitted to remind you of the obligations 
which you assume on entering the religious life. First. The 
Nativity of Christ. The entrance in Religion is, so to say, 
a kind of new spiritual birth ; you should put off the old 
Adam, and put on the new man, that is Christ. You should 
become like a little babe : "Unless you become as little 
children" ®* etc. Secondly, the feast of St. Stephen, the 
first Martyr. The Religious state is a kind of martyrdom, 
not consummated in one instant or in a short time, but to 
be achieved during the course of one's whole life. The mar- 
tyrs called to give testimony to the divinity, truth and sanc- 
tity of the Christian Religion, confirmed it with their 
blood. In our own most difficult times, it devolves on the 
Religious souls to give the same testimony, not by the 
shedding of their blood, but by the sacrifice of their own 
wills, etc. The ceremony of your receiving the habit is in- 
deed performed by us ; but to do what it signifies devolves 
upon you etc. Assisted at High Mass in the church, during 
which Mr. Paquin preached the sermon. Vespers in the 
church. Leo Hamilton ®° left the Seminary. 

27 Tuesday. Mass in the chapel. Assisted at High Mass in 
the church, during which the sermon was preached by Mr. 
Loisel. Vespers in the same place. 

28 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. Assisted at High Mass 
in the church, during which the sermon was preached by 
Mr. Vergani. 

29 Thursday. Mass in the same place. 

30 Friday. Early in the morning, Chapter. Went to confes- 
sion. Mass in the chapel. Received letters from Frs. Cham- 
pommier and Martial. 

31 Saturday. Early in the morning Mass in the chapel. Con- 
fessions of the Nuns. At 2 o'clock Confessions of the Se- 
minarians. At half past three went to the church : Te Deum 
and Benediction of the Bl. Sacrament. Short allocution. 



•4. Matt. XTiii, 3. 

96. "L<o Hamilton, after remaining one year in the Seminary, went back home ; he 
wu receired again on May 25 (year?). He does not study for the priesthood; be is learning 
English and French. In the month of October 1822, having for several months manifested 
the desire of embracing the ecclesiastical slate, he was granted the permission to don th« 
casK>ck. Left the Seminary on January 1, 1826, feeling no longer any inclination for the 
clerical life," Kosati. Catalogut Alumnorum Seminarii S. Mariae, No. 31. 



ST. LOUIS 

CATHOLIC HISTORICAL 

REVIEW 



Issued Quarterly 



EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 

REV. JOHN ROTHENSTEINER 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
REV. CHARLES L. SOUVAY, C. M., D. D. 
REV. F. G. HOLWECK 
REV. GILBERT J. GARRAGHAN, S. J. 
EDWARD BROWN 



Volume IV JULY 1922 Number 3 



Published by the Cathouc Historical Society of Saint Louis 
209 Walnut Street, St. Louis, isio. 



Catholic Historical Society of St. Louis 

Established February 7th, 1917 



OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES 
1922-1923 

President — Most Rev. John J. Glennon, D. D. 
First Vice-President — Rt. Rev. J. J. Tannrath 
Second Vice-President — John S. Leahy 
Third Vice-President — Ida M. Schaaf 
Treasurer — Edward Brown 
Secretary — Rev. Gilbert J. Garraghan, S. J. 



Librarians 
and Archivists 



Executive 
Committee 



Rev. F. G. Holweck 

Rev. Charles L. Souvay, C. M., D. D. 

Rev. Gilhert J. Garraghan, S.J. 



Rt. Rev. Mgr. J. J. Tannrath, President 

Rev. M. J. O'Connor, S. J. 

Kev. Charles L. Souvay, C. I\I., D. D. 

Rev. F. G. Holweck 

Rev. Gilbert J. Garraghan, S. J. 

Rev. John Rothensteiner 

Edward Brown 



Committee 
on Library 
and Publications 



Rev. Charles L. Souvay, C. M., D. D. 
Rev. F. G. Holweck 
Rev. Gilbert J. Garraghan, S. J. 
Rev. John Rothensteiner 
F'dward Brown 



COMMUNICATIONS 

General Correspondence should be addressed to Rev. Gilbert J. Garraghan, 
S. J., St. Louis University, St. Louis, Mo . 

Exclianc publications anri matt'T siibmiltef! for publication in tbe vSr. Louis 
Catholic Historical Review should be sent to the Editor-in-chief, Rev. John 
Rothensteiner, 1911 N. Taylor Ave. 

Remittances should be made to Edward Brown, Treasurer, 511 Locust St., 
St Louis, Mo. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Catholic Historical Society of St. Louis 110 

An Appeal 112 

Historical Sketch of Catholic 

New Madrid 

Rev. John Rothensteiner 113 

Osage Indian Manners and Customs 

Rev. Paul M. Ponsiglione, S. J. 130 

Father James Maxwell of 

Ste Genevieve Rev. John Rothensteiner 142 

Notes 155 

Documents from our Archives 165 



AN APPEAL 

HISTORICAL MATTER DESIRED 
by the Catholic Historical Society of St. Louis 

Books and pamphlets on American History and Biography, 
particularly those relating to Church institutions, ecclesiastical 
persons and Catholic lay people within the limits of the Louisiana 
Purchase ; 

Old newspapers ; Catholic modern papers ; Parish papers, 
whether old or recent : 

IVe zvill highly appreciate the courtesy of the Reverend 
Pastors who send its regularly their Parish publications; 
Manuscripts ; narratives of early Catholic settlers or relating 
to early Catholic settlements ; letters : 

In the case of family papers which the actual owners 
wish to keep in their possession, we shall be grateful for 
the privilege of taking copies of these papers ; 
Engravings, portraits. Medals etc; 

In a word, every object whatsoever which, by the most liberal 
construction, may be regarded as an aid to, or illustration of the 
history of the Catholic Church in the Middle West. 

Contributions will be credited to the donors and preserved 
in the Library or Archives of the Society, for the use and benefit 
of the members and other duly authorized persons. 

Communications may be addressed either to the Secretary, 
or to the Librarians of the 

Catholic Historical Society of St. Louis, 

209 Walnut Street, St. Louis, Mo. 



112 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CATHO- 
LIC NEW MADRID 



I. THE CHURCH OF ST. ISIDORE. 

The parish of New Madrid, though at present one of the less im- 
portant centers of religion in this Archdiocese of St. Louis, looms up 
rather large and interesting in the history of our ecclesiastical devel- 
opment. From earliest days there is a glamour surrounding it, de- 
rived from an occurrence within its boundaries, that imprinted the 
seal of the Catholic faith upon our state as early as 1541, many years 
before the first Anglo-Saxon settlements were made on the New En- 
gland or Virginia coast, namely, the raising of the Cross of our Lord 
in the heart of the country by that intrepid and most romantic Adalan- 
tado of Florida, Ferdinand de Soto. Although, as T. Hayes Lewis, 
says in the introduction to his edition of the Narative of the "Gentle- 
man of Elvas," "history, tradition and poetry are indissolubly Hnked 
with De Soto's name." Yet a true and almost perfect account of his 
conquest of Florida, that is of almost all our Southland, can be de- 
duced from the various narratives of his companions in arms, namely, 
that of the "Gentleman of Elvas," as he styles himself, then the ac- 
count of De Soto's private secretary, Ranjel, as preserved in Oviedo's 
History, the narrative of Biedma, the factor of the expedition, and 
lastly the glowing account "Florida del Inca," written by a decend- 
ant of the Incas of Peru, Garcilasso de la Vega, which in turn forms 
the basis of Theodore Irving's "The Conquest of Florida." Of 
course many points are still undecided, yet it is certain that in 1541 



1 Theodore Irving in his Conquest of Florida, follows in the main, the 
highly romantic account of the Inca Garcilasso de la Vega, who heard the 
story from a num.ber of the noble companions of De Soto. The books of the 
Gentleman of Elvas, and of Ranjel and also of Biedma are first hand sources, 
all, however, with the exception of Ranjel written some time after the events. 
To deny an event vouched for by such authorities simply because it is romantic 
or supernatural, is not good historical criticism. A handy edition of tbe Nar- 
ratives of the Career of Hernando De Soto was published in 1904 by Edward 
Gaylord Bourne, New York, A. S. Barnes. 

_ 2 Bancroft, George, History of the United States. Vol L p. 52. (Fifteenth 
edition). "The Authors Last Revision" of the History in six volumes is less 
satisfactory in its text and gives no references. The original editions in ten 
volumes are much to be preferred. 

113 



114 REV. J. ROTHENSTEINER 

De Soto and his little army of explorers and conquerors reached and 
crossed the Mississippi in the country of the Chicasas and came as far 
north as Little Prairie, or possibly New Madrid itself, where De Soto 
raised for the first time the sign of our salvation on the "Rio Grande, 
the Great River," as he called the mighty Father of Waters. As 
our greatest national historian, Bancroft says : "In ascending the Miss- 
issippi, the party was often obliged to wade through morasses, at 
length they came, as it would seem, upon the district of Little Prairie, 
and the dry and elevated lands which extend towards New Madrid. 
Here the religion of the invaders and the natives came in contrast. 
The Spaniards were adored as children of the Sun, the blind were 
brought into their presence, to be healed by the sons of light. Pray 
only to God, who is in heaven, for whatever ye need, said Soto in 
reply; and the sublime devotion, which, thousands of years before, 
had been proclaimed in the deserts of Arabia, now first found its 
way into the prairies of the Far West." Our historian omits a cir- 
cumstance that is vouched for by all the authorities and which 
we will give from the Narrative of the Gentleman of Elvas :^ He, 
De Soto, then directed a lofty cross of wood to be made and set up in 
the highest part of the town, declaring to the Cacique, that the Chris- 
tians worshipped that in the form and memory of the one on which 
Christ had suffered. He placed himself with the people before it, on 
their knees, while the Indians did likewise, and he told them that 
henceforth they should thus worship the Lord, of whom he had 
spoken to them, that was in the skies, asking him for whatsoever they 
stood in need." The Indians here mentioned as the Casqui, were most 
probably members of the tribe of the Illinois, afterwards called Kas- 
kaskias. Indeed, the country on both sides of the Mississippi from 
Arkansas Post to the upper reaches of the Illinois River was ancient- 
ly known as the Illinois Country, the seat of flourishing Indian Mis- 
sions, but almost one and a half century was to intervene between the 
glorious promise and its fulfillment in the days of Father Marquette's 
self-sacrificing brethren. 

New Madrid is supposed to be situated in the swamps of South 
east Missouri. This is not quite true. There is a long ridge of clay 
and alluvial soil extending from the hills of Scott county southward 
along the Mississippi River as far as where the St. Francois River 
empties into it. At various places where the ridge touches the river, 
towns have sprung up; so Caruthersville, or Little Parairie, * and New 
Madrid. These places are not subject to overflow, yet the soil on 
which they were built has crumbled away under the erosion of the 
mighty river, and made at New Madrid a great bend for its impet- 
uous current. Here was a natural place of rendezvous for voyageurs 



■ The Gentleman of Elvas, was a Portuguese gentleman of the inner 
circle of De Soto's companions. His book was first published in an English 
version of the Portuguese original in Hackluyt's Voyages. A modern version 
was given by Buckingham Smith. 

* Little Prairie is the modern Caruthersville. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CATHOLIC NEW MADRID 115 

and coureurs de bois, a beautiful place with a large lake of limpid 
water and clumps of wide spreading oaks that had stood the storms of 
centuries, as the historian of Missouri enthusiastically records. 

The place was then called "L'Anse a la Graise," Cove of Grease, 
socalled from the rich greasiness of the soil, or, as the Governor of 
Pensacola said, from the amount of bear meat and grease stored here 
for the use of the Spanish garrison. 

L'Anse a la Graise lay on the great Indian trail to the North 
and West. It had all the advantages necessary for a good trading 
post, advantages that were quickly recognized in the founding of New 
Madrid. Strange to say, this Catholic town with a proud Spanish 
name owes its origin to an Anglo-American and a Protestant at that, 
Colonel George Morgan, a native of New Jersey and a graduate of 
Princeton. Trader, judge, Indian agent and soldier of distinction. 
Colonel Morgan was with O'Rielly's fleet, when the Spaniards took 
possession of Louisiana (1769). In a memorial addressed to the 
Spanish Ambassador Don Diego Gardoqui, Morgan proposed to es- 
tablish a colony near the mouth of the Ohio, the Beautiful River, 
as it was then called, in territory then belonging to the Spanish 
crown, in which he promised he would have at least one hundred 
thousand souls within ten years. But two conditions were laid down 
by Morgan; the settlers should have the right of self government, 
and should be exempt from taxation. Gardoqui granted the conces- 
sion, subject, however, to the approval of the King. The grant em- 
braced from twelve to fifteen million acres of land along the Mississ- 
ippi from the mouth of the St. Francis River in Arkansas, to Cape 
St. Cosme in Perry County, Missouri. In order to gain settlers for his 
principality, Morgan made extensive trips among the Germans of 
Pennsylvania, of whom he wrote to Don Diego, that these people 
have been a valuable acquisition "to America. ... A greater number 
of them than I expected to find, are Catholics." Upon his new fol- 
lowers the doughty Colonel impressed the fact, that they would enjoy 

perfect freedom in religious matters and would make converts 

of the whole country." 

On the 14th of February, 1789, Morgan and his followers reached 
the Mississippi River and landed opposite the mouth of the Ohio. 
Leaving the main party in what is now Mississippi County, Morgan, 
with a few companions, journeyed by land to St. Louis, and on his 
return he selected the site for the future city of New Madrid, the 
capital of his principality. In a letter dated New Madrid, April 14. 
1789, the colonists give a very interesting account of the virgin land 
to which they have come, and the grand prospects before them. As 



5 Cape St. Cosme, or as others misspell it, "Cinque Hommes," is so 
named in honor of Father St. Cosme, of Fathers of the Foreign Mission, who 
in company with three other priests of the mission made a voyage down the 
Mississippi in 1699 and on this occasion hallowed the ground of St. Louis by 
the first holy sacrifice of the Mass on the Feast of the Immaculate Conception. 



116 REV. J. ROTHENSTEINER 

this letter is not easily met with we reprint it in full from the 
Mississitpi V alley Rcz'icu\, Vol. V., No. 3:^ 

To Messrs. Bedford and Turnbull, Pittsburg. 

New Madrid, April 14, 1789. 

Gentlemen : 

The inclemency of the season, and tlie precautions necessary for the 
advantage and security of our party and enterprize, rendered our voyage 
down the Ohio long, thought not a disagreeable one. We have now been in the 
Mississippi two months, most of which time has been taken up in visiting lands 
from Cape St. Comme, (St. Cosme), on the north, to this place on the south, 
and westward to the river St. Francois, the general course of which is parallel 
with the Mississippi, and from twenty to thirty miles distance. 

Colonel Morgan, with 19 others, undertook to reconnoitre the lands above, 
or north of the Ohio; this gave him the earliest possible opportunity of pro- 
ducing his credentials to Don Manuel Peres, governor of the Illinois, who 
treated him and those who accompanied him with the greatest possible polite- 
ness ; and their arrival, after their business was known, created a general joy 
throughout the country, among all ranks of its inhabitants. Even the neighbor- 
ing Indians have expressed the greatest pleasure on our arrival, and intentions 
of settlement. 

There is not a single nation or tribe of Indians who claims or pretend 
to claim, a foot of land granted to Colonel Morgan. This is a grand matter in 
favour of our settlement. 

The governor very cheerfully supplied our party with every necessary 
demanded by Colonel Morgan, and particularly with horses and guides to 
reconnoitre all the lands to the western limits, and from north to south, in the 
interior country. 

In an undertaking of this nature, it is not to be doubted, but different 
opinions have prevailed amongst us in regard to the most advantageous situa- 
tion where was best to establish the first settlement of farmers and planters. A 
considerable number of reputable French families on the American side 
of the Illinois, who propose to join us, wished to influence our judgments in 
favour of a very beautiful situation and country about twelve leagues above the 
Ohio. A number of American farmers, deputed from Post St. Vincents, and 
some others of our party, were delighted with the country opposite the Ohio, 
one league back from the river, to which there is access by a rivulet, which 
empties itself into the Mississippi about two and a half, or three miles above 
the Ohio. Some declared for a situation and very fine country, to which there 
is a good landing at the highest floods and about nine miles below the Ohio; 
but after maturely considering every circumstance, and examining the country 
in this neighborhood fully, we have united in the resolution to establish our 
new city, from whence this letter is dated, about twelve leagues below the 
Ohio, at a place formerly called Lance La Graise, or the Greasy Bend, below 
the mouth of a river, marked in Captain Hutchin's map Cheyousea or Sound 
River. 

Here the banks of the Mississippi, for a considerable length, are high, 
dry, and pleasant, and the soil westward to the river St. Francois, is of 
the most desirable quality for Indian corn, tobacco, flax, cotton, hemp and 
indigo, though thought by some too rich for wheat; insomuch, that we verily 
believe that there is not an acre of it uncultibable, or even indifferent land, 
within a thousand square miles. 



' Louis Houck in his valuable collection "The Spanish RenUnc in Mis- 
souri" 2 Vols., gives a retranslation from the Spanish version of this letter, 
which he discovered in the Archives at Seville. We have reprinted the exact 
original as it appears in the Virfiinia Gacette and Weekly Advertiser, of 
August 27, 1789, about four months after it had been written. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CATHOLIC NEW MADRID 117 

The country rises gradually from the Mississippi into fine, dry, pleasant 
and healthful grounds, superior, we believe, in beauty and in quality, to every 
other part of America. 

The limits of our city of Madrid are to extend four miles south down 
the river, and two miles west from it, so as to cross a beautiful deep lake, 
of the purest spring water, lOO yards wide ,and several leagues in length north 
and south, and emptying itself by a constant narrow stream through the center 
of the city. The banks of this lake, which is called St. Ann's, are high, dry 
and pleasant: The water deep, clear ,and sweet, the bottom a clean sand, 
free from wood, shrubs, or other vegetables, and well stored with fish. 

On each side of this delightful lake, streets are to be laid out lOO feet wide, 
and a road to be continued round it of the same breadth, and the trees are 
directed to be preserved for ever, for the health and pleasure of its citizens. 

A street 120 feet wide on the banks of the Mississippi is laid out, an^ 
the trees are directed to be preserved for the same purpose. 

Twelve acres in a central part of the city are to be served in the like 
manner, and be ornamented, improved, and regulated by the magistracy of the 
city for public walks, and forty lots of half an acre each, are appropriated to 
such public use as the citizens shall recommend, or the chief-magistrate direct; 
and one lot of twelve acres is to be reserved for the king's use. One city lot 
of half an acre, and one lot of five acres, to be a very free gift to each of the 
600 first settlers. 

Our surve}'ors are now engaged in laying out the city and outlots upon 
this extensive and approved plan, and in surveying the country into farms of 
320 acres each, previous to individuals making any choice or settlement. 

These farms, and the conditions of settlement being also upon a plan 
universally satisfactory, will prevent the endless law-suits which different 
modes in other countries have established, and entailed upon the posterity of 
the first settlers. 

We have built cabins, and a magazine for provisions, etc., and are proceed- 
ing to make gardens, and to plough and plant 100 acres of the finest prairie 
land in the world with Indian corn, some hemp, flax, cotton, tobacco, and 
potatoes. 

The timber here differs in some instances from what you have in the 
rniddle states of America; yet we have white oaks of an extraordinary great 
size, tall and straight; also black oaks, mulberry, ash, poplar, parsimmons, 
crab apple in abundance, and larger than ever we saw before, hickory, walnut, 
locust and sassafras trees of an extraordinary length and straightness, are 
common of 24 inches diameter. 

The underwood is principally cane and spice. The timber unknown to you 
are cypress, pecan, coffee, cucumber, and some others. The cypress grows on 
the low land along the river, and is equal in quality to white cedar. 

We have a fine tract of this in our neighborhood, which Colonel Morgan 
has directed to be surveyed into lots of a suitable size, to accommodate every 
farm. 

We are pleased with the climate, and have reason to flatter ourselves that 
we have at last found a country equal to our most sanguine wishes. 

Several principal French gentlemen at St. Genevieve have offered to 
conduct Colonel Morgan, or any person he pleases to send, to as fine iron 
and lead mines as any in America, within a short day's journey of the 
Mississippi, and within the bounds of his territory. 

It is intended to preserve these for some person or persons of sufficient 
capital and knowledge to undertake to work them. 

Salt springs are said to be dispersed through all the country; as we have 
this mformation from the best authority we believe it, but have not visited 
any. 

The banks of the Mississippi for many leagues in extent, commencing 
20 odd miles above the Ohio, are a continued chain of limestone; but we 
have not yet found any in this neighborhood. 



118 REV. J. ROTHENSTEINER 

We would mention many other particulars which would be pleasing 
to our friends, but this would require more time to write a copy, than we 
can spare from our other necessary employments. We, however, add, that a 
thousand farms are directed to be surveyed, which will soon be executed, for 
the immediate choice and settlement of all families who shall come here next 
fall and that the months of September, October, November, December and 
January, are the most proper to arrive here, as the farmers can begin to plow 
in February, and contmue that work until Christmas. 

After the surveys are completed, Colonel Morgan and Major M'Cully 
will proceed to New York, via New Orleans and Cuba; and Colonel Shreeve, 
Captain Light and Captain Taylor, with all others who conclude to return 
immediately for their families, will ascend the Ohio, in time to leave Fort Pitt 
again for this place in October. 

Captain Ruling undertakes the direction of a number of single men to 
plant one hundred acres of Indian corn, some tobacco, cotton, flax and hemp. 
Colonel Morgan has supplied them with horses and ploughs, etc. He will be 
able to build a good house and mill against his father and brothers arrival 
here next fall. 

As not a single person of our whole party, consisting of seventy men. 
has been sick an hour, nor met with any accident, but on the contrary all 
enjoy perfect health, and are in high spirits on the discovery of this happy 
clime and country, we think it needless to mention the name of any one in 
particular. 

We are, Sirs. 

Your most obedient servants, 
(Signed) 
George M'Cully 
John Dodge, 
Peter Light, 
David Rankin, 
John Ward, 
John Stewart, 
James Rhea. 

Samuel Sellman, jun. 

This circular letter in behalf of Morgan's foundation was first 
printed in the Virginia Gazette and Weekly Adz'ertiser, of August 27, 
1789. Morgan caused sufficient land for 350 farms of 320 acres 
each to be surveyed and to be divided among settlers, who should 
come on or before May 1, 1790, the settlers to take the oath of alle- 
giance to the King of Spain, and to pay forty-eight American dollars 
for each farm. It was expected that every succeeding year would add 
at least a thousand families to the colony. As Houck tells us: "In 
New Madrid lots were dedicated to the use of the Roman Catholic 
church and school. Episcopal church and school, Presbyterian and 
German Lutheran church and school, and German Catholic church 
and school."' 



' The Catholic religion was the established form of worship in all Spanish 
possessions, Protestant worship w<-is forbidden. But as Morgan claimed reli- 
gious liberty for his settlement, and as Gardoqui had consented to the claim, 
Morgan granted lots to three Protestant bodies for church and school purposes. 
This may have been one of the reasons why the concession was not approved. 

The Spanish authorities did really practice what they believed. In Ulloa's 
instructions to the leader of the Expedition to the Illinois, March 14, 1767, 
we find the following as No. 11: "On Sundays and Holy days Mass shall be 
said ashore before daybreak. And ail must be present at it. At the conclusion 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CATHOLIC NEW MADRID 119 

The grand plan was frustrated in a very large measure by the 
machinations of Governor Estevan Miro, who succeeded in having 
the concession cancelled, and the new city put under Spanish admin- 
istration. Colonel Morgan retired to his Manor Morganza in Penn- 
sylvania. Some of the settlers moved to Little Prairie and else- 
where. Yet a steady stream of colonists, from the states beyond the 
Mississippi set in, especially from Vincennes and the French royal- 
ist settlement of Gallipolis. At first the new settlement was placed 
under the jurisdiction of Henri Peyroux, Commandant of Ste. Gene- 
vieve. In July, 1789, Governor Miro dispatched Lieutenant Pierre 
Foucher with a small company of soldiers to build a fort at New 
Madrid and to take civil and military command of the place. New 
colonists came pouring in day by day. "All our Americans of Port 
Vincennes will go to Morgan," wrote Major Hamtramck, in 1789, and 
"within twenty days not less than a hundred souls have passed daily 
to the colony." Pcucher was succeeded as Commandant by Thomas 
Portelle, September, 1791. So far the great majority of the settlers 
were Creoles and French.^ 

What we have written so far, concerns more the rising town of 
New Madrid than the Catholic church established there. But Gov- 
ernor Estevan Miro, whilst antagonizing the founder of New Madrid, 
helped to found the church in the new settlement. A Catholic 
church and priest were considered essential to the well being of 
any Spanish settlement. But first a priest must be had. There were 
two applicants for the position: Father Paul de Saint Pierre, the 
German Carmelite Missionary, wrote from Cahokia to his Bishop in 
New Orleans on May 1, 1787. "A new establishment has been begun 
a little below the entrance of the Beautiful River. They will need 
a priest who knows English and German. I offer myself for this 
place. You may dispose of me according to your pleasure and 
good will".^ The German Carmelite received the appointment, not to 
New Madrid, but to old Ste. Genevieve, whilst the so called "patriot 
priest of the West," Pierre Gibault, was called to New Madrid, where 
he received the appointment as pastor of the Parish church of Saint 
Isidore in 1793. But Gibault's spiritual labors in New Madrid began 
much sooner, probably in 1789, when he left Cahokia. This Parish 



of the Mass the Salve Regina shall be chanted as is usual in the warships of 
Spain. At night, after pulling up or in the boats before pulling up, the Rosary 
shall be recited and the prayer repeated, trying as far as Christian customs 
are concerned to preserve all those of Spain." Houck, Spanish Region. Vol i, 
p. 4. 

8 It seems the Catholic Germans from Pennsylvania did not come on in 
such great numbers as Morgan had expected. The French and Creoles were 
generally "good Catholics" but not always good church-members. Some of 
the Americans also were members of this church. 

9 See the letter as reprinted in my article an Father Paul de Saint Pierre 
in the Catholic Historical Review, Washington, D. C, Vol. V., p. 195. 



120 REV. J. ROTHEXSTEINER 

of New Madrid, included the dependencies of Arkansas Post^° and 
Little Praiiie.^^ which latter village was founded by Francois Le 
Sieur. in 1797. whilst Arkansas Post dates back to the days of Saint 
Cosme and his companions. Father Gibault administered the sacra- 
ments of the church in Arkansas Post as early as October 8, 1792, 
and signed himself as "Cure elu de la Nouvelle INIadrid," parish priest- 
elect of New Madrid, that is, his election was not as yet confirmed 
by episcopal authority. But on July 11, 1793, he first signs an entry 
of marriage, "P. Gibault per nous Pretre, Cur^ de la Nouvelle Mad- 
rid." From this it follows that Father Gibault attended New Madrid 
and its dependencies since his departure from Cahokia in 1791, and 
became the first canonical pastor of New Madrid in 1793. 

The immediate reason for Father Gibault's change to the Spanish 
jurisdiction and civil allegiance is to be sought in the two facts that he 
was no longer welcome in the diocese of Bishop Carroll of Baltimore, 
whose claim to all the territory' of the United States was now ack- 
nowledged, and that he was not allowed to return to his home in 
Canada on account of his political activities in Kaskaskia and Vin- 
cennes.^^ An offer from Catholic Spain was therefore most accepta- 
ble, especially, as he knew the various older French settlements on the 
Spanish side of the river. It is certain that Father Gibault took the 
oath of allegiance to His Most Christian Alajesty^- and that he at- 
tained some real successes in his new field of labor. 

Spiritually, he was now under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of 
Louisiana and Florida, represented in Upper Louisiana by the Vicar 
General James MaxwelH^ residing in Ste. Genevieve. As pastor he 
received a salarv of 600 dollars from the Government, in addition to 



^^ A good account of the early days of the Post of Arkansas is to be found 
in the letter of Father Watrin, on the Banishment of the Jesuits from Louis- 
iana. July 9, 1763; and of the developments in Father Holwecks's article, "The 
Arkansas Mission Under Rosati," in the St. Louis Catholic Historical Review, 
Vol. i„ p. 234. The church Records of the Post of Arkansas are to be found 
in a good copy, in the Archives of our Society. 

** Gibaults activities in favor of General Clark and the American cause, 
have no place in this account of New Madrid. Yet Kaskaskia and Vincennes 
are names of high import in the history of the Northwest as well as in that 
of Father Gibault. 

'2 Cf. Houck, "Thr S/^anish Regime in Missouri." Vol. 1, 336. "Pierre 
Gibault, parish priest, took the oath of allegiance in New Madrid, December, 
1793" 

'• An Irish priest who had made his studies in Salamanca, Spain, and was 
sent to Louisiana with other Irish priests in order to convert the Americans 
that were then coming into the Spanish part of the Northwest. He was 
Vicar General of Bishop Pcnalver y Cardenas, and had his residence in Ste. 
Genevieve. After the transfer r.f the Louisiana to the United States, Father 
Maxwell became a member of the Territorial Council. Maxwell held a num- 
ber of extensive land-grants along the Mississippi. He died from a fall from 
his horse and is buried in the church of Ste. Genevieve. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CATHOLIC NEW MADRID 121 

the perquisistes which were fixed by royal ordinance.^* He succeeded 
m 1799 to obtain the consent of his parishioners as well as of the 
intendant Morales to build a church in New Madrid, dedicated to St. 
Isidore. The church was an edifice 60 feet long, 28 feet wide and 16 
feet high between ground and ceiling. "The carpenter work," says 
the report of the commissioners, "is constructed of cypress timber, 
covered on the outside with planks of the same wood. It has a parti- 
tion in the width for the sacristy, ten openings with their windows 
and gratings, an altar with tabernacle of cherry-wood, a picture of the 
Holy Virgin Mary eight feet high by five and one-half feet wide, 
framed in wood, a belfry with a metal bell weighing fifty pounds." 
which was estimated to be worth 1200 pesos. The parish residence 
was a building 21 feet by 16 feet wide, rather small according to 
modern ideas of comfort. It was, as Houck tells us, doubled without 
and within with cypress planks, the floor and ceiling and a partition 
wall of cypress planks, a double brick chimney, four openings with 
their windows and doors and gratings, a gallery in front, with floors 
and ceilings, a cellar under said house and a stairway to mount the 
garret. In addition to this parish residence was a kitchen 18 feet long 
by 15 feet wide and also a bake house 15 feet long and 10 feet wide 
and over 30 feet in circumference, with frames complete, made of 
brick, and a roof of carpenter work and this bake house was equipped 
with all the utensils necessary for baking, all valued at 120 pesos. 

In this parochial residence, surrounded by a large garden, Father 
Gibault lived in ease and comfort with his colored servants well able 
to entertain the Vicar-General of Upper Louisiana, Father Maxwell, 
who would occasionally ride down from Ste. Genevieve for a brief 
visit, unless he himself were absent on a more or less laborious jour- 
ney to his stations along the river as far as Arkansas Post to the 
South and Tywappity Bottom to the North. ^^ As Stoddard in his 
Louisinana informs us, the expense of building and furnishing the 
church was paid by the Government, although Father Maxwell insists 
that the well-to-do inhabitants are obliged, under the laws of the 
Kingdom to contribute to the construction of the church. 

It was a subscription sufficiently meagre as we can judge from 
Francisco Miranda's Report on the church furnishings he found in 
St. Isidore's church at New Madrid in 1805, as recorded by Houck in 



1* There is in my possession a schedule of fees for various services accur- 
ately written in Spanish by the Cure of St. Louis, P. Bernard de Lim- 
pach. Tithes had been in use under the French regime, but were abolished by 
rescript of the King of Spain. As the parish was one ecclesiastical and civil 
body, it voted a tax for the building of a church or school, and the King 
helped with a subscription from the General Treasury. 

15 Tywappity Bottom was the scene of Morgan's first landing in his prin- 
cipality. The cliurch was dedicated to St. Francis de Sales. After the build- 
ing of the Iron Mountain R. R., Charleston became the ecclesiastical seat 
of the district. The log church at Tywappity or Texas Bend was discontinued 
and fell to decay amid the forest trees. 



122 REV. J. ROTHENSTEINER 

his Spanish Regime in Missouri, " Mr. Hotick ^^ gives the substance 
of a few official letters written by Maxwell to Gibault. saying that it 
appears from them that the Parish Priest of New Madrid and its de- 
pendencies was altogether too lenient in the matter of demanding the 
usual offerings for the dispensations granted, especially from the 
proclamation of the bans, to which fees the Vicar General, or rather 
his Chancery, was entitled. "In one letter," writes Houck, "dated 
October. 1801, which has been preserved in the New Madrid Archives, 
Father Maxwell severely reprimanded him for performing a cere- 
mony between a Mr. Randall and Miss Sara Waller, the latter being 
a minor, without the consent of her father and mother, both being 
residents of the Cape Girardeau district," that is within Father Max- 
well's own parish limits. From this it is evident that Father Gibault 
was still among the living and, at that, in New Madrid, at the close 
of 1801, although not in very excellent standing with his spiritual 
superiors. This seems to be the last documentary trace we have about 
the storm-tossed man and servant of Holy Church. John Gilmary 
Shea, in his History of the Catholic Church in the United States, ^* 
Bays that both Fathers John Ohvier and Gabriel Richard had written 
to Bishop Carroll of Baltimore that Father Pierre Gibault, one time 
Vicar General of the Bishop of Quebec in the Illinois County, had died 
at New Madrid in 1804. These letters are said to be in the archives 
of the Archdiocese of Baltimore. There are some who say that 
Gibault returned to Canada after 1801 or 1802, and died there proba- 
bly in 1804. But this point remains doubtful. The transfer of Louis- 
iana and with it of New Madrid, to the United States, was consum- 
mated by Laussat in behalf of France, on December 29, 1803. It may 
be that Father Gibault did not live to see the great change, in the 
preparation of which he had been such an important actor in his 
Kaskaskia days under General George Rodgers Clark. It is even 
doubtful whether he would have welcomed the change to American 
sovereignty of what had once been the proud posssesion of his own 
race. In any case it must be remembered that Father Gibault was 
first and all the time an humble, laborious and enthusiastic servant of 
God's Kingdom, the church, and that his chief business was not 
empire building, but the salvation of souls. Indeed, he had in himself 
but little of the warrior-patriot, as some have lovingly described him. 
It was through circumstances over which he had no control, but 
whose control he readily accepted, that this simple priest and mis- 
sionary was elevated to the exalted position of one of the three 
founders of the Republic in the West.'* 

Father Gibault appears as the connecting link between the old 
glorious Jesuit mission period in Illinois and the still more glorious 

'• Vol. II., p. 351. 

" Houck's History of Missouri, Vol. II., 302 s. s. 

" L. C, Vol. II., p. p. 472 and 596. 

»» George Rogers Clark, the General, Vigo, the Financier, and P. Pierre 
Gibault, the priest and adviser of his people. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CATHOLIC NEW MADRID 123 

development of the church in the Mississippi Valley. Touching the 
hand of the last of the Jesuits, Father Sebastian Meurin, he trained 
for the priesthood that noble scion of Ste. Genevieve, Father Henri 
Pratte, who was to welcome to the wild but promising West, the 
pioneer bishop William Du Bourg and his little army of missionar- 
ies.-*' For Gibault twice held ordinary jurisdiction on the west side 
of the Mississippi, once at Ste. Genevieve and then at New Madrid. 
Officially he was pastor of Ste. Genevieve but once. His name 
indeed, appears on the records a great many times, almost continually, 
from the fall of 1768 until Father Hilaire became pastor, 
but he always signs as pastor (cure) of Kaskaskia, and in several 
instances he writes that he performs the burial or baptisms by request 
of Father Valentine,'" the pastor. Father Valentine always signs as 
"Cur^ of St. Louis and its dependencies." The first marriage solemn- 
ized in Ste. Genevieve by Father Gibault was on the 21st of Novem- 
ber, 1768. Francois Regis Lasource to Cecile Chouquette. Father 
Gibault made all the entries after Father Meurin and until Father 
Hilaire became Cure. In 1778 Father Bernard de Limpach came to 
Ste. Genevieve from St. Louis, by order of Bishop Cirillo, Grand 
Vicar of the Bishop of Havana, and rectified the mistakes that had 
crept into the Records of the Parish under Father Hilaire's admin- 
istration. The West bank of the river was now Spanish, and under 
the spiritual authority of Havana, or Santiago de Cuba. The first 
entry after Father Bernard's departure is by Father Gibault, and is 
dated October 11, 1778. It reads as follows: 

On the nth of October, 1778, we, the undersigned missionary priest, have 
baptized Francois, born the 27th of September, of Elizabeth, mulatto slave of 
Mr. Charles Valle and an unknown father. The godfather is Bazil Valle and 
the godmother Pelagie Valle, who declare they cannot write and do not sign. 

P. Gibault, Priest.2i 

All records that follow this entry until 1784 are by Father 
Gibault, yet the term cur^, pastor, is never used by him in the Ste. 
Genevieve Records, but either pretre, priest, or Vicar General of the 
Illinois. On the 28th of December, 1779, the record contains the 
statement: *T, the undersigned priest. Vicar General of the Illinois, 
performing the duties of pastor of the parish of Ste. Genevieve at the 
command of Rev. Cyrillo, Vicar General of the Bishop of Havana." 
The explanation is this: Father Gibault, as a subject of the Bishop 
of Quebec, could not be canonical pastor of a parish under another spir- 
itual jurisdiction; yet, he could and did actually serve pro tem. under 
another bishop; that is he could and did "perform the duties of pastor 
of the parish of Ste. Genevieve" and continued to do so until 1784. 



20 Member of the Capuchin Order and first resident priest in St. Louis, 
It was only after his departure that St. Louis was raised to the dignity of a 
Canonical Parish under P. Benard de Limpach. P. Valentine never was Pastor 
of Kaskaskia. 

21 Records of Church of Ste. Genevieve. 



124 REV. J. ROTHENSTEINER 

He was therefore not de jure, but de facto, pastor of Ste. Genevieve 
during the good pleasure of the Bishop of Havana. 

As to the character of Father Gibault, especially as to the virtue of 
fortitude, there were some ugly rumors afloat, in fact, Vicar General 
Maxwell' in a letter still preserved in the New Madrid archives, threat- 
ens to report these rumors to the authorities at New Orleans. Bishop Car- 
roll, also, makes some shadowy complaint as to the missionary's con- 
duct, and says that the authorities at Quebec no longer entertained the 
high regard for Father Gibault they had of him during his early 
days." What little cause there w^as for these vague accusations we can 
gather best from his own noble defense of his career made in his 
letter to Bishop Hubert of Quebec, dated at Post Vincennes, June 6, 
1786.=*' Father Gibault may at times have given way to his natural 
spirit of independence, especially in his relations with Father Max- 
well, his sperior in later life, a failing that must not weigh so very 
heavy in one who had lived so many years on his own intellectual and 
moral resources, far away from his immediate superior, the Bishop 
of Quebec. Then he may not always have shown a puritanical aver- 
sion to strong drink, although the good Father himself indignantly 
denies the charge of dissipation. It is easy to find a flaw in a man 
whose whole life was an open book. But whoever reads the noble, 
pathetic letter referred to above, must come to the conclusion that the 
charges were but idle gossip of people who either hated him for his 
virtues or sought comfort in drawing down others to their own level. 
One of the worst offenders in this regard was the commandant of 
Ste. Genevieve, Francois Valle, a man whose many good qualities 
Father Gibault is happy to extoll, but who, like so many another 
P'renchman, would rather lose his friend than his joke. 

But whatever we may think concerning these aspersions on 
Father Gibault's bright shield of honor, we certainly can find no 
ground for thinking him a coward. There is a difference between 
physical courage and moral courage. The two are not always coexis- 
tent. Moral courage takes notice of the danger ; physical courage 
often is simply blind to it. Yet, though not a man of war but of 
peace, Father Gibault proved himself to be a man of unconquerable 
will. Indeed, we cannot imagine the faithful self sacrificing mission- 
ary, bearing the privations and sufferings and bitter disappointments 
of life, with patience and ever-renewed hope and confidence as Father 
Gibault certainly did, we really cannot imagine him to have been 
possessed of a timid soul. Constantly mingling with reckless, daring 
men, offering advice and reproach and warning to men of wild in- 
stincts and hardened hearts, upholding the Christian ideals of truth 
and justice and righteousness among the debased Creoles, the rough 

" Letter of Bishop Carroll to Monsignor Hubert of Quebec, in Historical 
Records and Studies. Vol. VI, part H, p. 162. also J. G. Shea, Life and Times 
of Bp. Carroll, p. 472. 

" The Letter may be found in Historical Records and Studies. Vol. VL 
part IL, p. 153. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CATHOLIC NEW MADRID 125 

frontiersmen and vindictive savages of his far flung posts and mis- 
sions; leading a life of constant danger, far away from priestly succor 
and companionship, all this certainly required a man of more than 
ordinary courage, required, in fact, a man of heroic mold. There is 
one occasion in the life of Father Gibault, in which he is supposed to 
have flinched before danger, it was his meeting with General Clark 
and the Virginians after the capture of Kaskaskia. Clark himself, in 
a letter to Mason, represents the good cnr6 as "a timid soul." Yet the 
memoir-* written by Clark later on does not prove, but rather serves 
to disprove the charge. The Virginians were intent on intimidating 
the priest and his flock; the reputation of the Long-Knives among 
the Creoles was not of the best ; Kaskaskia was at the mercy of 
Clark. If the priest showed any anxiety it was not so much for his 
own safety, but for the safety of the simple people who looked up 
to him as their sole protector; and well may he have shown a kind 
of diffidence, as his control of the only weapon of defense, the knowl- 
edge of English, was so very imperfect. 

We really cannot find any indications of a timid soul in this, 
and surely Clark did not really believe it. No doubt Father Gibault 
was at the time thinking out a plan to save himself and his people 
from destruction, without violating the principles of honor ever dear 
to his heart. Father Gibault was always and above all things a priest 
of the church, and his highest and all pervading motive was the win- 
ning of souls for Christ. For this he had left his pleasant home — 
Canada ; for this he had exiled himself to the utter desolation of the 
Illinois Missions, where a senseless persecution had left but miserable 
remnants of their former glories. The Catholic people, both Indians 
and Creoles, were the sole object of the young missionary's love and 
zeal. To save what could be saved from the spiritual ruin of Kaskas- 
kia, Cahokia, Ste. Genevieve, Vincennes, St. Joseph on Lake Mich- 
igan, Post of Arkansas, and at last New Madrid; this was his life 
work. Meek and humble he was, but never timid. 

Then Father Gibault was French of the French, proud of his 
great nation and deeply touched by the fall of French power in 
Canada and the Mississippi Valley. Yet, British power had con- 
quered, and was, so far, ni possession, and therefore had a claim to 
the loyalty of the people. He himself had been well treated by the 
British authorities. Yet there stood the Virginians, the representa- 
tives of a new nation fighting for freedom, and offering- the rights of 
full citizenship, even religious liberty to the surprised and helpless 
people of his flock. As a Catholic he loved liberty and hated oppres- 
sion. France was far away and powerless to help, what better course 
could he and his people pursue under the circumstances, than to 
accept the proffered hand of friendship and citizenship, and to make, 
not only the best, but a really good thing, of necessity. It is certainly 
to the credit of Father Gibault that at this critical moment both for 



-* Cf. English, History of Indiana. Vol. I. 



126 REV. J. ROTHENSTEINER 

his people and for the Americans, he not only chose the right course, 
but detennined to follow it in perfect sincerity and loyal endeavor. 

America was now his country, and faithfully did he serve its 
cause with his moral and financial support. There is no doubt that 
the winning of Vincennes, and the pacification of the Indians and the 
keeping of the Illinois country on the American side, until the close 
of the Revolutionary war finally incorporated it in the Union, is due, 
in a great measure, to the loyalty and foresight and intrepid spirit 
of Father Pierre Gibault. 

A patriot in this sense he was, for he loved his people, wayward 
and indocile as they afterward proved themselves, he loved the land 
in which he had labored so long and faithfully, as the minister of the 
better things of life to a forlorn generation. He loved liberty and he 
dared and suffered for it as much as the best among his contemporaries, 
he attained a success perhaps beyond his wildest dreams, and he did 
it all with the simphcity and humility that is the mark of true 
greatness. 

It is true Father Gibault found a great opportunity to immortal- 
ize his name. The opportunity was not of his making or seeking, as 
it was in the case of Clark. Yet, he met the opportunity with quick 
determination, ready resources, and steadfast perseverance, and he 
did what no one else in his time could have done to change for good 
the map of the great Northwest. He was not a mere tool, though sub- 
serving a stronger will, and in all his patriotic moves he never forgot 
that he was a minister of God, a man of peace and good will to all. 

Father Gibault's services and sacrifices were but poorly re- 
quited.-^ Suspected or neglected by the Americans, estranged from 
his own bishop, outlawed by the British, Father Gibault at last fol- 
lowed the invitation of Catholic Spain to the missions beyond the 
Mississippi among a people of his own race, where he renewed his 
labors until His Master called him to his reward.. All circumstances 
point to this, that Father Gibault died in New Madrid in 1804, and 
was buried in the church yard near the church of St. Isidore which 
he had built at New Madrid, but that his grave was washed away 
by the waters of the great river which he had so often crossed on 
errands of religion and charity. 

We are proud of the fact that Father Gibault belongs to Missouri 
as well as Illinois. We would subjoin a rough list of the stations to 
which he was attached during his stay in the West. Having been or- 
dained at Montreal, March 19, 1768, he immediately set out on his 
journey over the great lakes to Michillimackinack, where he re- 
mained a week or two, then coming to Cahokia, where he reported to 
Father Meurin, he took up his residence in Kaskaskia in 1769, from 
which central location he visited Vincennes, Ste. Genevieve, Cahokia, 
as occa.sion oflfercd. In 1779 he greatly assisted Clark in winning over 
the people of Ka.skaskia and Vincennes after the inroads of the Vir- 

" Cf. his appeal to General Arthur St. Clair, dated Cahokia, May i6, 1790, 
in Historical Records and Studies as above. P. 163. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CATHOLIC NEW MADRID 127 

ginians. In 1779 he was entrusted with the task of bringing General 
Clark's official papers in safety across the river, and otherwise as- 
sisting the cause of the Americans agaijist the British. One year 
before this, 1778, he had taken up his residence in Ste. Genevieve, 
though he still remained cure of Kaskaskia, and remained there until 
1784. From 1785-1789 he was stationed at Vincennes where he re- 
built the ruined church. From 1789-1792 he resided at Cahokia, suc- 
ceeding Father de Saint Pierre, and from 1792-1804 he was cure of 
New Madrid and its dependencies in Missouri. 

The year of the transfer of Louisiana to the United States, 1803, 
threatened to bring disaster to the church in Louisiana. Bishop 
PenlLlver had retired to Guatamala and of the twenty-six priests stat- 
ioned in all Louisiana, North and South, only four agreed to stay at 
their post of duty.^*' Even Father Maxwell was inclined to follow the 
King of Spain. We have reason to think that Father Gibault was 
among the four, as he is reported to have died in New Madrid in 
1804. But at his death no successor was available and Father Max- 
well, himself, must have attended to New Madrid. 

During the Spanish regime the Catholic religion was the only 
one tolerated in Louisiana : yet the authorities recognized a certain 
liberty of conscience. On March 29, 1797, the Governor Don Manuel 
Gayoso de Lemos issued a Proclamation from which the following is 
an extract : "The misconstruction of what is meant by the enjoy- 
ment of the liberty of conscience is hereby removed by explaining 
it precisely to be, that no individual of this government, shall be 
molested on account of religious principles, and that they shall not 
be hindered in their private meetings ; but no other public worship 
shall be allowed, but that generally established in all His Majestys 
dominions which is the Catholic religion." -^ The occasion for the 
proclamation was an incident that happened in New Madrid on June 
9, 1797. An itinerant Baptist minister of the name of Hannah, had, 
at the request of Mr. Andrew Elliot, the U. S. Commissioner General 
for Determining the Boundary of the Spanish Possessions who was 
then the Governor's guest, obtained permission to preach a sermon 
in Mr. Elliot's camp, near New Madrid, with the restriction that he 
should not touch on political topics. The announcement of a Pro- 
testant sermon, being a new thing in the country, drew together a 
very large audience. "The preacher being a weak man was extremely 
puffed up with the attentions he received on that occasion, which 
were more from the novelty of the case than his own merit and 
talent, and paved the way for a commotion which took place a few 
days after.... The minister had with enthusiastic zeal, which was 
a little heightened by liquor, entered into religious controversy in a 
disorderly part of the town, generally inhabited at that time by Irish 



26 Cf. Shea History of the Catholic Church in United States, Vol. II. (Life 
and Times of Archbishop Carroll. P. 582. 
2^ Elliott Journal, p. p. 65 and 66. 



12S REV. J. ROTHENSTEINER 

Roman Catholics, who took offense as the manner in which he treated 
the tenets of their church and in revenge gave him a beating. He 
immediately called upon the Governor, and in a presumptive manner 
demanded justice ; threatening at the same time to do it for him- 
self, if his request was not complied with. The Governor, with more 
patience and good temper than ordinary, advised him to reflect 
a few minutes, and then repeat his request, which the Preacher did in 
the same words, accompanied with a threat. Upon which the Governor 
immediately ordered him to be committed to the prison, which was 
within the Fort, and his legs to be placed in the stocks." 

This vivid picture from the Journal of Andrew Elliot, showing 
that a part of Father Gibault parishioners were of the militant kind, 
derives additional interest from the fact that at that very time Father 
James Maxwell, the Vicar General, was with the Spanish Com- 
mandant at New Madrid, being described by Elliot in his Journal, 
as "a Clergyman of Rome, a Native of Ireland, of the name of Max- 
well, a well informed liberal gentleman, who acted as interpreter." 

No doubt. Father Maxwell repeated the visit on a number of 
occasions, even after Gibault's death or departure. 

It appears from the New Madrid Records that Father Gibault 
was not at New Madrid after March 29, 1804, for during a period 
of eight months, March 19, 1804 — Nov. 28, 1804, the Commandant 
Juan Lavalle assists at and certifies to the marriages contracted at 
New Madrid. From Nov. 28, 1804 Father Leander Lusson, the Pastor 
of St. Charles, performs this ofifice at the New Madrid Records bear 
witness, -* until December 9, 1804. From that date on until April 15, 
1806, marriages are contracted before the civil magistrate. 

Father Alaxwell of Ste. Genevieve was now the only priest left, 
and to his charge fell all the parishes in the wide territory of Upper 
Louisiana, soon to be called Missouri. Then occurred that 
terrible visitation of the New Madrid earthquake which agitated the 
country around the mouth of the Ohio from December 1811 to Feb- 
ruary, 1812. which, as Senator Linn, of Missouri, wrote, "after shak- 
ing the valley of the Mississippi to its center, vibrated along the 
courses of the rivers and valleys, and passing the primitive mountain 
barriers, died away along the shores of the Atlantic." Such an appal- 
ling phenomenon, which changed the course of rivers, submerged 
many of the higher pieces of land and elevated others that had been 
submerged before, drained many of the numerous lakes and formed 
others, with bottoms deeper than the Mississippi, ^^ had a most dis- 
couraging effect on the progress of the settlement. Instead of gain- 
ing accessions, New Maflrid was losing many of its inhabitants, and 
to promote the decline of the town the river threw the weight of its 
current against the higher ground on which New Madrid was built 
so as to constantly rerluce its eastern limits and either wash away 



" New Madrid Archives, Vol. VIII. p. p. 470 — 487. 
*• Rozicr's History, p. p. 109 — 208. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CATHOLIC NEW MADRID 129 

the habitations or drive them further West. The ancient site of New 
Madrid is now the channel of the Mississippi. Father Gibault's 
church of St. Isidore, together with his residence and kitchen and 
bake house was swallowed up by the mighty river. New Madrid 
seemed dead at least spiritually for about twenty years after Father 
Gibault's death ; without church and priest and the Holy sacrifice. 
But the people did not lose the faith and a revival of religion was 
preparing under the counsels of Divine Providence. But the Parish 
of St. Isidore is gone with its Spanish patron, and when the church 
of New Madrid emerges once more from its dark night into the broad 
light of history, it is under the new name of St. John the Baptist. 

John Rothensteiner 



OSAGE INDIAN MANNERS AND 
CUSTOMS 

PAGES FROM THE DIARY OF REV. PAUL M. PONZIGLIONE, S. J. 

1854. ^ 

George White-Hair, some four years before his death, had placed 
at our school his nephew by the name of Nivale, whom he had adopted 
as his son. The boy was then about fourteen years old. Father Shoen- 
makers took all imaginable care of him. Being gifted with good natural 
dispositions, once he became sufficiently instructed in the Christian 
doctrine, was baptized, taking at the sacred font the name of Anthony. 
This year, the boy having become of age, several braves, his connec- 
tions, through respect to the memory of his uncle, proclaimed him their 
Honorary Chief, to get in power when Grotamantze would either die 
or withdraw from office. 

Anthony Nivale was now a promising youth. At the school he had 
always been considered a bright boy, and had very much improved, 
He could read, write and converse in English with facility. Being of 
a tall stature, well proportioned, comely in his appearance and of a 
genteel bearing, he was looked upon as an Apollo among the Osages. 
To these good qualities, adding the sure prospect of becoming one day 
the Supreme Chief of his Nation, it was by no means to be wondered 
if he was an object of admiration to all his people and if more than 
one Osage maiden would be willing to give him her hand. 

As long as Anthony was at the school with us, he was proud of 
wearing tidy clothes, but, now being continually flattered by his friends 
who kept telling him that he should quit school and stay with them, as 
he was of age to be a Brave, he gave way to the temptation. To please 
his friends, he leaves us, puts off the white man's clothes and resumes 
the Indian customs. He no longer calls himself Anthony but simply 
Nivale. He shaves his head, paints his body all over, according to the 
fashion of the wildest Indians, and starts on the war path with several 
Braves to get, at least, one scalp, that he might present it as a token 
of love to the beautiful Tawagla, the daughter of Kulashulze and 
Mantze-tce-ke, his betrothed. The choice he made of such a companion 



l) The following chapters arc taken from a M. S. Diary kept by the Jesuit 
Missionary Rev. Paul Mary PonziKlionc, S. J., whilst ministering to the Osage 
Indians. The M. S. is divided into four books. The present extracts number 
Vol. III. ch. XX and XXI. 

130 



OSAGE INDIAN MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 131 

is favorably looked upon by all his connections and friends ; for Kula- 
shutze's family is one of the most respected in the Osage Nation. 

Towards the end of April, having returned from his excursion 
on the plains, he, early in May, sends his messengers all over the 
Reservation to let people know the good tidings of his approaching 
marriage, which is to take place at the coming full moon, and invites 
everyone to come and take part in the rejoicing of that day. This news 
produces great excitement in all the towns, and, as the appointed time 
would soon be coming, all those that can are stirring up and start for 
Osage Mission. The spot chosen for the feast is a high table land about 
three miles northwest of the Mission and east of Four Miles creek. 
Here in a few days a large Indian Village has grown up as it were by 
magic. The weather is clear and warm, the atmosphere is balmy 
with the fragrance of innumerable blossoms decking the ground. 
Nivale, expecting a large crowd of people, has sent to the place an 
abundant supply of all sorts of provisions that every one of the visitors 
may have plenty to eat. 

The long expected event is, at last, to be accomplished. The Osages 
feel happy and, squatting under the awnings, are watching the rising 
of the full moon, and, lo, hardly has the sun deepened in the far west, 
when this in all its brightness comes forth from the eastern horizon 
to inaugurate the National feast. A soft evening breeze, which has just 
now started, keeps sweeping away every cloud and millions of stars 
are gradually peeping out of the blue sky with great brilliancy, giving 
a sure guarantee that lovely weather is in store for the next day. Still- 
ness is now reigning supremely over the land ; everyone is resting at 
ease. Neither the howling of hungry wolves, nor the baying of dogs 
can be heard disturbing the people's sleep. The camp fires are slowly 
smothered by the falling dew and the flying hours of night are quickly 
followed by the dawn of a new day. The dazzling beams of the rising 
sun stretching themseleves over the plains are, as it were, uncovering 
a rich present of apparently beautiful jewelry offered by the soil to 
the betrothed, for, indeed, the ground seems to be all ornamented with 
rubies and hyacinths, amethists and jaspars, emeralds and diamonds 
enclosed in the millions of dewdrops hanging from the luxuriant grass 
covering the plains as a rich carpet. The noisy voices of a number of 
men, women and children are now heard arising like the sound of 
many crispy waves of a lake tossed by a gentle morning breeze. All 
are watching, anxious to see and cheer up their future Chief and his 
Bride. 

About noon an escort of Braves is formed; they are all select 
men, each one in his war paint, and all riding wild looking steeds. 
They are on a move towards the west of the large encampment where 
Nivale has his tent. Nivale is on the look-out for them, and, at their 
approach, he at once springs on his fiery Mexican charger and, placing 
himself at the head of the noble cavalcade, all start for Kulashutze's 
lodge, which stands at the opposite end. Next after them follows a 
young buck, a real fac-simile of an ancient Ganymedes. He rides a 
spirited looking nag, leading by his right a most elegant white filly in- 



132 REV. P. M. PONZIGLIONE, S.J. 

tended for the bride. They all advance in a long line, one by one, and, 
last of all come two horse-hunters driving some fifty young colts, 
which are the dowry Nivale brings to Tavvagla. In his appearance 
Nivale shows a true type of a genuine red man. His face is all be- 
smeared with Vermillion, a few lines of white color are running 
horizontally under his eyes and a green spot, as large as a dollar, 
stamped on his right cheek, giving ferocity to his countenance. His 
ears are ornamented with fish bones in the shape of small spokes 
hanging from them. His hair is all shaved ofY with the exception of a 
tuft on the top of the head, crested with red bristles and a large royal 
eagle's feather stuck in his scalp, completes ihe headgear. A rich 
wampum collar bearing a heavy medal of Ferdinand and Isabella, 
precious gift of an old Spanish Governor to his grandfather, decks 
his breast. His arms are encircled with gilded brace'ets, his body is all 
tatooed with such symbolic figures as Chiefs alone are allowed to be 
marked with. He wears flapped buckskin gaiters trimmed with vari- 
gated beads, a broad sash of purple silk, elaborately embroidered, the 
present of his sweetheart, gives him a princely appearance, which is 
'rendered stil! more imposing by a richly dressed bufifalo robe loosely 
'wrapped around his body. 

That morning seemed very long to Tawagla. She is up since sun- 
rise, and every now and then she will step out of her lodge to scan 
the country to see whether her beloved is coming. When, lo, at last, 
she gets a glance of him amid a cloud of dust raised by the advanc- 
ing i)arty. At that sight, she quickly runs to her mother crying: 
"Mother, they are coming." Her attitude seems to be one of alarm, 
but her countenance is beaming with joy. She does not need to devote 
a long time to her toilet for she is in such a trimming as her native 
custom calls for. Her jet black hair is knotted together in a long 
braid all wrapped up with red ribbon and oscillating between her broad 
shoulders. No paint covers her face, wnih the exception of a small 
spot of Vermillion marking her forehead at the point where her hair 
is parted. Two clusters of silver bobs, intervened with purple silk 
thread, give beauty to her ears, and a large pearl shell covers the pit 
of her neck. Her wedding garment is most simple. She wears an 
ample tunic of bright pink colored calico, neatly encircling her neck 
and with large sleeves tied at her wrists. A shroud of red cloth, with 
artistically embroidered gaiters of the same stuff, covers the balance 
of her body to her knees, and her feet are enclosed in gorgeous mocas- 
sins worthv of a queen. Fina'ly. the whole of her person is enveloped 
in a nice Machinaw blanket which, as soon as Nivale steps in the 
lodge, she draws up over her head covering the whole of her face 
of which nothing can be seen but her charming black eyes, which she 
keeps fnstened on him she loves. 

Of Nivale's Braves four only enter with him in the lodge, and 
thev do not need any introduction for they are all great friends of 
Kula-.Shntzc's fami'y. According to Indian etifiuette, Nivnle shakes 
hands with his future father-in-law and mother-in-law. This done, 
all squat around the fire burning in the center of the lodge. Here, at 



OSAGE INDIAN MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 133 

once, Shunska (White Dog), who is considered the most expert of the 
Osage Medicine men, steps forward, and, after shaking hands with 
Nivale, welcomes him as the one who is expected to revive in himself 
the person of his great uncle, George White-Hair. Next pointing his 
finger at Tawagla, he tells him of her most noble pedigree. He enumer- 
ates how many scalps her father took from the Pawnees as well as 
from the Paducahs, and praises to the sky her good qualities. After 
these prehminaries, he lectures him about how kind and faithful he 
must be to her. Next, calling his attention to her two sisters, both 
younger girls, seated by her side, he te'ls him how both shall follow 
Tawagla, and, from that day shall become part of his family. The 
Medicine man having finished his address, they all arise and shake 
hands. Here a wide buffalo robe being spread on the ground, he in- 
vites the couple to be seated on it and then addressing them, he says : 
"Behold, now you are married. Be happy, and may your life for many 
years to come be a succession of happy days. May your childrens' 
children, and those who, will be born of them, be all Braves, and may 
they keep your graves ornamented with the scalps of your enemies." 
With this the marriage ceremony is over, and now out they come. 
Nivale is at once seated on his saddle and Tawagla, without the need 
of any valet to help her, springs on her white filly with the suppleness 
of a young Amazon. Next to her follow, on foot, her two sisters each, 
according to Indian custom, leading by the brid'e one of the colts 
presented to Tawagla. After them come the Braves, and the rear is 
brought up by the two horse-hunters driving the balance of the herd 
donated to the bride. As they are advancing a joyful uproar ,excited 
as it were, by some electric power, invades the whole encampment. 
The Osages rush out pell-mell to meet and cheer the happy couple. 
The crowd is increasing at every step and all are accompanying the 
party to Nivale's tent, where a sumptous repast is spread on the green 
grass. Once the newly married have taken the place of honor set apart 
for them, the rest of the people are squatting all around, forming dif- 
ferent circles, according to their different clans. 

Public games follow the dinner and last till about sun-set. As 
darkness comes over the earth, the tom-tom summons evervone to a 
great war dance. This is protracted till late in the night and with this 
the great feast has come to an end. When on the next morning the 
sun returns to enlighten the plains, the enchanted village has disap- 
peared, like a dream ; its numerous inhabitants are all returning 
to their homes. Nivale and his wife are at home at Osage Mission. 
The joyful day had hardly passed, when the smiling aspect of the 
country was almost on a sudden changed into a mournful one. 

During the last year this section of the country had been visited 
by a verv dry season, and, in consequence of it, our harvest was very 
scanty. But, as a large quantity of snow had fallen in the winter, we 
were all in hopes that the ground being well saturated, would yield us 
abundant crops this year. Hence, no sooner had Spring opened, when 
every one went to work fitting up their gardens, ploughing their fields 
and trying to have their corn planted before the so-called equinoctial 



134 REV. P. M. PONZIGLIONE, S.J. 

rains, which, generally, never fail to fall by the end of Alarch or early 
in April, would come to irrigate the fields. But this year was bound 
to be an exceptional one. By the end of March we had some few good 
rains which did help the grass considerably and early vegetables sprung 
up luxuriantly. This gave us all great encouragement, and we looked 
for big crops. But, alas, it was only a passing illusion. From the be- 
ginning of June a terrible drought set in and very hot weather pre- 
vailed. Whatever had budded now withers away ; brooks and creeks 
are all drying up; nay, the Neosho itself, the only dependency many 
poor farmers have for watering their stock, stops running. The result 
of that is that not only the crops are ruined but not even the hay will 
be gathered for wintering the stock, all the grass having been parched 
in its growth by the sun. No wonder if now people feel very much 
discouraged for the prospect can be no worse. But this is not enough. 
July is nearly over when, lo, millions and millions of most destructive 
grasshoppers, the red Egyptian locusts, at once drop down from the 
sky as thick as snow flakes do in winter time. In a few hours the 
ground is covered with a black crust made up of billions of these 
disgusting pests. So many they are that horses do not dare to advance 
in their way, for as they move to start, clouds of these abomniable 
insects arise all in a body, like a swarm of bees, attacking the eyes, 
nostrils and ears of the poor animals so fiercely as to render them 
almost uncontrollable. And now these grasshoppers go to work with 
a vengeance. In but a few days they destroy whatever can be found 
either in the fields or gardens. Having ruined these completely, they 
attack the orchards ; neither peaches or apples are spared, and once 
they have devoured all the fruit they totally ruin numbers of young 
trees by eating the bark all around them. 

About the middle of September, having laid waste the whole coun- 
try, they store in the ground the seeds of an innumerable progeny 
bound to be, in due time, as wretched as themselves. There being 
nothing more left in the fields to satisfy their voracity, they take by 
storm the Indian wigwams. They penetrate into hidden recesses of 
them, feeding on their provisions of dry meat, sweet corn, dry pump- 
kins, flour and, above all, on sugar, of which they appear to be very 
greedy. The poor Indians, seeing that it is impossible for them to 
stand the attack of this irresistible army, and wc^ll knowing that noth- 
ing but a terrible famine is in store for them if they should remain 
at home, they conclude to pack up and leave immediately for their 
usual fall hunt. In so doing they get rid of a great annoyance. As far 
as the Osages remember, this was the first grasshopper invasion they 
had ever seen in Kansas ; no record of any previous one being found. 

Of all the hunting seasons, that of the fall .which extends into the 
winter, is always the most important. In this all the Indian towns take 
part. In order that every town may have a good share of game, the 
Osages have a rnV- which they, generally, follov/. Some time before 
leaving, the Chiefs meet together and map, as it were, to themselves 
the ground they intenrl to run over, that in their ramblings over the 
plains in search of game, one band might not come in collision with 



OSAGE INDIAN MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 135 

another. Following this custom, the Big Osages having this fall chosen 
for their hunting ground the Northwest as far as to the Platte River ; 
the Little Osages, under the leading of their Chief, Neeshumani, agree 
to run down Southwest extending as far as to a point where a large 
stream called Turkey creek forms a junction with the Cimaron, or, 
as it is also called, "Red Fork of the Arkansas," and in his choice 
he was very lucky, for the country was full of buffalo and his people 
killed numbers of them. 

About the end of November the Little Osages reached the south 
end of their hunting excursion. Here, perhaps in one mile of Turkey 
creek junction, finding a charming spot of land, where wood and water 
were plenty, and the pasture for their horses was excellent, they made 
up their minds to rest themselves for a couple of weeks, before re- 
turning to their winter quarters on the Neosho. Meanwhile the squaws 
are fixing up their lodges, three of the Braves leave on a tour around 
the country to see whether, perhaps, they might be in the vicinity of 
some other Indian camps. They had gone hardly two miles, when they 
came in sight of a temporary Camanche village on the right bank of 
the Cimaron. Perceiving from the number of their tepees, that their 
force could but be small, they determine not to lose the opportunity, 
but to attack them at daybreak of the next morning, and by it avenge 
themselves of some old grudge not as yet settled. 

The coming of the Osages could not be kept secret. In fact, during 
the afternoon of that day, they are noticed by the Camanches horse- 
hunters, who, at once hasten to drive all their horses to some safe 
place, and returning to their village give the alarm by crying out : 
"The.Qsages are coming!" As from time immemorial, the two Nations 
have never been on good terms, this news produced a great excitement 
among the Indians. In the midst of the general confusion, the Chief 
of the Camanches holds a council with his Braves and they decide, 
that, not being of sufficient number to meet their enemies, it was better 
for them to vacate the village, and, covered by the darkness of the 
coming night, withdrew to the forest along the river. At that time they 
happened to have in their camp a man afflicted with a most loath- 
some and contagious distemper resembling leprosy, and they agree 
to sacrifice this unfortunate to avenge themselves on the Osages. The 
poor Indian, being in the very last stage of his sickness, not able to 
survive but a few days, was then painted all over with vermillion. 
and dressed up in rich style, as Chiefs are used to be buried. They 
place by him his arms, his pipe and a good supply of tobacco, their 
object being to entice their enemies to rob the sick man of all he has. 
knowing that by so doing they would most certainly contract the 
same sickness and this, by gradually developing in the coming Spring, 
would, most likely, cause the death of many of them. This, really 
most barbarous and wicked strategem proved, in due time, terribly 
successful. 

During the night the Osages were not idle, but you could have 
seen them sharpening their arrows, fixing their war clubs, cleaning 
their old flint muskets. And, lo, at the first appearance of the day 



136 REV. P. M. PONZIGLIONE. S.J. 

star, they leave their entrenchments, cross the river in perfect silence, 
and, corninjj out of it whooping like demons, they rush on the vil- 
lage. It is diiVicult to describe what their surprise is when they find 
it evacuated. At the sight of the mysterious man left alone, they do 
not know what to think of him. They address him several questions, 
but he never gives an answer. They challenge him to fighr, but he 
does not budge. Then they knock him to the ground; they take all 
his clothes and arms; next, striking him on his head with their 
tomahawks, they kill him and scalp him. This done, they run from 
tepee to tepee, taking away quite a number of blankets, rich peltries 
and plenty of provisions. 

Meanwhile this was going on, the Camanches who were hiding 
in ambush not very far otf, were preparing to fall upon the Osages, 
and they would most surely have succeeded in punishing them s^ivore- 
ly, had not the vigilant foresight of their Chief, Neeshumani, anti- 
cipated their attack. Tho old warrior was too well acquainted with all 
the rules of an Indian warfare; he well understood that the Co- 
manches by abandoning their village were only playing a blind and 
were aimnig at laying a bait for his men. Hence, as soon as he noticed 
that there was nobody left to defend the place, he detached a company 
of his warriors under the leadership of Strike-Ax to reconnoiter the 
vicinity and, these, without much difficulty, surprised their foes, who 
were just approaching. The Osages at once made a charge on them, 
killing and scalping two men. This sudden move of Strike-Ax, not 
being expected, disconcerted the Comanches, and, as it was impos- 
sible for them to make a stand, they gave themselves to flight, dis- 
appearing in the woods. The Osages, not being acquainted with the 
gn'ound, thought better not to pursue the fugitives, lest they might 
fall into some snare. Satisfied at having avenged themselves by tak- 
ing three scalps and rich plunder from their enemies, they return to 
their camps. Proud of their expedition, they now retrace their steps 
homeward ,and by the end of December reach their winter quarters 
in the heavy timbers along the Neosho river almost due east of 
the place where now stands the city of Chanute. 

1855 
The rich booty the Little Osages had taken from the Comanches 
during last fall procures them a jolly time and they are passing the 
long winter nights feasting merrily ; meanwhile their Braves are sing- 
ing the glorious deeds of their heroes. But, alas, at the coming of 
Spring, their rejoicings are changed into the most bitter mourning. 
In fact, about the time their agent was used to come to pav them 
their regular annuities, a sickness, heretofore unknown in this part 
of the country breaks out amongst them. It is neither the scurvy nor 
the small pox, but a cutaneous distemper worse than both of them. 
At first virulent sores cover their body. These in a few days swell 
and break into ulcers of a most disgusting nature. The presence of 
one affected with this complaint is sufficient to corrupt the at- 



OSAGE INDIAN MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 137 

mosphere of a wigwam and its inmates will, more or less, fall victims 
of it. The Osages call this sickness "Prairie-Pox." The sight of this 
terrible pestilence at last opens their eyes, and, as it seems to be 
confined only to their town, now they see at what dear price they 
bought their last victory over the Comanches. Now they see how 
severely they were punished for their cruelty with which they abused 
and killed the poor helpless man they had found in the abandoned 
village. But, it is too late ; the Comanches are having their vengeance. 
Not knowing how to check the spreading of this distemper, they 
apply to the only expedient left to them in case of this kind, name- 
ly, of evacuating their towns and disbanding over the plains. Among the 
victims that every day fall through this sickness, the most distin- 
guished was Neeshumani himself, the Chief of the Little Osages. He 
could have left the town at the very outbreak of the disease, as many 
of his people had done, but he did not like to deprive himself of the 
medical assistance, which he well knew Father Shoemakers would not 
refuse him in case he might stand in need of it. And, truly, no soonar 
did the Father hear that he was in the number of the infected, he hast- 
ened to send him such medicines as he thought might help him ; nay, 
he himself determined to go to visit him. First of all in order to 
administer to him the Sacrament of Baptism, which he knew the Chief 
was willing to receive, and next to do all he could to heal him, if 
possible. 

There was, however, a 9reat d'Tiiculty, nay, almost an impos- 
sibility, of finding a man daring to offer his services as an interpreter 
on such an occasion. At last, an up-right Creole, Mr. Etienne Bront, 
offers himself to accompany the Father on this most charitable er- 
rand. But. when they came to the entrance of Neeshumani's lodge, 
and Mr. Bront saw from the outside how disfigured the old Chief al- 
ready was on account of his distemper, he feared to go in and begged 
the Father to have him excused. "For," said he, "Father, I am a 
man with a family; I have wife and children, and would not like to 
bring this sickness to them." The Father felt sorry at being dis- 
appointed in a case of such importance as this, but he would not go 
back on his duty. He walked in alone and did all that true Christian 
Charity and medical skill could suggest to relieve his patient. He, 
however, could not succeed in improving his condition. The poor 
man was already too far gone; he had lost his speech, and could 
only manifest his will by signs. The Father, seeing that there was 
no time to delay, adminstered to him the Sacrament of Regeneration. 
By the time the Father was through, Neeshumani became unconscious 
and died that very day. As soon as he was buried, the few of his 
connection and friends who had remained with him now also scattered 
in every direction, marking their way with new graves as they were 
going on. 

ThTe death of Neeshumani strck terror in the remnant of the 
Osages, and, as they had just received their annuity from the United 
States Agent, they at once all left on their Spring hunt, omitting to 



13S REV. P. M. PONZIGLIONE, S.J. 

plant their little gardens, in order not to remain too long in the vicinity 
of the infected district, and also because myriads of small, almost 
microscopical, grasshoppers having already hatched out of the soil, 
they think it uselsss to go to work, for their labor would be lost. 
And. in truth, it happened as they expected. The very warm days 
that'came with the month of March, having caused an earlier hatch- 
ing of these pests, the consequence was that, by the middle of April, 
the country was covered with swarms of grasshoppers. The farmers, 
terrified at the appearance of this destroying army ,abstained from 
planting any seed or doing any work in their fields, considering it 
useless. Everything was looking desolate ; nothing was growing and 
even the young brood of tender grasshoppers seemed to be suffering 
for want of proper food ; the grass being as yet too weak to supply 
them with the needed strength. Just as if these small annoying visi- 
tors had held a council among themselves and had all agreed on a pre- 
concerted plan of action, on the last day of April, when the sun was 
in its full brightness, they all at once raise themselves altogether 
in the air as high as our eyes could follow them, and, next abandon- 
ing themselves to the pleasure of the winds, off they went. To what 
land they migrated, we never did care to inquire, but, indeed, we 
were thankful to God for their departure. 

The season, having now become more favorable on account of 
copious rains that fell on the opening of May, everyone hurried to 
his work. Some are making their gardens; others are ploughing 
their fields ; everyone is planting as much corn as he can get. The 
last rains, as well as the vigorous vegetation that followed them 
contribute very much towards purifying the atmosphere of the mias- 
as the late epidemic had left in the land inhabitated by the Little 
Osages. for their towns had been the only ones that had been in- 
fected. Of the half-breeds, no one did suffer by it, with the exception 
of one unfortunate family that came during the winter to trade with 
Neeshumani's town. Mr. Gorman Halloway was an industrious white 
man married to a respectable half-breed lady. His business was to 
peddle provisions to Neeshumani's band. As during the winter 
he had supplied those Indians with a large amount of provisions, so, 
as soon as they had received their annuities, he came to the Mission 
where the payment used to be made, to collect what was due to him 
for the credit he had given them. Here his wife and two small chil- 
dren got very sick and, after a few days, there appeared on them 
symptoms of the dreadful distemper. Mr. Halloway, fearing that the 
inhabitants of the Mission might raise in mass against him and hurt 
him if they should find out that his family was infected with that 
nasty sickness, he marie people believe that his wife and little ones 
had the small-pox, left at once, taking a course east of the Neosho 
towards Crow creek, and went into camp some three miles above 
the place wh^re now stands the city of Gerard in Crawford coun- 
ty. The moving to a locality where nobody, as yet, was living proved 
beneficial to his family, but. unfortunately, fatal to himself. Near to 
the place where he had made his camp there happened to be an old 



OSAGE INDIAN MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 139 

dilapidated cabin, and, wishing to accommodate his family under a 
shelter, for a rainy season had set in, he goes to work gathering 
brush wood, old grass and broken timber to thatch a roof over that 
forlorn dwelling. In doing this the poor man overworks himself and 
developes the disease whose germs he had inhaled in nursing his 
fz^mily. He is seized by a most violent fever, his body is gradually 
covered with pustules and ulcers ; in less than two days of great 
suffering he dies, leaving his wife and children in a state of destitu- 
tion in a desert country, far away from all assistance, with hardly 
enough breadstuff to last them for, perhaps, one week. And, lo. 
the poor widow finds herself all alone, with her two little children, 
to watch over the remains of her husband. After two most dis- 
tressing days, she moves her camp a little further down to a lone 
tree near to the creek. And, on the next night, hearing the howling 
of wolves prowling over the prairie, she feels it her duty to provide, 
some way or another, for the burial of the corpse of her dear de- 
parted. But, how is she going to do it? There is no one within 
reach to help her, for nobody is living in that part of the country. 
She has no tools to dig a grave, and, supposing she had them, weak 
and exhausted as she is, she would not be able to make use of 
them. Her condition is most terrible. The only conclusion she can come 
to is to destroy every thing by fire. Love and respect for the re- 
mains of her husband now give her courage to accomplish the 
painful work. She tears down the rickety shanty, covers the corps 
wit clap-boards and shingles, piles over them brush wood, chips, old 
grass ,dry sticks, in a word, whatever she can get around, and hav- 
ing built a regular pyre, sets fire to it. It is a cruel, heartrending 
funeral, indeed, she is bound to perform, but, under the circum- 
stances it is the best she can do. Yes, looking on it from a higher 
standpoint, it would seem that Divine Providence had directed her 
to do so, for her daring action was the very means calculated to pro- 
cure her the so much needed assistance. , 
Early in the morning of that day Nagrushe, a bright Mission 
Ineian boy, while hunting some four miles south of the place where 
the destitute family was camping, saw a large column of thick smoke 
arising in- the north, and knowing that no one was then living in 
that direction, he wondered what might have caused that sudden 
conflagration. To satisfy his curiosity, he started at once in a full 
gallop towards the north, and in a short time reached the unlucky 
spot. At the very first sight Nagrushe recognizes Mrs. Harriet Hal- 
loway; for he had seen her frequently in her husband's store, and, 
considering the miserable condition she and her children were in, he 
cried and mourned for quite awhile. Having, by this, shown his sym- 
pathy for her, he approaches her and inquires how was it that she 
had been brougt to such extremities. The working at the fire had 
so fz'.tigued the sickly widow, that she could hardly utter a word, but, 
encouraged by the kindness shown her by this friendly Indian, she 
related to him in a few words her doleful story, and begged him most 
earnestly to hurry back to the Mission and inform Father Shoe- 



140 REV. P. M. PONZIGUONE. S. J. 

makers about the state she was in. Nagrushe promises he would 
comply with her wishes. Then, taking from the pommel of his 
saddle' four nice ducks he had shot that morning, he hands them 
to her and. springing on his mustang ,is soon out of sight. It was 
the 13th of Mav\vhen, at noon. Nagrushe reached the Mission. He 
comes directly to Father Shoemakers room and gives him a full ac- 
count of the destitution in which Mrs. Halloway is. The Father feels 
very sorry at hearing such distressing news, and, considering that any 
delay on his part can but aggravate the situation of that unhappy 
family, he. at once, takes in his ambulance an abundant supply of 
such provisions as might be most needed. He starts in campany of 
Brother John De Bruyn and, before night, they come to camp at a 
point where the old Missouri wagon road used to cross Cow creek. 
On the next morning they drive up along the creek and, at last, 
find the place where the suffering family is. The good Father con- 
soles the poor widow, encouraging her to be resigned to God's 
will in her bereavement, and gives her all the provisions he has 
brought. This done, he goes to work with the Brother. First of all, 
they gather the charred remains of Gorman Halloway and bury them 
as decently as circumstances will allow. Next, felling a few small 
trees, they put up a shanty where the family might have a temporary 
shelter. Having got through with this really philanthropic work, 
both returned to the Mission. 

The losses suffered by the Little Osages since the middle of 
last February were considerable. Had they not disbanded in time, 
the mortality might have been extended to the whole Nation. Since 
they scattered over the plains, it became impossible for them to find 
any store wherein to trade, and, having consumed all the provisions 
they had. were bound to depend exclusively on game for their sup- 
port. However, as Indians can make a very good living on meat, 
without any such delicacies as salt, bread, vegetables, coffee, etc., 
so they did not suffer at all for the want of these articles. The large 
amount of game they killed supplied them with plent yof good food, 
and the rare peltries they accumulated during that time procured to 
them a source of wealth. 

In July they all returned to their old towns over which a most 
luxuriant crop of new fresh grass could be seen .The good news 
of their recovering, and, above all, the rich peltries they had brought 
from the far plains, now drew many of the half-breeds to their 
lodges to trade. Of those who had connections among the Little 
Osages. Peter Lc Beau was the most popular. Wishing to get the 
best of their furs, he went with a party of young men to Jasper 
county, Missouri, to procure as much flour, coffee and sugar as his 
pack horses couhl carry. And with this stock of provisions he also 
wrapt up two big cans of gun powder and two kegs of whiskey, for 
these two last articles, especially the liquor, always sell at a i)remium 
among the Indians. They did not tarry long in making their pur- 
chases, and, as soon as they had loaded their beasts, they started 
homeward, following an old traib due north-west, to cross the Neosho 



OSAGE INDIAN MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 141 

at a well known point called "Trotters Ford." The weather was dry 
and windy, the air was full of smoke, but the sturdy party under 
Captain Peter Le Beau did not care about the weather, they all were 
very jolly and talkative. No wonder if so ; for, besides the two kegs 
of fire water they had purchased for trade, each one had his own 
special supply of it in quart bottles secured in their pockets as a 
"best of preventives" against all sorts of distempers. They cross the 
Neosho without any difficulty and, following the old trail, they come 
to a high table land on which from time immemorial there stood a 
very well known lone tree, a great land mark to travellers. In com- 
ing up to this they find out that they were in a rather critical po- 
sition for a most extensive prairie fire was advancing up to the top 
of the hill to intercept their way. As it was evident the nature of 
their cargo was rendering their situation most dangerous, and the 
worst of it was there was not time to speculate about what should 
be done, for the blaze was glaring Hvely, the wind carrying it 
against them. To save themselves and their horses, who might have 
been killed if an explosion should have taken place, they quickly 
secure on the lone tree the powder and the liquor as high as they 
could reach between its branches. This done, they hurry back to the 
river. Had there been no wind, the expedient they applied to would 
have been a good one; for on such a supposition the fire might have 
made its way gradually through the grass and passed by the tree 
without doing any damage. But, the case was quite different. The 
wind seemed to be gaining every moment and with such an increased 
violence that volumes of burning weeds could be seen carried up 
in the air mixed with clouds of smoke. Hardly had the party re- 
turned to the river, when a great detonation was heard in the west. 
There was no need of inquiring into the cause of it. A dark cloud 
of smoke impregnated with burning sparks had enveloped the lone 
tree and in a moment the explosion had followed. At the terrific 
noise the unlucky half-breeds stood motionless for a while and 
looked bewildered. At last Peter, as jolly as ever, cried out: "Hello 
boys, come up ; let us go to the theatre of war." And lo, what a 
sight presented itself to them when they reached the spot. The 
ground was strewn all around with broken limbs of the lone tree, 
and, mixed up with them, were fragments of the powder cans and 
staves of the whiskey kegs. The atmosphere was filled with smoke 
and the stench of brimstone and sulphur. From the soil, now saturated 
with liquor, came up a steam as from a distillery. 

All they could do was to rally up their pack horses, who, scared 
by the unexpected explosion, had run to shelter themselves in the 
timber land along the river. From that day the spot where this 
accident took place became memorable and, no matter how frequent- 
ly the half-breeds passed it on their way to Missouri after pro- 
visions, they would never miss to recall to their mind the unpleasant 
adventure of Peter Le Beau and, going on, they would have a big 
laugh at the expense of their friend. 

Paul M, Ponziglione, S. J. 



FATHER JAMES MAXWELL OF STE 
GENEVIEVE 

The Pilgrimage to Ste. Genev'eve, recently made by the members 
and friends of our Historical Society, had a tendency to rouse new 
interest in that quaint old city, and its treasured memories. Walking 
through the spacious rooms of what was built for the Ste. Gene- 
vieve Academy more than a hundred years ago, we thought of him 
who conceived the idea of a higher school of learning amid the primi- 
tive surroundings, and as we had, on a former occasion, written about 
the German priest who introduced the parochial school in Ste. Gene- 
vieve, we felt the impulse of writing about his successor, the Irish 
priest, who sought to introduce a high school as well. Father Paul de 
Saint Pierre, was succeeded in the administration of the parish of Ste. 
Genevieve by Rev. James Maxwell, who, living under three successive 
governments, the Spanish, the French, and the American, was also 
known under the 'Strange-sounding designations Don Diego Maxwell, 
and M. Jacques Maxwell. 

James Maxwell, was an Irishman, probably born in Dublin about 
1742, as he states in his will that his brothers and sisters were Hving 
in Ireland, and particularly, his brother Robert Maxwell in Dublin. 
But whether James was born in Ireland or of Irish emigrants in Spain, 
he certainly made his theological studies at the Iri-;h College in the 
celebrated University of Salamanca, and was there raised to the holy 
priesthood. Where he spent the first years of his ministry we cannot 
say, probably in Spain, in order to make himself familiar with the 
Spanish language. Others had found similar employment. A friend 
of his, Don Thomas O'Ryan, was chaplain of honor to the King of 
Spain and Confessor to the Queen. In 1794, however. Maxwell was 
engaged by the government for the American mission ^, and received 
the appointment as Vicar General of the Bishop of Louisiana^, signed 



' The University of Salamanca was under the immediate control of the 
Bishop who also bestowed the degrees in the name of tJie Pope and the King. 
The Irish College was only one of the numerous colleges affiliated with the 
University. There is a picture of the Courtyard at the Irish College in the 
Catholic Encyclopr-dia Art. .Salamanca. It was the policy of Spain to bring 
as many Irish priests to Louisiana, as were willing, so that they might affect 
the conversion of the Americans to the Catholic religion, which alone was 
tolerated in the .Spanish possessions. 

2 In virtue of the union of Church and State the Spanish King claimed 
the right of appointing the bishops and also minor clergymen, subject to the 
approval of the Church authorities. So it seems, Father Maxwell received his 
appointment as Vicar General not so much from the Bishop of Louisiana but 
rather through his influence. 

142 



FATHER JAMES MAXWELL 143 

by Eugenio de Llaguno, Nov. 22, 1794. Bishop Penalver y Cardenas 
had taken possession of his episcopal seat, New Orleans, on July 17, 
1795, and on August 2nd he began the discharge of his episcopal func- 
tions. The appointment of Father Maxwell as Parish Priest of Ste. 
Genevieve in Upper Louisiana was made. He arrived in Ste. Genevieve 
in April 1796. The Pastor de Saint Pierre was then absent from home, 
probably in New Orleans on his return-trip from Baltimore. Father 
Maxwell, in a brief letter, expressed his regret at being deprived of 
the honor to make his acquaintance. Maxwell calls Ste. Genevieve 
"my Parish." ^ For a time Father Maxwell hay have resided in the 
neighboring village of New Bourbon, until the old pastor Paul de 
Saint Pierre, could effect his departure for the South, where he was 
to administer to the spiritual wants of the ancient parish of Iber- 
ville until Oct. 15, 1826. Father James Maxwell must have been a 
very able and lovable man. "The Bishop of Salamanca had great 
confidence in him and brought him to the notice of the King of 
Spain." Ellicot, who met him at New Madrid on his way down the 
Mississippi, says that he was "a well-informed, liberal gentleman." * 
In the French Life of Bishop Flaget he is described as "a learned 
and practical Irish Catholic priest." It was hoped by the Spanish 
authorities, that he would convert the many American settlers in 
the Spanish Dominion to the Catholic religion. This, of course. 
Father Maxwell, did not and could not accomplish ; yet our sketch 
of his life will show, that he was, indeed, as Houck styles him, "a 
very active and enterprising man," as a priest and educator, as a 
business man, and as a real force in political life. In fact. Father 
James Maxmell must be regarded as one of the founders of our 
statehood in Missouri. 

Father Maxwell was above all things a true priest. The con- 
dition of religion in the vast district now placed under his general 
supervision of Vicar General, was deplorable indeed. In 1799 Bishop 
Penalver wrote : "The emigrants from the western part of the 
United States and the toleration of our government have introduced 
into this colony a gang of adventurers who have no religion and 
acknowledge no God, and they have made the morals of our people 
much worse, by intercourse with them in trade 

Such, too, is the case with the district of Illinois and the adjacent 
territory, in which there has been a remarkable introduction of those 
adventurers. This evil, in my opinion, can be remedied only by not 
permitting the slightest American settlement to be made at the 
points already designated, nor on any part of the Red River."' 

The pastors established in Upper Loui-siana at the time were 
Father Ledru, also called Jacobin, a Dominican from Canada, at 

3 Cf. The Article on Paul de Saint Pierre in theCatholic Historical Review. 
* Ellicots Journal p. 32 quoted by Houck. History of Missouri. 
5 Cf. Bishop Penalver's long letter of 1799 as quoted by Shea in his Life 
and Times of Archbishop Carroll, p. 579, s. s. 



144 REV. J. ROTHENSTEINER 

St. Louis. Father Pierre Gibault, sometime at Ste. Genevieve, now at 
Vincennes, but soon to be at New Madrid; Father Charles Leander 
Lusson at St. Charles, and Father Paul de Saint Pierre at Ste. Gene- 
vieve. The first one of these was styled by Bishop Carroll "an 
Apostate Dominican,"® and described as a fomentor of trouble for 
some American priests with the American government ^ Father 
Gibault, the one time Vicar General of the Bishop of Quebec in the 
Illinois country, was now old and decrepit and sadly discouraged, 
though still a valuable assistant. Father Charles Leander Lusson, 
whom Bishop Carroll had appointed to a mission on the Illinois 
side. Cahokia, but who had crossed the river to become parish priest 
of St. Charles, representing that he had lost his exeat, he had re- 
ceived from Bishop Carroll, when in fact none had been given, was 
about to be removed by Bishop Pennalver, if Bishop Carroll should 
desire it. ® Father de Saint Pierre left Ste. Genevieve for his final 
destination, the parish at Iberville, in February 1797, where he was to 
die October 15, 1826. 

Beyond the river, in the diocese of Bishop Carroll of Baltimore, 
there were at Vincennes the Rev. Francis Rivet, successor to Gibault, 
and since February 1799 the brothers John and Donatien Olivier; 
John attending Cahokia, and Donatien, Kaskaskia and Prairie du 
Rocher. That was the extent of priestly help and comfort Upper 
Louisiana enjoyed in the early days of Father Maxwell. But there 
was a Ste. Genevieve boy at his studies in far away Montreal, 
destined to succeed Father Maxwell as Pastor of Ste. Genevieve, 
Henri Pratte, the son of one of Ste. Genevieve's most worthy citizens. 

Father de Saint Pierre, was naturally averse to his transfer 
to the South. He had found a real home, the only one so far, among 
the people of Ste. Genevieve. And the people, also, were devoted to 
their good old pastor. But all came off agreeably on the arrival of the 
new pastor. Father Maxwell had under his immediate jurisdiction 
two almost equally important villages, Ste. Genevieve and that settle- 
ment of French royalists three miles below on the river, called New 
Bourbon. New Bourbon is now but a name, whilst Ste. Genevieve is a 
beautiful little city, full of the memorials of the past, some of whose 
quaint houses date back to the days before Father Maxwell's coming. 

Ste. Genevieve was, no doubt, the official residence of Father 
Maxwell, although he had property at New Bourbon and made fre- 
quent visits to that settlement. 

As doubts have 1)ecn raised about this matter of residence, we 
would quote the affidavits made in the so-called "Maxwell Claim" 



« In a letter of Bishop Carrol! found in the New Madrid Archives it is 
stated .that he, Bishop Carroll, had "received information on the conduct of 
this religious in Acadia, which made him feel very sad and caused him to 
reproach himself for havin;;( given him even limited power." 

■' Shea 1. c. ^79. 

• Shea 1. c. 460. 



FATHER JAMES MAXWELL 145 

1873.^ "I knew priest Maxwell when I was a boy; as he often came 
to our neighborhood," testifies Allen W. Holloman. "My father 
lived about twenty miles southwest of Ste. Genevieve, where the 
priest lived. On the way from Ste. Genevieve to Mine-la-Mott and 
the Black River country it was the habit of the priest to pass 
through our settlement going to that region and return". Mrs. 
Alzire M. Kennerly deposed among other things : "I am Pierre 
Menard's ^° daughter. I knew priest Maxwell of Ste. Genevieve. His 
nephew Hugh H. Maxwell married one of my sisters. The priest 
and my father were very intimate." Beside the testimonies of 
"these persons of the very highest character and standing", as U. S. 
Senator Bogy styles them, we have the fact that the Petition for 
the four leagues square ,or 112,896 arpens of land somewhere be- 
tween the Black and the Current Rivers in Central Missouri was 
dated Ste. Genevieve, October 15, 1799, although the grant was 
issued by Carlos Dehault Delassus, the Lieutenant Governor of Upper 
Louisiana and recorded by the Civil Commandant of the post and 
district of New Bourbon." 

In further corroboration of what would seem to need no proof, 
we would mention the words of J. G. Rozier, one of Ste. Genevieve's 
most prominent citizens in a letter preserved among the Darby Pa- 
pers: "Old Mr. Maxwell the Pastor lived in Ste. Genevieve," and 
to the fact, the Last Will and Testament of James Maxwell was made 
and signed in Ste. Genevieve, and witnessed to by seven of Ste. 
Genevieve's inhabitants. Februarv 22, 1802. 



9 "Maxwell Claim. Application of the Heirs and Legal Representatives 
of Hugh H. and John P. Maxwell to the General Land Office, for Land Scrip 
in lieu of their lands sold by the United States Government, and lying within 
the limits of a Spanish Grant to James Maxwell, which was confirmed to 
Hugh H. and John P. Maxwell by Act of Congress, approved 27th April 1816." 
We are indebted to the Librarian of the Missouri Historical Society Miss 
Stella Drumm for the use of this very important document. Amos Stoddard, 
in his "Sketches, Historical and Descriptive, of Louisiana" (1812) says of 
this Concession of land: (page 135) "A tract of one hundred and two thousand 
eight hundred and ninety six arpens was conceded November the third, 1799 
to a Catholic Clergyman now in Upper Louisiana, who is an Irishman by 
birth. This concession was never extended on the lands embraced by it : nor 
did any Irish Catholics attempt to avail themselves of the benevolent and 
pious designs of his Catholic Majesty." We shall see more about this. 

^^ The one-time Lieutenant Governor of Illinois. 

^1 "In the Illinois (Country) there was a Commandant General at St. 
Louis, to whom were subordinate those of New Madrid, Ste. Genevieve, New 
Bourbon, St. Charles and St. Andrew." F. X. Martin, History of Louisiana, 
p. 299. 

"The expression "The Illinois" had no reference to the river of that name, 
but to the country in general, on both sides of the Mississippi, above the 
mouth of the Ohio, which, under the French and Spanish governments, was 
denominated "the Country of the Illinois", and this denomination appeared 
on all their records and official acts. Thus letters, deeds and other instru- 
ments, bore date at Kaskaskia of the Illinois, St. Louis of the Illinois, St. 
Charles of the Illinois, to denote the country in which these villages were 
situated." Major Amos Stoddard, Sketches of Louisiana 181 2. 



146 REV. J. ROTHENSTEINER 

That, we think, settles the question of Father Maxwell's residence. 

Father Maxwell attended a number of settlements within a semi- 
circle of about one hundred miles, among them, New Madrid, Cape 
Girardeau, St. Michaels', Potosi, Old Mines, and Perryville. Concern- 
ing the first Church at Perryville we have the written testimony of 
Isidore Moore, who came to Perry County as early as February 1801. 
"The old church," he says, "was built in 1812. The Reverend James 
Maxwell, Vicar General, blessed it and said the first Mass in it; he 
served us the year 1813. but how often I cannot recollect ; he was acci- 
dentally killed by a fall from his horse in Easter-time 1814. That Rev. 
gentleman had some years previous occasionally said Mass a few times 
in the dwelling-house of old Mr. Tucker. Perliaps it was in the years 
1806 or 1807." 

Father Maxwell had extensive holdings of real estate in the 
districts of Ste. Genevieve and New Bourbon. Among them 

1. James Maxwell, as assignee of Keely, 500 arpents on the Saline, 
granted by Delassus, Jan. 15, 1800. 

2. A Concession of four leagues square, by Delassus, November 
3, 1799. 

3. Concession of 300 arpents no Gabouri River, by Delassus, on 
September 17, 1799. 

4. Concession of 300 arpents on the Mississippi River, from Delassus, 
September 1799. 

5. As assignee, from Bernard Pratte of 7056 arpents of the St. 
Francois River, from Delassus, Oct. 19, 1799. 

6. As assignee of Bernard Pratte, from Henry Diel. of 5000 arpents 
in St. Francois River, from Delassus, Dec. 9, 1799. 

7. As assignee of Arthur O'Neal, for 800 arpents on Gabouri River, 
by Trudeau, March 5. 1798, and about 800 arpents on two succes- 
sive occasions. 

A number of these parcels of land were sold to pay the debts 
of the holder after his sudden death. May 28th 1814. In regard to 
the concession mentioned under No. 2 the tract of four leagues or 
twelve miles square, embracing 112,896 arpents, situated in and 
around what is now Reynold's County, Congress, April 27, 1816, two 
years after Father Maxwell's death, passed an Act, entitled. An 
Act for the benefit of John P. Maxwell and Hugh H. Maxwell; "that 
the right title and interest of the United States of and to any real 
estate whereof a certain James Maxwell died seized, the same be 
hereby released unto John P. Maxwell of the Missouri Territory and 
Hugh H. Maxwell of the Territory of Illinois, saving and reserving 
to all persons other than the United States ,any right, title, or interest 
of, in, and to the premises aforesaid. . . ." ^^ This Act did not transfer 
these tracts to Father Maxwell's supposed heirs, the nephews John 
anrj Hugh, but only relincjuishcd in their favor any possible claims 
of the United States. In consequence the Diocese of Missouri, or St. 

*• "Maxwell Oaim", p. 30. 



FATHER JAMES MAXWELL 147 

Louis, as well as the Maxwell heirs laid claim to the vast tract in 
Reynold's County, with but indififerent success. The land was after- 
wards sold by the United States to new settlers. The Church g^ot 
nothing out of the holdings of the former Vicar General, but the 
Maxwell heirs have received some reimbursement from settlers for 
their readiness to quiet a clouded title, and in fact have sold some 
of the land ,as John Buford of Reynolds County testified. This is the 
legal aspect of the case. But there is an historical interest attaching 
to the whole transaction. Father Maxwell's expressed purpose was to 
found an Irish Catholic colony in the wilds of Central Missouri, 
and he had in fact laid the foundations of such a colony. The 
region at the headwaters of the Black River and the Current River 
is noted for the beauty and picturesqueness of its scenery. Its rugged 
hills and fruitful valleyes, its limpid rivers and creeks, have become 
known far and wide. Then there was the promise of rich mineral 
deposits. A Catholic government of liberal principle, as the Spanish 
administration was, promised a new and happy Ireland to that per- 
secuted people. Father Maxwell, himself an Irishman, was persona 
grata with the Spanish court and government. The government would 
do all in its power to secure for the Catholic settlers all the advant- 
ages, both spiritual and temporal, that they might crave. 

But to begin with the beginning we will transcribe from the 
records both the Petition of Don Diego Maxwell and the Land- 
Grant issued by Don Carlos Dehault Delassus ,the Lieutenant Gover- 
nor of Upper Louisiana : ^^ 

PETITION OF JAMES MAXWELL 

To Don Carlos Dehault Delassus, Lieutenant Colonel in the Royal Armies,, 
and Lieutenant Governor of Upper Lousiana. 

Don Diego Maxwell, Curate of Ste. Genevieve and Vicar General of Illi- 
nois, with all the respect due to you, represents that the most excellent Duke 
De Alcudia, Minister of State and Universal Despacho of the Indies, having 
manifested his desire that some Catholics from Ireland should come to settle 
themselves in this colony of Louisiana ,knowing them to be faithful subjects, 
and affectionate to the Spanish Government on account of their religion, as 
appears by the annexed letter of Don Thomas O'Ryan, chaplain of honor of 
his Majesty and Confessor of the Queen, our lady, written to the petitioner 
in the English language, by order of his excellency, the above named minister, 
the government engaging to have a church built for them in their settlement, 
and leaving to the judgement of the petitioner to solicit of the government the 
quantity of land of the royal domain which he will think necessary for him- 
self and the said settlers. There being some vacant lands belonging to the 
domain, upon which no settlement has been made to this day, situated be- 
tween Black River and the Currents, which are branches of the White River, 
at the distance of from thirty to thirty-five leagues from this town, there- 
fore the petitioner humbly suplicates that you will condescend to take the 
necessary measures in order to enable him to obtain from the government 
in full property, the concession of four leagues square, making the quantity 
of 112,896 arpens of land in superficies, in the said place and for the above 
mentioned purpose; the petitioner having no other purpose but the advance- 
ment of his Majesty's service and the salvation of the souls which shall be 



13 "Maxwell Claim", p. i. s. s. 



14S REV. J. ROTHENSTEINER 

confided to Hi's care. He at the same time informs you that several of the 
above mentioned Irish Catholics, induced by him, have already arrived from 
Ireland and that manv other are coming, and now on their way with a part of 
his own familv, not without great expense and costs to your petitioner, for 
which he hope's to be remunerated by the government, and if not, by God and 
the gratitude of those poor people, for having rescued them from the British 
tyranny and persecution to which they were exposed on account of their 
religion. This favor solicited by the petitioner, he hopes to obtain from the 
generosity of the go\xrnmcnt, which you represent in this part of the colony, 
as beng conformable to the intentions of his Majesty, communicated by his 
minister. Meanwhile he will pray God to preserve your important life many 
years. 
Ste. Genevieve. October 15, I799- Diego Maxwell. 

ST. LOUIS OF ILLINOIS. 

November 3, 1799. 

Having examined the statement in the above petition supported by the 
letter cited in the same, which has been presented to me by the petitioner; 
and whereas its contents are in acordance with the dispositions of the Gover- 
nor General of these provinces ,Don Manuel Gayoso de Lemos, (who, permits 
the introduction of emigrants in this territory only to those who are really 
Catholics) , as appears by this order dated New Orleans, 3d September, 1797, 
giving to the said letter all the consideration it deserves, in as much as its 
contents are derived from wise disposton of his Excellency, the Minister of 
State, which will without doubt be of considerable advantage in increasing 
the population so necessary in these remote parts of his Majesty's domain, with 
a class of laborious inhabitants, to the satisfaction of the government. 

Therefore, according to the demand, I do grant to the petitioner four 
leagues square, or the quantity of 112,896 arpens of land in superficies in 
the place he solicits ,and for the object here above mentioned; and the Sur- 
veyor General of this Upper Louisiana. Don Antonio Soulard, shall put him 
in possession of said Quantity in the place mentioned, when requested by the 
(party) interested ; which being executed he shall make out a figurative plat 
(of his survey) delivering the same to the party, with (his certificate) in order 
to serve him to solicit the title in form from the Intendant General of these 
provinces, in whom alone is vested, by royal order, the distributing and grant- 
ing all classes of lands belonging to the royal domains. 

Carlos Dehault Delassus. 

The Lieutenant Governor had the power of granting land- 
titles: but the grant had to be submitted to the Intendant General 
who resided in New Orleans. This was often neglected, and hence 
arose many law-suits. Yet the United States Board of Commis- 
sioners on Spanish Claims usually confirmed all Patents issued by 
the individual Lieutenant Governors, even if no proof of confirmation 
by the Intendant (General could be shown. '^ Whether James Max- 



'♦ Dclas.sus in 1803 received the following document from New Orleans, 
which rendered it illegal for him to grant lands after its reception. His not 
obeying strictly the order, opened the door to much dispute concerning land 
claims : 

"On account of the death of the assessor of this intcndancy, and there 
not being in the Province a learned man who can supply his place, I have 
closed the tribunal of affairs and causes relating to grants and compositions 
of royal lands, and the 8lst article of the royal ordinance for the intondants 
of New Spam provides that, for conducting that tribunal and substantiating 
lU acts, the concurrence of that officer shall be necessary. I make this com- 



FATHER JAMES MAXWELL 149 

well attended to this matter is not known: His Patent was, how- 
ever, approved by Act of Congress. 

From the first of these documents it appears that the first sugges- 
tion of an Irish colony in the heart of the wilderness of Upper 
Louisinana had come from the Spanish minister of State in charge of 
the Indies, under which title were embraced all Spanish possessions 
in America. The tract of land suitable for the purpose lay around the 
forks of the Black River, about eighty miles from Cape Girardeau, 
and ninety to nine-five miles from Ste. Genevieve, and about thirty- 
five miles south of Potosi. The greater part lay in the present county 
of Reynolds, adjoining Iron and Wayne. 

The tract, as surveyed by William Johnson and recorded on 
February 6. 1806, contains land of the first quality between the forks 
of the Black River; on the northwest side, there were some high hills 
as the surveyors state. ^^ The Petition was accompanied by Don Diego 
Maxwell's Commission as Vicar General signed by Eugenio De Lla- 
guno, dated San Lorenzo, November 22, 1794 and a letter of Bishop 
Penalver y Cardenas of Louisiana, dated May 1, 1799, informing Max- 
well that he had recommended him to the King, and that as Vicar 
General he must watch over all the priests in Upper Louisiana. 
Father Maxwell states that some of the promised Irish settlers had 
already arrived and many others were coming, among them a few 
members of his own family, not without great expense and costs 
to himself. The Petition was granted. 

Now let us see what are the facts in the case: John Bu- 
ford ^" testified in his seventy-sixth year : that he came to 
the Maxwell claim on Black River in 1815. His father had bought 
a farm at the forks of the Black River from John Maxwell, 
the priests nephew, about 1817 or 1818. The family went to 
live on the land in 1820. There had been a clearing and improvement 
on it many years before ; there were several houses on it, one a store 
house, where a store had been kept. There were none of Priest Max- 
wells men living there when he first knew the place, but always 
heard of his having men there at work and intended to have a colony. 
I remember, he said, old Mr. Stickland told me, he was at Maxwell's 
Establishment while his men were there. It was said that a large grant 
of ten or twelve miles square was made to Maxwell for a colony." 
This witness was vouched for by his fellow-citizens as of highest 
standing for character and integrity. John Buford was a member of 
the first Constitutional Convention of Missouri. Thomas D. Harri- 



munication to apprise you of this providence, and that you may not receive 
or transmit memorials for the grant of lands, until further orders. God pre- 
serve you. etc." 

"New Orleans, December ist, 1802." 

Only one of Father Maxwell's concessions was dated later than 1799, and 
that was one held by him as assignee. 

^5 Cf. Map of survey found among the Darby papers and inserted in the 
"Maxwell Claim." 



150 REV. J. ROTHENSTEINER 

son of Reynolds County, who came to the Forks of the Black River 
in 1844, and lived there ever since, says that he learned from the old 
inhabitants "that a portion of his farm had been cleared and put 
in cultivation before this region was surveyed and sold by the 
United States. It had however, been unoccupied for some time be- 
fore." He furthermore states that the tradition in the neighborhood 
was, that this early settlement w^as made under a Spanish claim and 
that the effort of the settlement was to make a colony. We must 
here allude to the testimony of A. W. Holloman, already quoted, 
for the purpose of describing the route Priest Maxwell may be sup- 
posed to have travelled to and from his colony. From Ste. Gene- 
vieve to jMine-la-Motte or St. Michaels extended the road that was 
blazed by Renault through the wilderness along a primeval Indian 
trail, for the purpose of removing the lead from the mines of Madi- 
son County to the river at Ste. Genevieve.^'' At St. Michaels the road 
crossed the Little St. Francis, and ten miles farther west the Big 
St. Francis. I ronton lies on this road about twenty miles from 
Fredericktown. From there the way lay southward into the very 
heart of what is now the County of Reynolds. Father Maxwell, no 
doubt, often stopped over at Mine-la-Motte for priestly ministrations 
to the Catholics of St. Michaels (Fredericktown) and environs, as 
they were among his parishioners. The Records of their marriages 
and Baptisms he kept at Ste. Genevieve. There was a little cemetery 
at the junction of the Ste. Genevieve and Perryville roads ,near Mine- 
La-Motte. Very probably it was here, at the "New Village", half 
way between Mine-La-Motte and Old St. Michaels, that Mass was 
said in some private dwelling. ^^ 

But we must return to "Maxwell's Grant on the three forks of the 
Black River." 

Mrs. B. F. Chouteau ,of the village of Kaskaskia .stated under 
oath: "that she knew personally Jacques or James Maxwell, priest 
and former Vicar General of the territory of Illinois. ^^ That she 
was present in Ste. Genevieve in 1814, when he was accidentally 
killed by a fall from his horse. That of her knowledge the said Jacques 
or James Maxwell recognized Hugh Maxwell and John P. Max- 
well as his nephews. That Hugh H. Maxwell married a daughter 
of Pierre Menard of Kaska.skia, named Odile, the sister of the 
deponent, i. e. of Mrs. B. F. Chouteau. That she has heard from 
the old inhabitants that Priest Maxwell had an establishment on the 
Black Water." 

Alzire M. Kennerly, another daughter of Pierre Menard, testified: 



»^ The lead mines of Madison and Washington Counties were known to 
the Indians long before the advent of the white man. The Indian trails usually 
became the highroads of civilization. 

>* Cf. "Chronicles of an Old Missouri Parish." 

'» Vicar General .Maxwells' jurisdiction did not extend beyond the Mis- 
sissippi, as that was then American territory subject to the Bishop of Bal- 
timore. Only Missouri was meant here. 



FATHER JAMES MAXWELL 151 

"The priest and my father were very intimate, the priest had land 
possessions on Black Water in the state of Missouri. I used to hear 
my father frequently speak of the priest going to his place, which 
was on Black Water, where he used to stay two or three weeks at a 
time." 

That Father Maxwelll had faith in his Irish colony may be 
judged from the fact that he built a solid house of stone for a store 
and established a trading house in the wilderness. The following af- 
fidavits will prove this : 

Joseph Huff of Iron County, in which part of the Maxwell claim 
is situated, said : 

"I am sixty years of age. I came to this part of the country in 1829, and 
have been acquainted with the Maxwell claim at the forks of Black River 
since my coming to the country. The Maxwell colony then was a part of the 
history of the country, and spoken of more, perhaps, than any matter con- 
nected with the early settlement. I have heard the old settlers ,who lived 
here when Maxwell had his store at the forks, talk together about those times 
(of what they were all acquainted with), about trading at the store in Max- 
well's life time, and about the foreigners Maxwell had in his colony, who 
were very ignorant of the way to get along in a new country. The store was 
the only one beyond Potosi, which was thirty-five miles oflf, and all the settlers 
traded at Maxwell's. The colony and store were not continued after the death 
of Maxwell, the priest. When I came to the country there were few people 
and some Indians still. I hunted over the Maxwell grant, and had the line 
of survey pointed out to me by the old inhabitants who spoke of it as know- 
ing the survey The old settlers expressed regrets that the Maxwell 

store was discontinued, where they were all in the habit of trading. Whereas 
when I came to the country they had to go to Potosi to trade and for some 
time afterwards, until other stores were established." 

It would appear from this, that the Irish settlers Father Max- 
well had brought to his incipient colony were not as prosperous as 
they had been led to expect : yet the store conducted by the Founder 
of the colony was a real Godsend to the people scattered through 
the wilderness, as will furthermore appear from the testimony of 
Joseph L. Stevens : 

**My name is Joseph L. Stephens, I am sixty-one years old, my father 
moved me from the State of Kentucky with the balance of his family in 1825. 
When I was a boy my father first settled in 1825, not a long distance from 
the Maxwell land, and every move that I have since made has brought me 

nearer to said claim 

I also heard the old settlers speak of Maxwell's storehouse in the neigh- 
borhood of what is known as the three forks of Black River; I also heard them 
say the claim crossed the west or south fork making up north and crossing 
the other forks of Black River some distance up, making round and crossing 
Big Black River ,some miles below the junction of the several forks of Black 
river." 

What really gave the death-blow to the project was the sudden 
death of Father Maxwell by a fall from his horse, in Ste. Gene- 
vieve. 2" A few parcels of land owned by the deceased had to be 
sold in order to pay his debts, and the remainder went to the heirs, 
the twelve miles square in Reynolds County being part of the estate. 

20 A brief notice of Father Maxwell's death may be found in the Missouri 
Gazette and Illinois Advertiser for June 4th 1814. 



152 REV. J. ROTHENSTEINER 

The store was discontinued .the colony was no longer thought of. 
emigration from Ireland being prohibited for the time being, and 
no one able to promote it. 

As to the heirs, it may be w^ell to quote the stipulations of the 
will made by James Maxwell at Ste. Genevieve before setting out 
on a journey to" New Orleans February 27. 1802. In this Will he styles 
himself "Cure of Ste. Genevieve and Vicar General of the Illinois." 
He bequeaths all his property, personal and real, to his brothers and 
sisters in Ireland, one of whom he mentions by name, Robert Max- 
well in Dublin. As executor he appoints J. B. Valid and Thomas 
Madden. Seven witnesses sign the document. In a codicil the testator 
wills one dollar to his nephew Hugh H. Maxwell, the "good-for- 
nothing", "who will know the reason -why." We do not know whether 
Father Maxwell made a later Will or not. It seems both nephews, 
Tohn and Hugh, were regarded as heirs, at the death of their uncle. 
The wife of John Maxwell later on sent a letter of enquiry to Bishop 
Blanc of New Orleans in regard to the inheritance, enclosing the 
original plat of the survey of the Reynold's County tract. 

Father Maxwell had been befriended by the Spanish Government, 
and the Government could depend upon his loyalty. But the end of 
Spanish Power on the continent of North America was in sight. By 
the secret treaty of San Ildefonso, Oct. 1, 1800, Spain had promised 
to return Louisiana to France within six months after France had 
fulfilled certain stipulations. The First Consul ceded the entire ter- 
ritory to the United States, April 30, 1803. Bishop Penalver had been 
promoted to the See of Guatamala July 20, 1801, and two Irish priests 
in New Orleans, Thomas Hassett and Patrick Walsh, were left in 
charge of the entire diocese of Louisiana and the Floridas. Yet, Father 
Maxwell's authority as Vicar General for Upper Louisiana does not 
seem to have lapsed in 1801, as he styles himself Vicar General of 
Louisiana and the Illinois as late as May 1802. The Rev. Thomas Has- 
sett, by circular letter of June 10, 1803, asked the priests of his diocese, 
whether they wished to stay at their posts or follow the Spanish 
standard. Only four of the twenty-six were willing to remain in Louis- 
iana. Among those that signified their intention to leave with the 
Spanish forces, were Father L. Lusson of St. Charles, Peter Janin, 
of .St. Louis, and James Maxwell of Ste. Genevieve. If Father Gi- 
bault was then still at New Madrid, he was one of those that elected 
to stay. Father Maxwell was somehow prevailed upon to remain 
pastor of Ste. Genevieve and missionary to all the stations of Upper 
Louisiana until fresh auxiliaries should come. 

Being a highly educated and public-spirited man, the pastor 
of .Ste. Genevieve took a deep interest in the erection of 
schools. Ste. Genevieve had for many years been the proud 
possessor of a Grammar School. But 1808 the Ste. Genevieve Academy 
was organized with twenty-one trustees, composed of the best citizens 
of the town. Mr. Mann Butler was engaged as principal, and the 
erection of a fine stone building was begun ; but for want of support 



FATHER JAMES MAXWELL 153 

the enterprise was abandoned before the building was completed. 
Twenty years afterwards E. Flagg, making his voyage up the Missis- 
sippi, describes the hill on which the school was to be: "Upon the 
elevated site was erected some twenty years since, a handsome struc- 
ture of stone, commanding a noble prospect of the view, the broad 
American bottom on the opposite side, and the bluffs beyond the 
Kaskaskia. It was intended for a literary institution; but, owing to 
unfavorable reports, with regard to the health of its situation, the 
design was abandoned, and the edifice was never completed. It is now 
in a state of "ruinous perfection" and enjoys the reputation, more- 
over, of being haunted. In very sooth, its aspect, viewed from the 
river at twilight, with its broken windows outlined against the west- 
ern sky, is wild enough to warrant such an idea on any other." ^^ 
Of the village itself Mr. Flagg says : "It has that decayed and ven- 
erable aspect characteristic of all those early French settlements". 
Yet, another traveller, Ashe, gives us a glimpse of the altar in the 
Church of Ste. Genevieve in Father Maxwell's days : "At the upper 
end (of the church) there is a beautiful altar, the fronton of which 
is brass gilt and enriched in medio-relievo representing the religions 
(religious orders) of the world, diffusing the benefits of the gospel 
over the new world. In the middle of the altar there is a crucifix of 
brass gilt and underneath it, a copy of a picture by Rafael, represent- 
ing the Madonna and Child, St. Elizabeth and St. John. In a second 
group there is a St. Joseph, all perfectly well drawn and colored. The 
beauty and grace of the Virgin are beyond description and the little 
Jesus and St. John are charming." — 

We wonder, if this painting is still preserved at Ste. Genevieve : 
if not, we venture to suggest that it may have been given by either 
Father Maxwell or Father Pratte to their struggling mission at St. 
Michaels, as there is an old picture there, that answers Mr. Ashs' 
description. 

It was on the 4th day of March 1804 that Major Amos Stoddard, 
in behalf of the United States, took possession of the territory of 
Louisiana, under the treaty of cession. The solemn act of lowering the 
French flag and hoisting the flag of the United States took place 
at St. Louis. ^^ Congress at once provided for the better government 

21 Flaggs. "The Far West." 1838. p. 96. 

-~ Ashe's Travels, p. iig. 

23 There were a great many inhabitants, says Edwards in his Far West" who 
looked upon the transfer even at first with disfavor, but it was confined principally 
to that class whose possessions were meagre, and consequently who had but 
little to hope for in the rise of property. The couriers des bois and the voy- 
ageurs, doubtless regretted the change, as it gave possession of the country 
to a people who would throw some trammels over the wild liberties of their 
vagabondish life. But others regretted the change from political and religious 
motives. The last Lieutenant Governor Delassus, is said by Darby to have 
wept when the flag was furled, the tricolore now of the new French Republic, 
that had superseded the lilies of France. The selection of Father Maxwell as 
a member of the Territorial Council had a tendency to conciliate the old 
French and Spanish settlers with the new order of things. 



154 REV. J. ROTHENSTEINER 

of the new teritory. A governor was appointed, a House of Repre- 
sentatives was elcted. A Legislative Council to consist of nine mem- 
bers was to be selected by the President of the United States out of 
eighteen persons nominated by the Territorial House of Represen- 
tadves. The five counties entitled to representatiton were : St. Charles, 
St. Louis. Cape Girardeau, Ste. Genevieve and New Madrid. The first 
House consisted of thirteen members, and convened at the residence 
of Joseph Robidoux. December 7. 1812. From among the eighteen 
persons they had nominated for members of the Council, President 
Jefferson selected nine, among them the Reverend James Maxwell, 
whom his associates at once elected member of the Committee 
on Enrollment, and, on January 19, 1804, presiding officer of the 
body. -* The second General Assembly which met at St. Louis on the 
5th day of December 1814, chose William Neely as presiding officer, 
because Father Maxwell, as we have already stated had been killed 
by a fall from his horse on May 28th of the same year. 

From the Journal of the House of Representtives as given in the 
"Missouri Gazette and Illinois Advertiser" we would quote: "Dec. 6, 
1814. Mr. Scott : 'T am instructed to acquaint the House of Represen- 
tatives, that a vacancy happened in the Legislative Council, by the 
death of the honorable James Maxwell, for the County of Ste. Gene- 
vieve. Dec. 7. "In conformity to notice of yesterday from the Legis- 
lative Council, that a vacancy has become therein, and on motion 
of Mr. Wilson, the House proceeded to the nomination of two per- 
sons, one of whom is to supply the vacancy in the Legislative Coun- 
cil occasioned by the death of the honorable James Maxwell." 

Father Maxwell died at the age of seventy-two years and was 
buried May 30, 1840, in the Church he had served so well. Father Fran- 
cis Savine of Cahokia performed the last rites of the Church. When the 
old church was enlarged by Father Weiss the body remained undis- 
turbed. Now the remains rest beneath the pavement of the sanctuary 
in the Church so tastefully enlarged and renovated by the present 
pastor, the Very Reverend Charles Van Tourenhout. One beautiful 
eminence near the city still bears the name of its former owner, Max- 
well's Hill. His name is one of which Ste. Genevieve may well be 
proud. 



2* Cf. Houck, History of Missouri. Vol. Ill, p. i, s. s. 

The Author wishes to extend his sincere thanks to Mrs. N. Beauregard, 
the Archivist of the Missouri Historical Society for the ready help in finding 
certain letters that have a bearing on the Maxwell Claim. 

Also to Miss Stella Drumm for the uniform kindness shown to the writer 
in his studies. 



NOTES 

The Pilgrimage to Ste, Genevieve was certainly a decided suc- 
cess, and the committee of ladies in charge, especially Mrs. Ida Schaaf, 
deserve full credit. About fifty persons interested in local history 
took part. A special car was provided for the company. The St. Louis 
papers were represented by correspondents. A gentle rain interfered 
somewhat with the plan of reception at the station. But the rest of the 
day was clear and not too warm. After a thorough inspection of 
the antiquities of the Church, the ancient records of Marriages, 
Burials, and Baptisms, the marble tombs of departed worthies, lay 
and ecclesiastic, the relics and their costly shrines, and the remnants 
of the old Church of Father Dahmen, preserved in the compara- 
tively new church built by Father Weiss, a sumptuous dinner was 
served to the guests, the priests of the party enjoying the hospitality 
of the Pastor, the Very Rev. Charles Van Tourenhout. After dinner 
a long procession of autos took the guests to the various interesting 
historical spots, as the old church-yard, the so-called Ste. Genevieve 
Academy, now the home of Mr. Rozier, the Old Kings' Highway 
that extended from New Madrid to St. Louis, the Ziegler house, the 
Bolduc house, the temporary first home of the Sisters of the Visi- 
tation in Ste. Genevieve, the Vall^ Spring and the Ste. Genevieve 
Indian Mounds. 

According to Father Philibert Watrin, the first Jesuit Mis- 
sionary from Kaskaskia to visit the people of Ste. Genevieve, the 
old Village was founded in 1749, although others claim an earlier 
foundation. Father Watrin writes September 3, 1764: "Fifteen years 
ago at a league from the old village on the other bank of the Mis- 
sissippi, there was established a new village under the name of Ste. 
Genevieve. Then the pastor of Kaskaskia found himself obliged to 
go there to administer the sacraments, at least to the sick ; and when 
the new inhabitants saw their houses multiplying, they asked to have 
a church built there. This being granted them, the journeys of the 
missionaries became still more frequent, because he thought that he 
ought to yield himself still more to the good will of his new parish- 
ioners and to their needs. However, in order to go to this new settle- 
ment he must cross the Mississippi, which, in this place, is three- 
eights of a league wide (i. e. V/^, mile). He sometimes had to trust 
himself to a slave, who alone guided the canoe: it was necessary, 
in short, to expose himself to the danger of perishing if in the middle 
of the river they should have been overtaken by a violent storm. 
None of all these inconveniences ever prevented the pastor of Kas- 

155 



156 NOTES 

kaskia from going to Ste. Genevieve, when charity called him thither, 
and he was alwavs charged with this care until means were found 
to place at Ste. Genevieve a special pastor, which occurred only a 
few years ago, when the inhabitants of the place built a rectory 
(presbytere). These two villages, that of Kaskaskia and that of Ste. 
Genevieve made the second and the third establishment of the Jesuits 
in the Illinois country." The first etstablishment was the Indian 
Village, called Kaskaskia. Father Philibert Watrin, S. J., was Pastor 
of the Immaculate Conception church for the French, also called Kas- 
kaskia, from 1746 — 1759: 

In 1752 the Commandant of Fort Chartres, Chevalier Makarty, 
made a grant of land to one Francois Rivard in what was called 
the "Big Field" with the stipulation that he set aside a portion of 
it for a church at a place indicated by Mons. Saucier. Captain Jean 
Baptiste Saucier, a native of France, was the second in command at 
Fort Chartres. The new village beyond the Mississippi, therefore, 
got its church after 1752 and before 1759, the year when Father 
Watrin ceased to be Pastor of Kaskaskia. Father Watrin speaks of 
himself, as "the Pastor of Kaskaskia who made all these visits of 
charity to the Ste. Genevieve" ; his successor at Kaskaskia, Father 
.\ubert. is not mentioned in the Ste. Genevieve Record until 1764. 
Father Salleneuve's name is frequently mentioned, but he was only 
a visitor from Detroit, and Father de la Morinie is the third member 
of the band, who also was but a visitor to the Illinois. 

Now, the question as to who was the first resident priest at 
the church of St. Joachim in the village of Ste. Genevieve, becomes 
clear. Father Watrin certainly not; for he was Parish Priest of 
Kaskaskia. It was Father John B. de la Morinie, who, like Salleneuve, 
belonged to Canada, and had been constrained by extreme want to 
withdraw, temporarily as he thought, from his station at the Post 
St. Joseph. Having no work in the Illinois mission, "Father de la 
Morinie, as Father Watrin tells us, had only taken charge of the 
church at Ste. Genevieve through the motive of a zeal that refuses 
itself to nothing." From this it would appear that Father Jean de la 
Morinie, S. J., was the first resident priest at Ste. Genevieve. 
But his administration was not of long duration. He was forced to 
abandon the Illinois country with the Jesuits of Illinois on July 9th 
1763; and, after a long delay and a month's voyage on the Mississippi, 
arrived in New Orleans in January 1764. 

Remembering, however, what he had suffered on his former 
voyage from sea-sickness he postponed his departure for France until 
Spring, when the sea would be calmer. Father Meurin on his part, 
asked the gentlemen of the Council for permission to return to the 
Illinois. His request was granted, but with the proviso that he must 
take up his residence in Ste. Genevieve. 

Father Watrin's letter on the Banishment of the Jesuits can be 
found m the Jesuit Relations. Vol. 70 and in the Illinois Historical 
Collections, Vol. X. called The Critical Period. 



NOTES 157 

According to this account Ste. Genevieve was founded about 
1748 or 1749 a date that is also vouched for by Father F. X. Dahmen, 
C. M., in his Report to the Synod 1837. But Zenon Trudeau's Report 
of 1798 gives a much earlier date, saying: "The village of Santa 
Genoveva, is situated on the same hill (with New Bourbon). It is not 
yet more than seven years since they settled the said hill, although 
they have been settled on said low point, so subject to frequent in- 
undation, for more than sixty years." Cf. "Spanish Regime in Mis- 
souri", by Houck. Vol. II, p. 248. This would set the date of Ste. 
Genevieve's foundation back to 1738. Not content with this, some 
historians have, on the strength of a stone with the carved in- 
scription of 1732, claimed that year or an earlier one as the year 
of the foundation. No doubt, Philip Francois Renault, with his little 
army of 200 miners and artizans and his 500 negro slaves touched 
Missouri soil at or near Ste. Genevieve, and found a place there for 
shipping his mineral output to Fort Chartres and New Orleans. This 
point may have been what is now called the Little Rock Landing, 
a circumstance that would really give Ste. Genevieve a date of foun- 
dation almost coeval with coming of Renault in 1720. 

As Ste. Genevieve was not founded in the strict sense of the term, 
but simply grew, it all depends on the number of houses one may require 
for an incipient village. The year 1735 is now generally regarded as 
Ste. Genevieve's true year of birth. 

But we must not give a history of the old town and Church. 
It is time to think of our return to St. Louis. The train was late two 
hours , but came at last. It was a memorable day for all of us, for 
the memories we carried away of Ste. Genevieve's earlier days, and 
especially of Ste. Genevieve's courtesy and cordial hospitality. 



WITH OUR EXCHANGES. 
The Catholic Historical Reviezv for April 1922, gives a splendid 
account of the "Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of the 
American Catholic Historical Association" held Dec. 27—30, 1921 
in St. Louis, Mo. After praising "the spirit of hospitality for which 
the old French city is noted," and complimenting St. Louis, as "that 
rare center of Catholic historical interest," the report dwells on the 
splendid banquet given by the local committee in honor of the visit- 
ing Association and its guests of honor, Archbishop Glennon of St. 
Louis and Ambassador J. I. Jusserand of France. The Secretary 
of the American Catholic Historical Association, Dr. Peter Guilday, 
briefly told the story of the oriq-in and progress of the Association. 
Dr. Guilday was followed by Dr. James A. Walsh, of New York 
City, who congratulated the Committee on Local Arrangements on 
the excellent plans which had been made for the Second Annual 
Meeting. The various public sessions of the Association proved high- 
ly interesting and profitable to all. The next Annual Meeting of the 
Association will be held at New Haven. Conn., in Christmas week 



158 NOTES 

this year. The success of the convention is due in a great measure, 
to the untiring efforts of our First Vice-President, Rt. Rev. Msgr. 
J. J. Tannrath, the chairman of the Committee on Local Arrange- 
ments. 



In addition to this Report, "The Catholic Historical Reviezv" 
prints two articles that have a bearing on our own special field of 
research : "The Ludwig-Missionverein" by the Rev. Joseph A. 
Schabert. Ph. D. of St. Thomas College, St. Paul, Minn., and the 
brief sketch Pere Antoine, Supreme Officer of the Holy Inquisition 
of Cartagena, in Louisiana" by the Rt. Rev. G. L. Gassier, of Baton 
Rouge, La. Both are scholarly contributions to the material needed for 
a History of the Church in the Mississippi Valley. 



The "Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society 1919 
gave us a lengthy and highly interesting sketch, by Dr. John F. 
Snyder, on "Captain John Baptiste Saucier at Fort Chartres in the 
Illinois 1751 — 1763. We are grateful to the Wisconsin Magazine of 
History (June 1922) for the interesting paper by W. A. Titus, "The 
Lost Village of the Mascouten," a village so often mentioned in the 
.Knnals of the French explorers and missionaries. 



The Missouri Historical Review for April 1922 prints another 
installment of William G. Beck's "The Followers of Duden" under the 
subtitle "The American as a Neighbor." Duden's book was one of 
the most influential means of bringing German settlers to Missouri. 
The experiences and labors of these early colonists are vividly set 
forth in Mr. Beck's series of articles, forming a very important con- 
tribution to our early history. 

The historian is often called upon to cut down the tangled 
undergrowth of legendary stories and time-honored propaganda in 
order to make room for the field or garden of true history. F. H. 
Hodder. of the University of Kansas, does this in a very able article 
m"The Mississippi Valley Historical Review," for March 1922, 
under the title "Propaganda as a Source of American History." We too 
suscribe the few words with which Mr. Hodder cuts down the luxuri- 
ant tale, "How Whitman saved Oregon for the Union." 

"I can barely allude to the most extraordinary achievement of propaganda 
in our history and that is the Kcneral acceptance of the claim that Marcus Whit- 
man saved OrcRon— a claim which Professor Edward G. Bourne and Mr. Wil- 
liam I. Marshall disproved twenty years ago, but which is nevertheless still 
rampant in certain sections of the country. In its extreme form the story 
claimed that Whitman reached Washington just in time to prevent Webster 
from trading Oregoti to Ashhurton for a "codfishery", in spite of the fact that 
Whitman did not visit Washini^ton until a year after the Asliburton Treaty 
was concluded. It is popularly believed, as a resultt of the cami)aign slogan 
"fifty-four forty", that all of Oregon was in dispute between Great Britain 
and the United .States. Seven times the United States had ofifercd to settle 
the Oregon boundary upon the line of the forty-ninth parallel and as often 



NOTES 159 

Great Britain had stood *for the line of the Columbia River. We could not 
therefore reasonably claim anything north of the forty-ninth parallel and 
Great Britain could not claim anything south of the Columbia. The only part 
of Oregon really in dispute was, therefore, between the Columbia and the 
forty-ninth parallel, and that part of Oregon Whitman never reached." 

In the Book Review of the same number of the "Mississippi 
Valley Historical Revievd" , Prof. E. M. Violette of Washington 
University gives a succint account of Carl O. Sauers' "The Geog- 
graphy of the Ozark Highlands of Missouri." 



The "Illinois Catholic Historical Review" for January devotes 
the greater part of its space to the early days of the Church in Illi- 
nois. "The Illinois Part of the Diocese of Vincennes" by Joseph 
J. Thompson and "Illinois First Citizen — Pierre Gibault" by the 
same, are contributions of perennial interest. "The Missouri Cente- 
nary" is an eloquent sermon by Rev. Gilbert J. Garraghan, S. J. 



In the "Washington University Studies" April 1921, there is a 
good article on "Spanish Land Claims in Missouri" by Prof. Eugene 
M. Violette, a theme on which there exists a great deal of misinforma- 
tion. Prof. Violettes' treatment is eminently lucid and fair. 



The "Globe Democrat" has for some time been devoting a page 
of each Sunday number to the St. Louis personages for whom our 
public schools have been named. Among the sketches we would single 
out as especially interesting to Catholics, those of Auguste Chouteau, 
Bryan Mullanphy, Col. John O'Fallon, Gen. W. T. Sherman, all of 
whom may be claimed as Catholics. The articles are well written and 
are replete with interesting details of the lives of these ilustrious 
men of our historic past. 



"The Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of 
Philadelphia" publish in their September 1921, number, an exhaustive 
study of "The Restoration of the Society of Jesus in the United 
States" by the Rev. Peter Guilday, of the Catholic University of 
Washington, D. C. As everything else that Dr. Guilday has written 
the article is reliable in its matter and readable in its form. "The 
Life and Times of John Carroll, Archbishop of Baltimore is an- 
nounced for early publication. No doubt, it will take its place as one 
of the really great books of our historical literature. 

From our old and highly esteemed Contemporary, The "Ave 
Maria" we quote the following tribute to one of our contributing 
Editors' latest historical publication. 

"The Catholic Church in Chicago — 1673 — 1871," by the Rev. Gilbert J. 
Garraghan, S. J., (Chicago: Loyola University Press), is styled "an historical 
sketch"; but that description does scant justice to the work, which will im- 
press every discriminating reader as an exceptionally excellent and scholarly 



160 NOTES 

history of tht period covered. Father Garraghan has gone, wherever possible, 
to original sources for the information which he co-ordinates in his inter- 
esting story; and liis main text as well as his copious foot-notes displays 
a wealth of knowledge which will charm every student of Catholicism in the 
Middle West. Several chapters of the book have already appeared in the 
Illinous Catholic Historical Rcz-iczc and its sister Review of St. Louis; and 
the publication of the present work furnishes an ample justification (if justi- 
fication were needed) for the establishing of those important periodicals. 
There are other dioceses in the country whose early history would furnish 
material for interesting volumes : may they each find a Father Garraghan 
to write them. His book, which is a handsome one, has thirty odd illustrations, 
and is provided with an adequate index. Price, $2.50." 

Just as we are getting ready for the press the Western Watchman 
of St. Louis sends us its Jubilee Number commemmorating the 75th 
Anniversary of St. Louis as an Arch-diocese. The contribution of 
permanent value is Rev. Dr. Charles Souvay's article entitled : "Dia- 
mond Jubilee of the Archdiocese of St. Louis 1847 — 1922. This Num- 
ber (July 12, 1922) also contains the fullest account of the Pil- 
grimage of the St. Louis Historical Society to Ste. Genevieve. 

Where and when were our early priests ordained.? We owe 
Father F. G. Holweck sincere thanks for the pains he took to gather 
this mass of important dates for our Review. All are authentic, but 
were scattered on scraps of paper and leaflets and the edges of other 
documents, so that many a date might have easily been lost ; and 
the most of them would have required endless search by the future 
historians. Here we have a stroke of foresight that will possible save 
a thousand laborious investigations. Besides they give the correct 
spelling of these names. 

Record written by Rev. Joseph Rosati, C. M., then president of 
the Seminary of the diocese of Louisiana: 

At Bordeaux were tonsured: Mr. Dahmen (Casto, Deys). 

The minor Orders were given to: Messrs. Tichitoli, Casto, Dah- 
men, Deys (June 1, 1816). 

Ordinations at Paris: Tonsured: Maenhout, de Neckere, Du- 
parq. 13. Jan. 1820. 

1817. On the day before Trinity at Bordeaux Mr. Hosten re- 
ceived Minor Orders, subdeaconship : Messrs. Bertrand, Jeanjean, 
Portier. 

At Baltimore Minor Orders and subdeaconship: Mr. Brassac, 
deaconship Mr. Bertrand .priesthood: Mr. Bertrand. 

On May 10, 1818 at St. Thomas (Ky). Messrs. Dahmen and 
Tichitoli subdeaconship (Msgr. Flaget), Mr. Jeanjean, priesthood. 

At St. Louis: Mr. Niel received Minor Orders, subdeaconship, 
deaconship and priesthood. Mr. Portier, Mr. Evremont priesthood. 

At the Barrens: Minor Orders: Mr. Desmoulins, subdeaconship 
the same, deaconship Mr. Brassac, Mr. Desmoulins. (no date given). 

1. Nov. 1818 at Ste. Genevieve tonsured: Mr. Barreau; minor 
Orders Mr. Maenhout ;subdeaconship Mr. Casto and Mr. Deys; dea- 



NOTES 161 

cons : Messrs. Dahmen and Tichitoli ; priesthood : Messrs. Brassac and 
DesmouHns. 

16. May 1819: Mr. Borgna subdeacon; DeGeithre and Daubert 

tonsure. 

6. Jan. 1820: Mr. Borgna Deacon. 

From Bordeaux on the Caravane 17. June 1817; arrived at Anna- 
polis 4. Sept. 1817 with Msgr. Du Bourg: Mr. DeCrugy, Mr. Blanc 
Ant., Second Vallezano, Mr. Janvier, Mr. De la Croix, Mr. Portier, 
Mr. Bertrand, Mr. Jeanjean, Mr. Valentin (Joseph), born 30, March 
1795 at Saar-Union, dioc. of Strassbourg. Mr. Hosten (Philip), cleric 
from Zarren, dioc. of Ghent, born 26 April 1794. Mr. Magne, student; 
Mr. Chauderat (cleric). Mr. Brassac (Cler.), Mr. Niel (Cler.), Mr. 
de Neckere, Mr. de Maenhout Constantin (de Waeschot, born 23. 
Nov. 1796). Mr. Perrodin .Cler.), Mr. Duparq (Cler.), Mr. Delprat, 
(Stud.), Mr. DesmouHns (Stud.), — Barreau (Stud.), — de Gheitre 
(Stud.), born at Alost in the dioc. of Ghent. Fr. Aubin, Fr. Fulgence, 
Fr. Antonin, three Brothers of the Christian Schools. Joseph, Ber- 
nard, Guidone and Francis, workingmen. 

Mr. Francis Cellini, priest from Ascoli, C. M., Philip Borgna, 
(Min. Ord.), Antoine Potini (Min. Ord.), departed from Rome May 
8, 1818, left by water at Oneglia and later on. May 20th from Genoa, 
where Brother Bettolini joined them, went to Livorno, where they 
sailed on July 1 with Messrs. Rosetti, Mariani, and Borella, priests, 
Rosti in Minor Orders, and with Joseph Pififeri, Pierre Vergani, 
Vincent Ferrari, Jean Bozoni ,and Angelo Mascaroni, on the brig 
Philadelphia and landed at Philadelphia on Oct 1. 

The first four rendered themselves to the Barrens by water from 
Pittsburg to the mouth of the Ohio ; they arrived at Madame Hay- 
den's on Jan. 5, 1819. They had arrived at Louisville Dec. 1, at the 
Seminary, (Ky). Dec. 3. 

Mr. Millet, deacon ,arrived July 20, 1820. 

Mr. Saulnier (tonsured) from Bordeaux in May 1819; he left 
the Seminary to go to the college at St. Louis in the beginning of 
December. 

Mr. Francis Farrel, an Irishman, arrived Nov. 23, 1819. 

Mr. Paquin arrived on Jan. 5, 1820. 

Mr. Rosetti with Mr. Rosti arrived Jan. 5, 1820. 

Mr. Joseph Blanka arrived towards the middle of February 1819. 

These notices were jotted down at various times on a slip of 
paper, which is now crumbling away, the writing nearly faded. They 
serve to fix dates which otherwise would have been uncertain. 

On similar slips are found the following notes : 

1817, in April, Messrs Ferrari and Rosati started on their mis- 
sion work: the former went to Fort Vincennes, 111., on Oct. 2, 1817. 
Messrs. de Andreis and Rosati with Brother Blanka, led by Msgr. 
Flaget, started for St. Louis, following the instructions sent by Msgr. 
Du Bourg, who was about to arrive in America. 



162 NOTES 

On another slip : 

7. Tan. 1816, Acquaroni, Rosati, Deys and Spezioli arrived at 
Bordeaux. 

March 21, 1816, arrival of Caretta,, priest and canon of Porto 
Maurizio, and Mr. Ferrari, priest from the same town. 

May 22. vigil of the Ascension .arrival of Msgr. Du Boiirg at 
Bordeaux with Mr. Tichitoli. 

May 28. Msgr. Du Bourg gave tonsure to Mr. Deys, Tichitoli, 
Casto and Dahmen (Casto, Deys and Dahmen were the first stu- 
dents of the Seminary of Louisiana.) 

A slip of paper contains a list of the students at the Seminary 
at the Barrens, Mo., in the year 1832: 

Eugene Saucier, b. at St. Louis, entered Sept. 7, 1821. Tonsured. 

Francis Jourdain. b. at St. Louis, entered Nov. 11, 1821 ; in Minor 
Orders. 

Louis Tucker, b. at the Barrens, ent. 5. Sept. 1825, in Min. Ord. 

Hilary Tucker, b. at the Barrens, ent. 15. Aug. 1826, in Min. Ord. 

John McMahon, b. at Dublin, Ireland, ent. May 6, 1827. Deacon. 

Geo. Hamilton, b. at Brazeau, ent. 24. Oct. 1828, in Min. Ord. 

John Cotter, b. in Co. Down, Ireland, ent. 6. April 1828, (with- 
out an exeat.) 

Philip Roche, b. at Wexford, Ireland, ent. 6. April 1828, (with- 
out an exeat). 

Peter Paul Lefevre, b. at Roulers, dioc. of Ghent, ent. 25. June 
1828; in Min Ord. 

Vital Van Cloostere, b. at Roulers, Ghent, ent. 25. June 1828; 
in Min. Ord. 

Joseph Robira, b. in the dioc. of Tarragona, Spain, ent. 15. July 
1829; tonsured. 

Louis Courten, b. at New Orleans, ent. 15, July 1828; (no exeat). 

John Herlehv, b. at Killarney, Ireland, ent. 3. Oct. 1288, in 
Min. Ord. 

Hy. Lesieur, b. at Portage de Sioux, ent. 9. Oct. 1828. 

Patrick Aloys Shannon, b. at Eniscathy, Ireland, ent. 26. May 
1819. (no exeat). 

Peter Van Lankere, b. at Winkel, St. Oloy, Ghent, ent. 31. Aug. 
1829. (no exeat). 

Thomas G. Rapier, Bardstown, Ky., ent. 7. Oct. 1830, (no exeat). 

Hy. Hortensius Philibert, St. Louis, Mo., ent. 15. Oct. 1830. 

Louis Ferd. Bubdy, Baltimore, ent. 27. Oct. 1830. 

Patrick Rattigan, of Co. Meath (Forgony), ent. 9, Jan. 1831, 
(no exeat). 

Wm. McGinnis, Monaghan, Ireland, ent. 22 May 1831, (no exeat). 

?:nnemond Dupuy, Livert, Lyon, France; ent. 12 May 1831. 
Deacon. 

Jerome Callegari, Carrara di Padua, ent. 2 July 1831, (no exeat). 

Irenee Maria .Saint-Cyr, Guinlie, Lyon, ent. 26 July 1831. Sub- 
deacon. 



NOTES 163 

Patrick McCloskey, Banagher, Londonderry, ent. 13 Sept. 1831, 
(no exeat). 

Peter Francis Beauprez, Woumen, Ghent, ent. 1 Nov. 1829. 

List of Seminarians at the Barrens, 8 June 1833. 

Peter Vanlankere, b. 27 May 1787 at Wynkel, S. Eloy, dioc. of 
Ghent, third year theology. Ent. 30 Aug. 1829. 

Joseph Robira, ent. 15. July 1828, b. 1812 at Torrembarra, dioc. 
of Tarragona, 2nd year theology. 

Charles Rolle, ent. 12 March 1833, b. 2 Febr., 1811 at Azeraille, 
dioc. of Nancy, first year theol. 

John Hy. Fortmann, ent. 3 June 1833 ; b. in Febr. 1801 at Lohne, 
dioc. of Muenster, made two years of theology. 

Philip Roche, ent. 24. Dec. 1827; b. 16 April 1810 at Wexford, 
Ireland, last year of Latin ; has been in the diocese over ten years. 

Louis Courtain, ent. 15 July 1828; b. 25. Oct. 1814 at New Or- 
leans. Last year of Latin. 

Ambrose Heim, ent. 20 July 1832; b. 3 April 1807 at Rodalbe 
dioc. of Nancy ; finished Latin course. 

Jeremiah Langton, ent. 7 Feb. 1832, 24 years old; b. at Clara, 
dioc. of Ossory, 3rd year of Latin finished. 

Nicolaus Stehle, ent. 29 April 1833 ; b. in Jan. 1813 at Lixheim, 
dioc. of Nancy, finished third year of Latin. 

John Cotter, ent. 27. Dec. 1827; b. in Co. Down, Ireland, more 
than ten years in diocese; finished fifth year of Latin. 

Hy. Lesieur, ent. Nov. 1828; b. Sept. 1816 at Portage des Sioux, 
finished third year of Latin. 

Charles Tucker, ent. 6 Aug. 1832, b. 16 Oct. 1819 at the Bar- 
rens ; commenced his studies. 

Joseph Elder, ent. Dec. 1832, 15 years old; b. at Bardstown, 
Ky., commenced his studies. 

The Parish of Cahokia, 111., in 1835 had three missions: Ville 
Francaise (French Village), Belleville, St. Thomas (Millstadt). 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

To the President and the Members of the Catholic Historical Society 

of St. Louis. 

May 16, 1922. 

The Secretary of Your Society wishes to express his gratifica- 
tion at the results attained during the past year. The membership 
has had a steady growth, and our work is awakening a greater in- 
terest .Owing to ever increasing costs of printing and binding we 
were laboring under a serious deficit, but hope to get clear of all 
debts before the end of May, as the Fourth Degree of the Knights 
of Columbus have promised to contribute a very substantial sum to 
our Treasury for historical research work. Our Archives ,as well as 
our Library record a constant growth, especially through the gener- 
osity of Dr. Charles Souvay, C. M., Rt. Rev. J. J. Tannrath, and 
Rev. F. G. Holweck. A number of interesting historical papers were 



154 NOTES 

read, as Father Hohveck's "Public Places of Worship in St. Louis 
before Palm Sunday 1843; Father Brennan's, "The History of the 
Earth as written by' itself" ; and Mrs. Ida Schaafs' illustrated lecture 
on "the early Catholic Churches and Institutions of Missouri." 

The Pilgrimage to Ste. Genevieve, arranged and conducted by 
the Committee of Ladies of our Society, Mrs. Schaaf, and the Misses 
Gareshe and Smith, proved a very enjoyable and profitable affair, 
not in a money-sense but in an ideal one. 

The officers during the year were : 
President : Most Rev. John J. Glennon, Archbishop of St. Louis. 
1st \'ice President: Rt. Rev. Msgr. John J. Tannrath. 
2nd \'ice President : Mr. John S. Leahy. 
3rd \'ice President : Miss Louise Gareshe. 
Secretary : Rev. John Rothensteiner. 
Treasurer : Mr. Edward Brown. 

Members of the Executive Committee : 
Rev. Gilbert S. Garraghan, S. J. 
Mrs. I. M. Schaaf. 

Although our Society is not affiliated with the National Catho- 
lic Historical Association of Washington, our members took a deep 
interest in its annual convention held in St. Louis during the week 
after Christmas, especially as our First Vice President, Msgr. J. J. 
Tannrath was chosen to act as chairman of the Committee of Ar- 
rangements, and several other members were invited to read papers 
and to preside at meetings. An invitation was extended to our So- 
ciety by the National Association to become affiliated, but the in- 
vitation was deferred to the September meeting. Our membership 
is not large, but very distinguished. It is our hope and wish that 
all our priests and many of the laity will join our ranks, and help 
along the good work of historical investigation. We should have at 
least a thousand members on the rolls and a few hundred at the meet 
ings. John Rothensteiner, Secretary. 

CATHOLIC HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF ST. LOUIS. 
Treasurers Report. 
Year ending May 11, 1922. 
Receipts. Disbursements 

Balance on hand May 16, '21 $93.00 Printing Review $600.00 

Membership Dues 360.00 M. V. Hist. Assn. 

Subscriptions for "Review".. 86.50 Dues 4.00 

"Review" Copies sold 17.25 Printing invitations 9.80 

Volume I. sold 12.00 Stationery 7.00 

Cash advanced by 6 members Postage 6.70 

(To be refunded) 150.00 By Balance 91.25 



$718.75 $718.75 

To balance on hand May 11, 1922 $91.25. 

EDWARD BROWN, TREASURER. 



DOCUMENTS FROM OUR 
ARCHIVES 

DIARY OF BISHOP JOSEPH ROSATI. 

1826. 

JANUARY. 

1 Sunday. Circumcision of our Lord Jesus Christ. Early in 
the morning confessions of the Brothers. Mass in the 
chapel. Assisted in cope at High Mass. Sermon by Fr. De 
Neckere. Te Deum and Benediction of the Bl. Sacrament, 
Solemn Vespers in the church, after which sermon by Mr. 
Saucier ^. Wrote to Fr. Dahmen and to Fr. Champom- 
mier ^. 

2 Monday. Early in the morning Conference for the Semi- 
narians, on the proper use of time: 1, Motives; 2, Means. 
Mr. Jourdain ^. Mass in the chapel. 

3 Tuesday. Early in the morning Conference of the Com- 
munity, on the dispositions with which we ought to com- 
mence this year. Bro. Oliva*; Fr. De Neckere. 1, Motives 



1 Cf. St. Louis Cath. Hist. Review, Vol. Ill, p. 330, Note 74. 

2 Vincennes, Indiana. In the registers of the parish, he always signed him- 
self Champonier. 

3 Cf. St. Louis Cath. Hist. Review, Vol. Ill, p. 342, Note no. 

* Bro. Angelo Oliva, C. M., was born about 1777 in the shadow of Mt. 
Vesuvius, and during his early years worked in the lava quarries on the slopes 
of the terrible mountain, although by trade he was a shoemaker. Entering the 
Congregation at the age of twenty, he was in the house of Oria, Province of 
Naples, at the time of Fr. Inglesi's journey to Europe; and at the request of 
the Missionary, was sent with two other Brothers and a postulant to America, 
where he arrived on July i, 1823. He was bringing along the plans, elaborated 
in Rome, for the new Church of the Barrens; and soon after he reached the 
latter place, early in November, having found, on the Seminary grounds a 
layer of very fine limestone, he was put in charge of quarrying and dressing the 
blocks for the edifice in contemplation. This preliminary work done, Bro. Oliva 
superintended the layng of the foundations, and the work of construction which 
slowly went on for seven years, owing to the limited funds, and therefore, the 
small number of laborers at the disposal of the Bishop, until at last it was under 
roof in the spring of 1834. Meantime he had been requested by Bishop Rosati 
to lend his skill to the finishing of the Cathedral of St. Louis, and of other 
churches of the Diocese. "The six candelabra which ornament the front of the 
Cathedral of St. Louis were cut by him, also the beautiful jamb, architrave, 
ornaments and inscriptions of the new church of Ste. Genevieve and the altar 

165 



166 DOCUMENTS 

to acquire these dispositions; 2, What they ought to be. 
Mass in the chapel. 

4 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. Count Vidua, the son 
of the prime minister of the King of Sardinia, of whom 
the newspapers had written most praisefully, in his travels 
through the greater part of America, arrived here and gave 
me letters of recommendation from the Archbishop of 
Baltimore. I begged this very learned and accomplished 
gentleman to stay some time with us and rest a Httle from 
the fatigues and difficulties of his long journey. But he was 
hastening towards New Madrid, where he hoped to find a 
boat to take him speedily to New Orleans ; he spent the rest 
of the day here and visited the church and the Monastery, 
intending to continue his journey the next day. 

5 Thursday. Mass early in the morning. After breakfast, our 
noble guest departed. In the evening, Confessions of the 
Seminarians and of C. Eu. Received a letter from the 
Bishop of New Orleans ^. 

6 Friday. In the morning, Confessions of the Brothers. After 
the chanting of the Tierce, I celebrated solemn pontifical 
Mass in the church and preached on the gospel of today. 
Solemn pontifical Vespers in the church, after which, ser- 
mon by Mr. Jourdain. Received a letter from Fr. Dah- 
men ®. 

7 Saturday. Early in the morning, Mass in the chapel. Con- 
fessions of the Nuns. In the evening. Confessions of the 
Seminarians. 



and steps of the Old Mines" (Catholic Herald, March 8, 1835). The industrious 
and virtuous — traits of his wonderful patience and meekness were circulated 
aplenty — Brother was not given the consolation to see the completion of the 
Church of the Barrens: he died on January 21, 1835. 

^ Dated New Orleans, December 9, 1825. Comments rather unfavorably 
upon a letter of the Archbishop of Baltimore — there does not seem to have 
been at any time much sympathy between Archbp. Marechal and Bp. Du Bourg — 
protesting against the approbation given to Fr. De Theux, S. J., by Bishop 
Rosati : he endorses tliis approbation (The original of the curious letter of 
,\rchbp. Marechal here referred to is in the Archives of the Chancery of St. 
Louis). Bp. Dn Bourg then sadly notifies his Coadjutor of his Fiat to the de- 
liberation of the priests of the Scmin'ary, deciding to postpone undertaking the 
establishment of another Seminary in Locwr Louisiana. (See Diary. November 
24, 1825: St. Louis Catholic Hist. Reviciv, Vol. IV, pp. 102-103 and Note 85): 
"As I have only a few more years to live, I shrill probably not sec the extinction 
of the Diocese; and even if I do see it, I shall have nothing to reproach myself 
with." True, this year has been calamitous everywhere, but he clings to the hope 
of seeing his project come some day to realization. Thanks his Coadjutor for the 
Lorettines sent to St. Joseph's. 

•^ Cf. St. Louis Cath. Hist. Review, Vol. II, p. 317, Note 17. 



DOCUMENTS 167 

8 Sunday within the octave of the Epiphany. Early in the 
morning, Confessions of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. 
Wrote to Fr. Borgna ^ that I received from the Bishop of 
New Orleans $100.00, and credited his account for so 
much; and that I received likewise $4.00 from Fr. Audi- 
dizio ^. I enclosed in the letter two notes of the Bishop of 
New Orleans for the sum of $107.16 due to Mr. Manning; 
also a bill to be forwarded to Fr. Anduze ^. After High 
Mass, during which Fr. De Neckere preached the sermon, 
I held a meeting of the parishioners about the necessity 
of putting up a new fence as soon as possible around the 
cemetery. Vespers in the church. Wrote to the Right Rev. 
J. B. David, about etc. 

9 Monday. Early in the morning spiritual Conference for 
the Seminarians, on the virtue of mortification. Mr. Gir- 
ardin ". Mass in the chapel. 

10 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community, on the 
proper use of time. Fr. Permoli ". 1. Motives; 2. Means. 
Mass in the chapel. 

11 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. At 3 p. m., arrival of Fr. 
Van Quickenborne, Superior of the Jesuits of Florissant, 
together with Fr. Dahmen. To the former I confirmed the 
faculties of Vicar General ^'. 

12 Thursday. Mass in the chapel. Departure of our guests at 
3 p. m. Received letters, 1. from Fr. Saulnier; 2. from 
Madame Duchesne ; 3. from Fr. Rosti " ; 4. from Fr. Tichi- 
toli ; 5. from Sister Johanna Superior of the Nuns ^*. 

13 Friday. Early in the morning, Chapter; went to confession. 
Mass in the chapel. 

14 Saturday. Early in the morning. Mass in the chapel. Con- 
fessions of the Nuns. Wrote the following letters: 1. to 
Fr. Richard, at Detroit; 2. to Fr. Borgna, announcing to 



7 Cf. Ibid., p. 325, Note 54. 

8 Cf. Ibid., p. 257, Note 46. 

9 Cf. Ibid., p. 320, Note 31. 

10 Cf. Ibid., p. 347, Note 130. 

" Cf. Ibid., Vol. IV, p. 84, Note 36. 

12 Cf. Ibid., Vol. Ill, p. 369 under date of December 28. 

1* Grand Coteau, La., November 25, 1825. Will leave as soon as his suc- 
cessor arrives. 

1* Sister Johanna Miles, Superioress of the new house of the Lorettines 
recently founded at Assumption, La. See Diary, November 2~. 1825, in 5"/. Louis 
Cath. Hist. Revieiu, Vol. IV, p. 103. 

^^ Blank in the original. 



168 DOCUMENTS 

him that he will receive by the first occasion the Ordo for 
this year, and requesting him to buy, with the money com- 
ing from their sale, three barrels of sugar and two 

-15 — for the Seminary. In the evening Confessions 



of the Seminarians. 

15 2nd Sunday after Epiphany. Early in the morning, Con- 
fessions of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Confessions. 
Assisted at High Mass, during which I preached on today's 
gospel. Vespers in the church. 

16 Monday. Mass in the chapel. Wrote to Fr. Saulnier ". 

17 Tuesday. Mass in the same place. Wrote to Fr. Baccari ^^ 

18 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. Made a contract with 
Richard Dorsey, and put it down in writing : I thereby as- 
sume a debt of $100.00, and, moreover, gave him a horse; 
he, in his turn, will for five years lend his medical service 
to the Seminary. Wrote, 1. to Fr. Martial ^^ ; 2. to Fr. Bac- 
cari ^^ ; 3. to the same -". 

19 Thursday. Mass early in morning in the chapel. Confer- 
ence to the Nuns, on the obligation of tending to perfection. 
In the evening received letters: 1. from Fr. Tichitoli ; 2. 



'« On this day Bishop Rosati commenced a series of Notebooks where he 
entered the gist of the letters written by him. These Notebooks, nine in number 
(Book No. 7, April 19, 1829 to June 24, 1831 is lost) extend to November 3, 
1833, a living testimony to the industrious and orderly habits of the Prelate. — 
Asks Fr. Saulnier to give $100.00 to Mr. Timon, Sr., which he (Saulnier) was 
to sent to the Lorettines of the Barrens: the Bishop will settle with the Nuns. 
Other $25.00 Saulnier will send at the first opportunity. 

1^ Is sending of all the members of the Congregation in \nierica, and at- 
testation of Timon's vows. Wislies to have all the Vicar General's annual Cir- 
culars: 1819. 1821 and 1825 are missing; also desires the list of the deceased 
members. The copy of St. Vincent's Conferences at hand is incoinplete and 
wretchedly written. A disastrous year: no crops, no resources; could not help 
be obtained from Propaganda? Impossible to begin the church. Wrote already 
about Seminary in Lower Louisiana, the division of the Diocese is imperative, 
although the country (Upper La.) is very poor. Need of Assitsant to run the 
house during his (Rosati's) absence. Three of the priests and even some 
Brothers wish to go back to Europe, the plea of health is a delusion, and creating 
a precedent would be a calamity. 

'• Thanks for offer to transact affairs in Italy. Sends letters to give to 
Fr. Baccari and forward to his brother. Martial docs not need any letters of 
introduction from him since he has some from Bp. Flaget ; yet gives him one 
for Fr. Baccari, whom he wishes to make Martial's acquaintance. 

*• Infroducting Fr. Martial. 

2" Marked "for himself alone": i. Sick; 2. Seminary 5. poverty; 6. 

division! 7. brothers; 8, necessity of a good Assistant. 



DOCUMENTS 169 

from Fr. Bigeschi; 3. from Fr. Dahmen. Wrote: 1. to Fr. 
Cellini ^^ ; 2. to my brother " ; 3. to Fr. Dahmen ^\ 

20 Friday. Chapter. Went to confession. Heard confessions. 
Mass in the chapel. Arrival of Fr. Dahmen. 

21 Saturday. Mass early in the morning. Confessions of the 
Nuns. Fr. Dahmen departed. At 2 p. m., arrival of Fr. 
Smedts -*, S. J., from Florissant for his Ordination. 
Through him I received letters, 1. from Fr. Van Quicken- 
borne ; 2. from Fr. Saulnier ; 3. from Madame Duchesne. In 
the evening Confessions of the Seminarians. 

22 Septuagesima Sunday. Early in the morning, Confessions 
of the Brothers. At 10 :45, in the church, solemn pontifical 
Mass, during which, after a short talk to the people on the 

Ordination nature, offices and obHgations of the Subdiaconate. I pro- 
No. 8 moted to that Order J. B. Smedts, acolyte of the Society of 

Jesus, presented by his Superior, titido paupertatis. Frs. 

Leo De Neckere, John Odin and Joseph Paquin acted as 

assistants. Vespers in the church. 

23 Monday. In the morning, spiritual Conference for the 
Seminarians, on the virtue of humility ; motives and means. 
Mr. Labadie ". Mass in the chapel. 

21 Your last letter from Havre. Do write. Do not forget this Mission. Hard 
times: could you not get us any help? See about a Canon, a Candlestick and 
some mitres ; have only an old and torn Pontifical. 

22 Original in Archives of the Procurator Gen. C. M., Rome. — No letter 
from you for eighteen months, although I have written several times. Despite 
calamities (failure of crops, etc.) have not lost confidecne in divine Providence; 
but we must not tempt God. Fire of the Convent kitchen : last yf,ar one of their 
frame houses burned, which meant a loss of about $400.00. In the house which 
burned this year were two looms, with a large stock of wool and cotton thread, 
and cloth, part of which was to clothe a score of orphan girls raised by the 
Nuns, and part for the Seminary. We pay for the weaving with wheat, corn, etc. 
In former times I used to buy the wool; this, year I had it from our mill: for 
if you have become a cloth-merchant, I am now a wool-carder; our miller made 
a water-driven card-engine which does very nice work, and has saved us this 
fall $200.00. Unfortunately we had a great deal of damage done by high water 
at the mill, and $800.00 worth of repairs is imperative. But where shall I get 
$800.00? We have here, besides myself three priests, three deacons, thirteen 
seminarians, ten brothers, ten boys and ten workmen. Classes are absorbing and 
I have, moreover, the spiritual and temporal care of the parish and the direction 
of the Nuns ; leave only for pastoral visitations and confirmations. Time, there- 
fore, passes very quickly: yet we should not let it go by so quick thaV we do 
not pay attention ; for death is coming, and we must be ready. I came here only 
to win souls to God; but must not lose mine. The same with you. Let us work 
so that we may all be re-united in heaven. Greetings to family and friends; 
special regards to mother. 

23 May grant dispensation: if people are poor, gratis; if they are able, 
follow the regulations. 

2* One of the Belgian Jesuit Scholastics brought over to America by Fr. 
Nerinckx in 1821. See Camillus P. Maes, The Life of Rev. Chalres Nerinckx, 
p. 452 and foil. 

25 Cf. St. Louis Cath. Hist. Review, Vol. HI, p. 345, Note 122. 



170 DOCUMENTS 

24 Tuesday. In the morning Spiritual Conference of the Com- 
munity on the virtue of poverty. Bro. Palelli ^^. Mass in the 
chapel. 

25 Wednesday. Conversion of St. Paul. Early in the morning 
Confessions of the Brothers. Celebrated Mass, and pro- 
moted to the sacred Order of the Diaconate Mr. J. B. 
Smedts. Assisted at High Mass in the chapel. Vespers in 
the same place. 

26 Thursday. Mass early in the morning. Conference to the 
Nuns, on the Vows in general: 1. their nature — a promise 
made to God ; 2. their obligation, which is under pain of 

Ordination mortal sin, perpetual and may be violated by a mere 
^°-9 thought; 3. their effects; peace of mind, merits, glory. 

Wrote to Fr. Saulnier -'^ and to Madame Duchesne ^^. 

27 Friday. Early in the morning, Chapter ; went to confession. 
Mass in the chapel. Wrote to Fr. Dahmen ^^. 

28 Saturday. Mass in the chapel. In the evening, Confessions 
of the Seminarians. Letter to Fr. Tichitoli ^'^. 

29 Sexagesima Sunday. Early in the morning, Confessions of 
the Brothers and of others. At half past ten, celebrated 
solemn pontifical Mass in the church during which, after 
explaining to the people the nature, and power of the Order 

Ordination of the priesthood, and the ceremonies and rites of the or- 
No. lo dination, I promoted to that same Order of the priesthood 



•* Ci. Ibid., p. 344, Note 117. 

" Forwards a letter of the Nuns of Bethlehem to Mr. Mullanphy. The 
printing of the Ordo. With regard to the people who stay at the church door, 
yoti may act as you suggest, but do it with prudence. The Jesuits do not want 
to accept the parish of St. Louis: so the people who were worked up over that 
were simply mistaken ; you may tell those people that no priest liere would ever 
become the head of a schismatic party, and all our clergy will eve- do their 
duty without fear. .\m at sea in regard to your contract, and hope that you 
may not have any occasion to repent. 

2' Am sending the deed of sale of the land. Gladly grant Sister Eulaiia 
Regis namilton permission lO make her vows. Leo Hamilton did not follow the 
good example of his sisters, and has left the Seminary (See Diary. December 
26. 1825, St. Louis Cath. Hist. Review, Vol. IV, p. 108, Note 95)". On Sister 
Eulaiia Hamilton, (See Bannard — Lady Fullerton : Life of Madame Duchesne, 
p. 211 and foil). 

" Buy at least Twenty-five yards of bombazette ; ask Mr. Shannon whether 
he wishes to selljiis corn and would hv willing to wait a few months for pay- 
ment. 

'" Ghd to hear that the .\uns (L^jrcttines) arrived at Assumption, li Fr. 
Bigeshi does not like to have Thomas (Moore), he may be sent to Fr. Potini. — 
Thomas More CSee St Louis Cath. Hist. Review, Vol. IH, p. 330, Note 75), 
had ^>een sent to Ivousiana on November 27, 1825, (See Diary, Ibid., Vol. IV, 
p. 103). in the hope the climate would benefit his health. 



DOCUMENTS 171 

J. B. Smedts, of the Society of Jesus. Solemn Vespers in 
the church. 

30 Monday. Was prevented by catarrh to celebrate Mass. Fr. 
Smedts was taken to Ste. Genevieve by Bro. Pifferi ^^ and 
returned to St. Ferdinand. 

31 Tuesday. For the same reason I neither celebrated Mass 
nor had the Conference which had been announced. 



FEBRUARY. 

1 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. In the evening, Confes- 
sions of the Seminarians. Wrote to the Right Rev. J. B. 
David, Bardstown, Ky. ^^ 

2 Thursday. Early in the morning Confessions of the Broth- 
ers. Mass in the chapel. Did not assist at High Mass, as I 
was prevented by a cold. Solemn Vespers in the chapel. Re- 
ceived two letters from Fr. Tichitoli. 

3 Friday. Early in the morning, Chapter ; went to confession. 
Mass in the chapel. 

4 Saturday. Mass in the chapel. Did not go to the Monastery, 
owing to my cold. In the evening, Confessions of the Semi- 
narians. 

5 Quinquagesima Sunday. Early in the morning. Confessions 
of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Did not attend High 
Mass and Vespers, as I was prevented by a cold. 

6 Monday. Spiritual Conference to the Seminarians, on the 
proper way of passing the Lenten season: 1. motives; 2. 
means. Mr. Loisel ^^. Mass in the chapel. 

7 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community, as yes- 
terday. Fr. De Neckere and Bro. Oliva. Mass in the chapel. 

8 Ash Wednesday. Confessions of the Brothers. Mass in the 
chapel. At 10 o'clock, I solemnly blessed the ashes in the 



31 Cf. St. Louis Cath. Hist. Review, Vol. Ill, p. 343, Note Ii6. 

32 Wrote before requesting to communicate his letter to Bp. Flaget. Is 
less than ever inclined to accede to the proposals of Bp. Du Bourg in regard 
to the postponement of the division of the Diocese. Certainly not moved by self- 
love, but by the good of the people of Upper La., and the desire of doing some- 
thing for the Indian Missions. Has now three deacons who would be fit sub- 
jects; many people are showing disposition to become Catholics; several Semi- 
narians have a real talent for preaching and controversy: all that will be engulfed 
in Lower Louisiana. 

33 Cf. St. Louis Cath. Hist. Review, Vol. Ill, p. 334, Note 88. 



172 DOCUMENTS 

church and assisted at High Mass, during which Fr. De 
Neckere preached. 

9 Thursday. Mass in the chapel. Wrote to Fr. Tichitoli ^* 
Received letters, 1. from Fr. Tichitoli; 2. from Fr. V 
Badin ; 3. from Fr. Potini ; 4. from the Right Rev. J. B 
David, Coadjutor of Bardstown. Answered Fr. Tichitoli ^^ 

10 Friday. Early in the morning, Chapter; went to confession 
Mass in the chapel. Sent Mr. Timon. 

11 Saturday. Early in the morning. Mass in the chapel. Con- 
fessions of the Nuns. In the evening, Confessions of the 
Seminarians. 

12 1st Sunday in Lent. Early in the morning. Confessions of 
the Brothers. Assisted at High Mass, during which I 
preached on today's gospel. I reminded the parishioners of 
the precept of the annual confession and of the paschal 
Communion, and read the canon of the Lateran Council. 
Vespers in the church. Wrote: 1. to Fr. V. Badin ^^, De- 
troit ; 2. to Fr. Tichitoli ". 

13 Monday. Spiritual Conference to the Seminarians, on 
Prayer (Mr. Chalon) : 1. its necessity; 2. its conditions 
and qualities. Mass in the chapel. Answered Fr. Potini ^* 
and wrote to Fr. Borgna ^^. Return of Mr. Timon. 

14 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community, on the 
love of the Cross: 1. motives; 2. manner (Bro. Pifferi). 
Mass in the chapel. 



'♦ Courage, patience, perseverance, fortitude against insistence. 

35 Only one letter Fr. Tichitoli is given that day in the correspondence 
Notebook I. Obviously this entry was due to an oversight that record had al- 
ready been made of that letter. 

'* Congratulations for Badin's work and success at Detroit. The Captain 
may come if Fr. Rich;ird thinks him fit: he must learn elementary Latin and 
Moral Theology. The young man will be received. Both, however, must have 
dimisorial letters and be incorporated into this Diocese. Girardin left, owing to 
ill-health. Advise Fr. Richard 1 cannot send a priest of our Congregation. 

" No record of this letter. 

" If you had written to ask my opinion about your going back to Europe, 
I would have answered I did not deem it proper. You seem to be determined 
to go, however ; yet you do not ask the necessary permissions. I do not under- 
stand your view of the matter. 

'" Complains of Horgna's long silence: yet himself has written several 
times. Is enclosing a Draft of Fr. Dahmen on Fr. Pcyretti. Received nil last 
year's copies of the Catholic Miscellany, but none of this year. Fr. Saulnier will 
send the Ordos; the money therefore, and from other sources to be kept to 
Rosati's credit. Send three barrels of sugar, two of rice, some bombazctte for 
cassocks and linen cloth for shirts. 



DOCUMENTS 173 

15 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. Received a letter from Mr. 
Dahmen by Le Beau *°. Answered it. 

16 Thursday. Mass early in the morning. Conference to the 
Nuns, on the vow of Obedience : what it is ; what obliga- 
tions, etc.; we must obey: 1. ecclesiastical Superiors; 2. the 
Superiors of the Monastery; 3. etc., etc. Received two let- 
ters from Fr. Tichitoli and one from Fr. Niel, in Paris. 

17 Friday. Early in the morning. Chapter; went to Confes- 
sion. Mass in the chapel. Answered Fr. Niel's letter *^. 
Wrote to Fr. Saulnier ^^ for the balsam. 

18 Ember Saturday. Early in the morning. Confessions of the 
Nuns. At 10 o'clock Pontifical Mass in the church, during 

Ordination which I promoted to the Sacred Order of the Subdiaconate 
No. II Q^ titulum Missionis John Timon, acolyte of the Congrega- 

tion of the Mission. In the evening Confessions of the 
Seminarians. 

19 Ilnd Sunday in Lent. Early in the morning, Confessions 
of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Wrote to the Nuns of 
the Assumption *^. Assisted at High Mass, during which I 
preached in the Sunday's Gospel. The Church recalls to our 
memory today the transfiguration of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
in order that, by that sample of the heavenly bliss which 
is afforded us, the faithful may, with greater fervor and 
alacrity embrace the course of penance on which they have 
engaged. 1. The Lord takes with him the three disciples 
who were pre-ordained to be the witnesses of his agony in 



'^° Valentine Le Beau, a boy of the College. 

*i Glad to hear from you ; thanks for the little subsidy sent ; was most 
timely, for God has been trying us ; failure of crops, one of the Convent cabins 
burned, etc. All our hope is in God's Providence. Yet, when I take stock of our 
condition, I feel uneasy; we have eight or nine hundred dollars of debts; yet 
I cannot turn down deserving candidates who present themselves ; else we shall 
have no priests. Our parishes are no better; outside of two the others cannot 
support a priest. For want of means, nothing can be done for the Protestants 
or the Indians. Personally I am penniless : have great difficulty to find where- 
with to defray the expenses of Pastoral visitations; had to borrow money for 
the last one, and for the Mission of Odin and Timon to Arkansas. Everything 
is as it was when you left; Fr. Audizio is at St. Louis with Fr. Saulnier; could 
not get anybody to take your place. Am awaiting you eagerly. 

*2 Send balsam for Chrism. Received letter from Fr. Niel, dated Paris, 
November 15; he was about to leave for Rome. You will receive from Paris for 
me 600 francs. Fr. Niel is hopeful. 

43 Was glad to hear of your arrival. You found at Assumption conditions 
not unlike those which met you when you came to Missouri; occasions of prac- 
tising poverty, mortification. Receive these crosses with thanksgiving and desire 
to profit by them. Continue to edify those around ; live in union, charity and 
obedience; punctually observe your rules; this is particularly necessary in new 
establishments. You will practice all that faithfully if you are docile to the ad- 
vise of your Director and Superior. Pray for me. 



174 DOCUMENTS 

garden, in order that they might be witnesses etc. 2. Peter, 
because, etc. 3. Apart; because faith is sufficiently... by 
three etc. 4. Moses and Elias etc. 5. He speaks of his de- 
cease etc. 6. Peter: It is good for us etc. 7. etc. Vespers 
in the church. 

20 ^londay. Early in the morning, Spiritual Conference for 
the Seminarians, on the sanctification of studies: 1. neces- 
sity; 2. means (Mr. Thompson**). Necessity: because as 
men, as Christians, as clerics consecrated to God, we are 
called to a right and holy life; and therefore should direct 
all our actions to that end. Actions which by their nature 
are holy, are, of themselves, so directed, if accomplished 
in the right way; evil actions can in no way tend to that 
end ; finally those that are indifferent may become good or 
bad. according to the dispostions with which they are ac- 
complished. Of this latter nature are studies ; therefore 
etc. 2. Studies, when they are sanctified, are meritorious, 
hence through them we may acquire immense treasures 
etc. 3. If we neglect to sanctify our studies, an endless 
series of evils will follow. For, according to St. Thomas, 
there are no indifferent actions in individuo ; if done for a 
good purpose, then . . . ; if otherwise, then etc. But we are 
bound to work for a good purpose. Hence such as seek in 
study nothing else than vanity, self-satisfaction, expose 
themselves to the danger of the loss of faith, and the cor- 
ruption of morals etc. Means: 1. They should be directed 
to God, in order that we should fulfill our duty etc. and 
render ourselves able to procure the glory of God and the 
salvation of the neighbor. 2. They ought to be inade orderly. 
Studies that are necessary are to be preferred before all 
others, no matter how useful these may be ; those that are 
useful ought to be selected according to the advice of the 
Director and Superior; we should refrain from an im- 
moderate desire to read many books etc. 3. By prayers re- 
cited before, after, and even etc., etc. Mass in the chapel. 
Received letters from Fr. Dahmen and from Mr. Slattery. 

21 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community, on 
Silence (Mr. Vergani*'^). Mass in the chapel. Answered 
the letters of Fr. Dahmen *" and Mr. Slattery *\ 



** Cf. Si. Louis Calh. I list. Review, Vf)l. HI, p. 344, Note 120. 

♦' Cf. Jbid., p. 342, .\ote lOQ. 

*• Am sending you ;i ham. ICxcusc the ignorance of those people who, living 
far from the church, are ill-instrnctcd. Go and marry tlicm, provided there arc 
to be no festivities. If you are sick, I will send Fr. Odin. 

" Neither IV. Odin nor I could without impropriety refuse your offering. 
Wc thank you for this and the continual services you render us. What you con- 
sider trouble caused us, we regard as a duty of our calling. 



DOCUMENTS 175 

22 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. 

23 Thursday. Mass early in the morning. Conference to the 
Nuns, on the vow of Povery. By the mail I received the 
following letters : 1. of the Right Rev. Bp. of New Orleans ; 
2. of Mr. O'Toole, Bardstown; also, all the Numbers so far 
issued of the Truth Teller, of New York. Arrival of Mr. 
Verhaegen *^, scholastic, S. J., from St. Ferdinand, sent 
here by his Superior to receive the sacred Orders of the 
Subdiaconate, Diaconate and Priesthood ; through him I re- 
ceived letters, 1. from Fr. Van Quickenborne ; 2. from 
Madame Duchesne. 

24 Friday. Feast of St. Mathias, Ap. Early in the morning 
Confessions of the Seminarians and the Brothers. Mass 
in the chapel, at which Communion. High Mass in the 
church. Vespers in the same place. Wrote: 1. to the Bp. 
of New Orl. 5° ; 2. to Fr. Le Saulnier ^^ ; 3. to Mr. O'- 
Toole "2. 

25 Saturday. Mass early in the morning. Confessions of the 
Nuns. Received a letter from the Right Rev. Bp. of Bards- 



48 New Orleans, January 22, 1826. Fr. Bigeschi is more than ever bent 
on leaving. Fr. Tichitoli is dispirited and tells me he cannot stay alone. Send 
him Fr. Vergani or Paquin. These defections are demoralizing the Diocese. Mr. 
Paquin would do better, on account of the Sisters. They are well ; but things 
go so slow that, even though they are in the house, yet they cannot receive 
pupils. Fr. Bigeschi is rather stubborn. 

^^ See C. P. Maes : The Life of Rev. Charles Nerinckx, p. 455 and foil. 

^50 You undoubtedly supposed, in making your request, that Paquin and 
Vergani have finished their theology; they are through only two-thirds of it. 
and the remaining tracts are among the most important. I do not doubt that you 
will deem it necessary to let them finish their course. I see the necessity of giv- 
ing a companion to Tichitoli; here is a way: you had promised me to take awaj'^ 
Fr. Rosti from Grand Coteau ; he could go to La Fourche. Vergani and Paquin 
will not finish their course before Pentecost next year: I know whereof I am 
speaking, as I am their professor. Useless to think they could finish their studies 
under Tichitoli. I would be glad to have the answer of Propaganda in regard 
to marriages. The Ordo was ready on time, but there was no means to send it. 
I ordained Fr. Smedts. S. J. Mr. Verhaegen, S. J., has just come for ordination. 
The affairs at St. Louis are very much of a mud-puddle. 

51 Could not procure for St. Mary's Seminary some help like that which 
you tendered in 1821 at Bp. Du Bourg's request? The Seminary is still under the 
same Superior, and unfortunately in the same plight. The interest you mani- 
fested for the Superior and his Community leads me to believe that you will not 
be offended at this request. 

52 On November 22, 1825, I signed the deed of the lot sold to you by Bp. 
Du Bourg; Mr. Flynn left it with me, together with a bond of $400.00 payable 
on May i, 1829. A few months ago he had the deed recorded, as he intended 
to sell; and he sent it back. That deed .and the bond are the only papers relating 
to this business which are in my possession. The mortgage has not been left 
with me. 



176 DOCUMENTS 

town "'. Confessions of the Seminarians. 

26 Illd Sunday in Lent. Early in the morning, Confessions of 
the Brothers. Pontifical Mass in the chapel, during which I 

Ordination promoted to the sacred Order of the Subdiaconate ad titu- 
No. 12 l^fff^ paupertatis Peter Joseph Verhaegen, acolyte of the 

Society of Jesus, presented by his Superior. Confessions 
of some lay persons. Assisted at High Mass, during which 
Fr. De Neckere preached. Wrote to Mr. Skinner ^*, Mon- 
treal. Vespers in the church. 

27 Monday. Early in the morning Spiritual Conference to the 
Seminarians, on the virtue of humility : motives ; means 
(Mr. Saucier ^°). Mass in the chapel. 

28 Tuesday. Early in the morning. Spiritual Conference of 
the Community, on avoiding sins and failings against char- 
ity. 1. Motives: the consideration of our duties, a) as men; 
b) as Christians; c) as members of the same Community. 
2. What should be avoided: a) thoughts; b) words; c) ac- 
tions; d) omissions. (Bro. Donati^**). Mass in the chapel. 



MARCH. 

1 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. Sent Bro. Pifferi and Mr. 
Labadie to Ste. Genevieve ^^ 



" Original in Archives of St. Louis Archdioc. Chancery. Bardstown, 
February 17, 1826: Bp. David communicated to me your letter. Our desire is 
that you should not consent to the transfer of your Seminary to New Orleans. 
I wrote to your Superior in Rome to request him to insist in order that the division 
of the Diocese should be made soon; the letter is on its way. It is desirable that 
some of your Italian Confreres should do the same: as long as you are only 
Coadjutor you cannot act on your own account, and can do nothing for the 
Diocese of St. Louis, where, in my opinion, there is a better scope for good than 
in New Orleans. 

'♦ Editor of The American Farmer. — Your favors received, and all the 
numbers of the current volume. Paid subscription to Mr. Slattery. 

05 Cf. St. Louis Cath. Hist. Review, Vol. LLL, p. 330, Note 74. 

'• Cf. Ibid., p. 350, Note 140. 

" Under this date, ihe Notebook No. I, of Bp. Rosati's Correspondence 
contains two letters, not recorded in the Diary. The first is to Bishop Du Bourg, 
in reply to one of this prelate received the same day and dated l<'cbruary4, 1826. 
(See St. Louis Cath. Hist. Review, Vol. IV, p. 106, Note 90). After speaking of 
the fire at the Bethlehem Convent, he once more deplores the departure of many 
priests, and for the first time broaches, recommending absolute secrecy, the project 
of a trip to Europe in order, first, to obtain the postponement of the division; 
secondly to get a few priests of the Congregation to start the Louisiana Seminary; 
and thirdly to stimulate the zeal of the members of the Propagation of the 
Faith on behalf of the Mission. Fr. Brassac is going to Europe. Himself has to 
l)orrow the money for the trip: he will give as security two of his negroes. Fr. 
Sibourd is also about to depart: he leaves to Rosati all his furniture and asks 
that 500 Masses be said for his intention. Mr, Chalon wants to join the Jesuits. 



DOCUMENTS 177 

2 Thursday. Mass early in the morning. Conference to the 
Nuns, on the observance of Rule. Sent Fr. Permoli and 
Mr. Timon to St. Michael °^ ; they are to remain there 
three days, the first, to perform a marriage, etc.; the sec- 
ond, to preach next Sunday in English, etc. Received the 
speech made by the Right Rev. J. England in the House of 
Representatives of the United States. 

3 Friday. Chapter. Went to confession. Mass in the chapel. 

4 Saturday. Mass early in the morning. Confessions of the 
Nuns. In the evening Confessions of the Seminarians. 

5 IVth Sunday in Lent. Early in the morning Confessions of 
the Brothers at Pontifical Mass in the Community chapel, 
assisted by Fr. Odin, and Messrs. Paquin and Vergani. I 

Ordination promoted to the sacred Order of the Diaconate Peter 
No. 13 Joseph Verhaegen, Subdeacon of the Society of Jesus. 

Confessions of some externs. Assisted at High Mass, dur- 
ing which I preached. What we read today in the Gospel 
affords plenty of matter for instruction. The wonder which 
Christ works in the presence of all strengthen our faith in 
the wonderful things, exceeding our human intellect, which 
he teaches. And just as we cannot, without an incredible 
audacity and impiety, deny what he did, so likewise we 
cannot refuse to accept his teaching without the same im- 
piety and audacity. The multiplication of loaves is just as 
wonderful and incomprehensible as the transsubstantiation 
of the bread and wine into His body and blood, and the 



I will not permit him to go before the Summer vacation; in the meantime he 
ought to reflect seriously on his project. — Rosati's answer is summed up in the 
Notebook as follows: Knowing the state of your finances, I did not wish to 
write you concerning the misfortune of our Nuns : it would have been begging. 
I accept the Soo Intentions of Fr. Sibourd. As to the rest, I wrote you by mail; 
a conversation will be more satisfactory than a thousand letters. 

The second letter is to Miss Camilla de Glandeves de Niozelles, Marseilles, 
France. This was one of the two ladies who had been Fr. Rosati's hosts during 
several weeks in 1816-16, when Frs. Rosati and Acquaroni stopped at Marseilles 
on their way from Rome to Bordeaux and ultimately to America. After re- 
introducing himself to the lady, Bishop Rosati rehearses briefly the story of the 
establishment in Amerca, especially of the Seminary. Certain graphic details 
on the church of the Barrens and the stay at Mrs. Hayden's house are not found 
anywhere else, that we know of, at first hand; for this reason they are worth 
citing here: "A few log-cabins were the first edifies of the Seminary. The church 
was, and still is built in the same style : large logs hewn squ-are on two sides and 
laid upon one another, the chinks being filled with small pieces of wood or rock 
and mud; the roof is of wood, and oftentimes in winter leaves free passage to 
rain and snow, so that we had repeatedly our floors covered with two or three 
inches of water; and at other times we found upon our beds on awaking in the ■ 
morning, an extra blanket of snow — which was not there the night before." A 
note indicates the letter was "to be continued"; but of the continuation we have, 
so far, discovered no traces. 

S8 Fredericktown, Mo. 



178 DOCUMENTS 

multiplication of that same body and blood. Strange, there- 
fore, and absolutely incomprehensible is the position of 
those Christians, professing that the Scriptures are the pure 
word of God, who yet deny the Transubstantiation. Strange 
is the conduct of those Catholics who, firmly believing this 
mvstery, neglect nevertheless to receive the Holy Eucharist, 
or come to the sacred Table with evil dispositions, heaping 
sacrilegious communions upon sacrilegious confessions. In 
order that we may avoid these most great evils, last Sun- 
day, etc. ; today, etc., we shall explain what are the ob- 
stacles to confession: 1. shame; 2. fear; 3. malice; 4. pride. 
1. Of course, no one denies that shame accompanies sin. 
And indeed it should be so. Thus it was ordained by 
Providence, in order that shame should frighten us from 
sinning. But here, the order is inverted ; that shame of 
which I speak is not grounded on any reasonable founda- 
tion. The confession of our sins is an action good, glorious, 
meritorious, and commanded to us ; whereas that shame 
will be no help whatever to him to hides his sins in con- 
fession. They indeed cannot be hid from God, for in Him 
we live, and move, and are."^^ "Where shall I go from thy 
spirit, and whither shall I flee from thy face?""^° He is a 
"searcher of hearts." ®^ Nay more, this shame is most 
harmful: by your silence you shall be condemned, whereas 
by your confession you could have been saved. On the day 
of judgment, "nothing is hid that shall not be revealed," ®' 
before your parents, your relatives, your friends, the whole 
world." Let all then be confounded that act unjust things 
without cause." ^^ — 2. Fear. Loss of reputation, there is 
none : the priest is bound by the most strict law of secrecy, 
imposed upon him by natural law, divine law and eccle- 
siastical law, and sanctioned by punishments, both eternal 
and temporal ; so that in no case whatever may he reveal 
any of the things which he has heard in confession. Loss of 
the esteem of the confessor himself, there is none either: 
for he, too, is a man ; he knows by his own experience 
human frailty, that to fail is human, but also that to repair 
one's failings by confessing them is above human nature; 
and the greater the sins which he hears, the greater in pro- 
portion will he recognize the grace, the virtue and heroism 
of the penitent who confesses them. Harsh reproofs, there 
will be none: the priest must develop in himself a heart all 



"• Act, xvii, 28. 

•" Ps. cxxxviii, 6. 

"' Ps. vii, 9. 

«* Matt X, 26. 

•• Ps. xxiv, 4. 



DOCUMENTS 179 

of charity, and imitate Christ, the prince of pastors, who 
used to receive sinners with kindness, and treat them with 
the greatest love. Heavy penances? But where are, in the 
present disciphne of the Church, these penaces? What a 
difference with what used to be done in the early times of 
the Church ! with what is suffered in purgatory, with the 
eternal pains of hell which the divine jsutice etc. The 
delay, or denial of absolution. Granted that by not confess- 
ing your sins you receive absolution, of what good is this 
sacrilege to you? Moreover, absolution is never denied al- 
together : there are no irremissible sins ; God's mercy far 
exceeds men's malice. And if absolution was ever denied 
you, it was not because your sin was irremissible, but be- 
cause you were not yet in the proper and necessary dispo- 
sitions : for instance, you refused to make restitution of 
what you had unjustly acquired, to remove a proximate 
occasion of sin, to pluck out of your heart an emity, etc. — 
3. Malice, which excuses lessens sins, etc. Integrity with re- 
gard to the species of sin, etc. Adam, Eve ; so does the 
husband blame his wife, the wife her husband; the parents 
their children; the servants their masters, the masters their 
servants, etc., etc. — 4. Pride, which makes some confess 
their sins with a kind of boasting, without the least sense 
of shame, or sorrow and humility ; which make penitents 
resist to the confessor, and refuse to acquiesce to their ad- 
monitions and to their judgment: This is no sin; I think 
this is lawful, etc. So, for instance, to sell liquor, to hold 
dances, to frequent dangerous company, etc. Confession, 
therefore, to be good, must be an accusation of one's owti 
sins, according to species and numbers and circumstances, 
made humbly to the priest, etc., etc. Vespers in the church. 

6 Monday. Early in the morning. Conference to the Semi- 
narians, on the Exercise of the Presence of God: 1. Mo- 
tives; 2. Means (Mr. Mascaroni *^*). Mass in the chapel. 
In the evening, return of Fr. Permoli and Mr. Timon. Re- 
ceived a letter from Fr. Audizio. 

7 Tuesday. Mass in the chapel. 

8 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. ^^ 



6* Cf. St. Louts Cath. Hist. Review, Vol. Ill, p. 348, Note 134. 

®5 Two letters were written on that day. The one is to Fr. Audizio in 
answer to Audizio's letter received two days before : I am well pleased with the 
arrangements you made with the people of Vide-Poche. Your boxes were long 
since sent to Ste. Genevieve. 

The other is to Fr. Dahmen: Received Cologne water. Please find us vines, 
pear-trees, currant-bushes, melon and radish seeds. 



ISO DOCUMENTS 

9 Thursday. Mass early in the morning. Conference to the 
Nuns, on the obstacles to the observance of Rules; 1. false 
charity; 2. misguided zeal; 3. exaggerated care of one's 
halth; 4. discouragement, etc. In the evening received by 
the mail a letter from Fr. Tichitoli. 

10 Friday. Early in the morning, Chapter ; went to confession. 
Mass in the chapel. Answered Madame Duchesne '^^. Wrote 
to Fr. Portier®'. 

11 Saturday Sitientes. At 10 o'clock I celebrated solemn Pon- 
O d' ti n t^fical ]\iass in the church, and had an ordination in which 
Xo. 14 1. I conferred the first Tonsure on Gabriel Chalon °^, of 

the Diocese of Lyons, incardinated to this New Orhans 
Diocese with the permission of his Ordinary; 2. promDted 
to the Diaconate John Timon, of the Congregation of the 
Mission ; and 3. to the Priesthood John Boull'er, of the 
Congregation of the Mission, and Petei Joseph Verhaegen, 
of the Society of Jesus. In the evening, Confessions of the 



8* I have always desired the multiplication of establishments which, like 
yours, are the greatest asset of Religion in this country. Hence I shall be most 
glad to see one at St. Charles. I accordingly authorize you to take whatever 
steps you will deem proper and at any time you choose. Have just ordained 
Fr. Verhaegen. 

•^^ Have just heard your appointment to the Bishopric of Alabama, and, at 
the same time, your refusal. I was glad that you are known in Rome and hope 
your refusal will not be accepted. Owing to my great affection for you since I 
have had the privilege to know you, I feel a personal satisfaction at your eleva- 
tion. I would not speak thus if the Episcopate in this country was a source of 
honors: but crosses, afflictions, privations, humiliations, labors, and sufferings 
are our lot. Courageously, therefore, take up these crosses, and you will be on 
the high road to heaven. Will to-morrow confer tonsure upon your cousin (Mr. 
Gabriel Chalon), who is deporting himself excellently and has profited much by 
his sojourn in the Seminary. Mr. Boullier and a Jesuit are also to be ordained 
priests. 

Another letter, to Fr. Ticfiitoli, was written the same day: My previous 
letters told you what I think about your going back to Europe. You are right 
in asking for a companion, but you know that it is not within my power to send 
you those whom you nre asking for. Fr. Idin, as I told you already, is the only 
priest here able to work; Fr. De Neckere is sick; Fr. PermoH does not speak 
French; Mr. Paquin has not yet seen two-thirds of his theology, and cannot be 
ordained before Pentecost next year. I accordingly thought of Fr. Rosti, whom 
I cannot leave alone. 

"• Cf. St. Louis Calh. Hist. Review, Vol. IV, p. 8s, Note 37. 

■» Heard from Rp. Du Bourg your determination to return to Europe. I 
keenly feel the loss which the Diocese will suffer thereby; but as I know this 
step on your part is prompted by good reasons, I pray God to shower upon you 
in the place of your retirement his choicest blessings. I assume the charge of 
the 500 Masses mentioned by Bishop Du Bourg and thank you for the ample 
compensation which you kindly offered me. 



DOCUMENTS 181 

Seminarians. Wrote: 1. to Fr. Sibourd «^ 2. to Fr. Van 
Quickenborne ^°. 

12 Passion Sunday. Early in the morning, Confessions of the 
Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Confessions. Assisted at 
High Mass, during which Fr. Odin preached the sermon. 
Vespers in the church. 

13 Monday. Early in the morning, Spiritual Conference to the 
Seminarians, on vivifying our actions and our life by the 
spirit of faith; 1. Motives; 2. Means (Mr. Labadie). Mass 
in the chapel. 

14 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community, (as yes- 
terday). Bro. Vanucci ^^ and Mr. Paquin. Mass in the 
chapel. 

15 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. In the evening arrival of 
Fr. Dahmen. Received letters from Fr. Saulnier and Fr. 
Verhaegen. 

16 Thursday, Mass early in the morning. Confessions of the 
Nuns. 

17 Friday. Early in the morning, Chapter; one Confession; 
went to confession. Mass in the chapel. Fr. Bouillier sang 
his first Mass in the chapel of the Nuns, at the occasion of 
the feast of the Seven Dolors of the Bl. Virgin. 

18 Saturday. Mass in the chapel. In the evening Confessions 
of the Seminarians and of Eu. 

19 Palm Sunday. Early in the morning, Confessions of the 
Brothers. Mass in the chapel. At 9 o'clock, w^ent to the 
church, blessed the Palms ; after the Gospel of the Blessing 
of the Palms, preached : Christ, v^ho, during all His mortal 
life, faithful to the practice of humility, had always shunned 
honors, today prepares a triumph to himself. Great mystery, 
this. On the tenth day of the month, according to the pre- 
cept of Leviticus, was to be prepared the lamb to be im- 
molated on the feast of the Pascha. This lamb figured 
Christ. Christ, the victim to be immolated is brought to 
Jerusalem with the pomp of a triumph. Moreover, he was 
to be recognized by the Jewish people as the Messias 
promised to them, according to the words of the prophet. 



''^ I delayed ordaining Fr. Verhaegen a little more than you anticipated 
because I like to hold Ordinations on the days appointed by the church ; we had, 
moreover, some candidates of our own. Fr. Verhaegen has edified us very much, 
as had done Fr. Smedts. I congratulate you on getting this addition, and pray 
God to continue to give you increase. 

71 Cf. St. Louis Cath. Hist. Reviezv. Vol. Ill, p. 352, Note I47- 



182 DOCUMENTS 

He. therefore, is received as such ; as such he is hailed : 
Hosanna ! His triumph takes place amidst the waving of 
palms. He indeed was to conquer, by his passion and death, 
hell, sin and death. A king of peace, he is received with 
the waving of olive branches, as he was to reconcile man- 
kind with God by his death. These are the mysteries which 
we commemorate today. Fitting it was indeed that we 
should take part in this triumph, as we, like the crowds who 
received him today, are of the numbers of those for whom 
he was to die. This is the purpose of this procession, where- 
by, going to meet Christ, we emulate the pious desire of the 
crowds to see him ; we walk with palms and branches of 
trees, not only to recall to our memories the significance 
of them, but also to urge us on to share in the struggle of 
Christ. We should root up habits of sin : they will serve to 
the triumph of Christ ; we should struggle against the spir- 
itual foes of our souls ; the world, the devil, the flesh. The 
olive branches are the sign of our reconciliation to God. 
When the procession returns to the church, only a few 
chanters enter at once into the edifice; the door is shut, 
and the rest remain outside. The chanters inside start a 
hymn ;the clerg\' outside repeat that hymn. Before Christ's 
death heaven was closed to men ; true, there were relations 
between the citizens of the heavenly court and the pilgrim 
sons of Adam ; yet, after death the latter were unable to 
enter into that motherland. Christ by his death unlocked 
the gates of the heavenly Jerusalem. All these things, etc. 
Solemn Vespers in the church. 

20 Monday. Early in the morning, Spiritual Conference to the 
Seminarians, on the Devotion to the passion of Christ (Mr. 
Jourdain.) Mass in the chapel. 

21 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community, on the 
Passion of Christ (Fr. De Neckere). Mass in the chapel. 

22 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel early in the morning. Con- 
fessions of the Nuns. At 4 o'clock, Tenchrae in the church. 
In the evening Confessions of the Seminarians. 

23 Maundy Thursday. Early in the morning, Confessions of 
the Brothers. Went to confession. At 9 o'clock in the 
church ; after None Pontifical Mass. After the Gospel I 
preached and explained today's ceremonies. Consecration 
of the Holy Oils. Communion of the clergy and the people. 
After Vespers I washed the feet to twelve of the clergy, 
some priests, and the others inferior clerics. At 4 o'clock 
Tenehrae in the church. 



DOCUMENTS • 183 

24 Good Friday. At 10 o'clock, in the church. Preached. At 
4 o'clock Tenebrae. 

25 Holy Saturday. At 8 :30 went to church. After the reciting 
of Sexte, I explained the ceremonies, blessed the fire; then 
took place the blessing of the paschal candle; None was 
recited, I blessed the Baptism Fount, and baptized an in- 
fant, the daughter of Benedict Hayden. Litany; Mass. In 
the evening. Confessions of the Seminarians and of others. 

26 Easter Sunday. Early in the morning, Confessions of the 
Brothers and of others. Received letters: 1. from Fr, Dah- 
men; 2. from the Right Rev. Bp. of New Orleans ^^ ; 3. 
from Fr. Borgna; 4. from Fr. Boccardo (Italy ") ; 5. from 
Fr. Acquaroni (Italy ^*) ; 6. the news of the death of Mrs. 
Fournier", After the chanting of Tierce I celebrated solemn 
Pontifical Mass in the church, and Fr. De Neckere preach- 



T2 Original in Archives of St. Louis Archdioc, Chancery; a short note: 
Wrote to you lately; since then nothing new; am strengthened more and more 
in my purpose, hence hope to see you in the latter part of April. Enclose a letter 
of Fr. Boullier's father; I answered he is well. 

73 Angelo Boccardo, priest C. M. Bishop Rosati had long desired to have 
him in America and intended to make him Director of the Novices. He indeed 
came to America in 1827, but owing to an unfortunate accident, which we shall 
hear from our Diary, sailed back immediately for Italy, to the great dismay of 
Bishop Rosati. 

74 Cf. St. Louis Cath. Hist. Review, Vol. Ill, p. 318, Note 20. 

75 Bictoire Frangoise Du Bourg, Bishop Du Bourg's elder sister, was born 
at Bordeaux in 1763, shortly before her parents Pierre Du Bourg and Marguerite 
Armand de Bogluzan went over to San Domingo, where Louis William Valen- 
tin, the future Bishop, was born in 1766. No doubt but, like the other children 
of the family, Victoire Frangoise was sent to France for her education. When 
and where she married Antoine Fournier, we cannot tell, but she was, it seems, 
a widow in 1808, at the time she extended the hospitality of her Baltimore home 
to Mrs. Seton. Some time after 1815, she, together with her brother, Louis 
Joseph Du Bourg, "le beau Du Bourg", as he was styled, moved back to Bor- 
deaux, 7, Rue de I'Eglise St. Seurin, and both were active in helping the Louis- 
iana missions. Mrs. Fournier died December 5, 1825 in her home. Following is 
the entry o fher demise, in the Register of Funerals of St. Seurin's parish: 

'In the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty-five, the sixth day of 
the month of December, were celebrated in the church of St. Sevrin the re- 
ligious obsequies of Lady Victoire Frangoise Du Bourg, sixty-two years of age, 
born in Bordeaux, widow of Mr. Antoine Fournier, who deceased yesterday at 
one o'clock in the morning, having received the Sacrament of Extreme Unction. 
During her long illness she had received Communion several times. In witness 
thereof I, the undersigned, pastor of this church, have drawn up the present 
Act 

FUILHADE (Failhade?) 

Pastor of St. Seurin.' 



Ig4 DOCUMENTS 

ed. .Answered Frs. Dahmen ^*, Borgna ", and Saulnier ", 
and sent the Holy Oils to the latter. 

27 Monday. Mass in the chapel. Confession of a lay person. 
Assisted at High Mass, during which I preached : We must 
rise again with Christ, and take care that our resurrection 
be like the resurrection of Christ; 1. true; 2. perfect; 3. 
for ever. 

28 Tuesday. Mass in the chapel. Assisted at High Mass. 

29 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. 

30 Thursday. Mass early in the morning in the same place. 
Conference to the Nuns, on our Spiritual Resurrection with 
Christ. 

31 Friday. Early in the morning. Chapter; went to confession. 
Mass in the chapel. 



"' Am sending Holy Oils for yourself and Fr. Olivier. Open the barrel of 
rice and take what you need; keep also six bottles of oil. Am sending you some 
sausage. 

"^ Your letter received. Am sending you a barrel of corn meal and a box 
containing sausage. 

^8 Am sending Holy Oils for your self, Fr. Audizio, Fr. Savine and the 
Jesuits. 



ST. LOUIS 

CATHOLIC HISTORICAL 

REVIEW 



Issued Qu arterly 



EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 

REV. JOHN ROTHENSTEINER 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

REV. CHARLES L. SOUVAY, C. M., D. D. 
REV. F. G. HOLWECK 
REV. GIIvBERT J. GARRAGHAN, S. J. 
EDWARD BROWN 



Volume IV OCTOBER 1922 Number 4 



PUBUSHKD BY THE CATHOLIC HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF SaINT LOUIS 

209 Walnut Street, St. Louis, Mo. 



Catholic Historical Society of St. Louis 
Established February 7th, 1917 



OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES 
1922-1923 

President — Most Rf,v. John J. Glennon, D. D. 
First Vice-President — Rt. Rev. J. J. Tannrath 
Second Vice-President — John S. Leahy 
Third Vice-President — Ida M. Schaaf 
Treasurer — Edward Brown 
Secretary — Rev. Gilbert J. Garraghan, S. J. 



Librarians 
and Archivists 



Executive 
Committee 



( l^EV. F. G. HOLWECK 

< Rev. Charles L. Souvav, C. M., D. D. 
(^ Rev. Gilbert J. Garraghan, S. J. 



Rt. Rev. Mgr. J. J. Tannrath, President 

Rev. M. J. O'Connor, S. J. 

Rev. Charles L. Souvav, C. M., D. D. 

Rev. F. G. Holweck 

Rev. Gilbert J. Garraghan, S. J. 

Rev. John Rothensteiner 

Edward Brown 



Committee 
on Library 
and Publications 



Rev. Charles L. Souvav, C. M., D. D. 

Rev. F. G. Holweck 

Rev, Gilbert J. Garraghan, S. J. 

Rev. John Rothensteini'.r 

Edward Brown 



COMMUNICATIONS 

General Correspondence should be addressed to Rev. Gilbert J. Garraghan, 
S. J., St Louis University, 8t. Louis, Mo . 

Exchange publications and matter submitted for publication in the Sr. Lours 
Catholic Historical Review should be sent to the Editor-in-chief, Rev. John 
Rothensteiner, 191 1 N. Taylor Ave. 

Remittances should be made to Edward Brown, Treasurer, 511 Locust St., 
St. Loui% Mo, 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

An Appeal 188 

Father Edmond Saulnier 

Rev. F. G. Hohveck 189 

Historical Sketch of Catholic New Madrid 

Rev John Rothensteiner 206 

Osage Mission During the Civil War 

Rev. Paul M. Ponziglione, S. J. 219 

Notes 230 

Documents From Our Archives 245 

Catholic Historical Society of St. Louis 

List of Members 272 



AN APPEAL 

HISTORICAL MATTER DESIRED 
by the Catholic Historical Society of St. Louis 

+ 

Books and pamphlets on American History and Biography, 
particularly those relating to Church institutions, ecclesiastical 
persons and Catholic lay people within the limits of the Lx)uisiana 
Purchase ; 

Old newspapers ; Catliolic modern papers ; Parish papers, 
whether old or recent: 

IVe lirill highly appreciate the courtesy of the Reverend 
Pastors zvho send us regularly their Parish publications ; 
Manuscripts; narratives of early Catholic settlers or relating 
to early Catholic settlements ; letters : 

In the case of family papers which the actual owners 
wish to keep in their possession, zve shall be grateful for 
the privilege of taking copies of these papers; 
Engravings, portraits, Medals etc; 

In a word, every object whatsoever which, by the most liberal 
construction, may be regarded as an aid to, or illustration of the 
history of the Catholic Church in the Middle West. 

Contributions will be credited to the donors and preserved 
in the Library or Archives of the Society, for the use and benefit 
of the members and other duly authorized persons. 

Communications may be addressed either to the Secretary, 
or to the Librarians of the 

Catholic Historical Society of St. Louis, 

209 Walnut Street, St. Louis, Mo. 



188 



FATHER EDMOND SAULNIER 



The pioneer priests of one hunderd years ago were kept so busy 
going over their wide territory preaching, instructing, attending to 
laborious sick calls, building up missions and stations, that they ap- 
parently had but little leisure for literary pursuits. But most of these 
hardy men were men of culture, educated in European colleges, semi- 
naries and universities and could never entirely forget the careful 
training of their early days. Thus we find in them a taste for local 
history, which we in vain look for in a later generation of mission- 
aries. Bishop Rosati of St. Louis carefully preserved every letter 
which he received and a rough draft of every letter which he wrote, 
with the intention to serve later historical research. Also the hero of 
this sketch, Father Edmond Saulnier, kept a file of letters ; he gave 
them to his bishop, but after some time asked Rosati to return them, 
lest they be lost. These letters are found in the Rosati collection at 
the Chancery Ofiice of the Archdiocese of St. Louis. 

It is quite probable that Saulnier knew and wished that some 
time, perhaps after a hundred years, an inquisitive writer would pore 
over these letters and also over his own, written to Rosati, to satisfy 
his curiosity and to collect historical notes. And these men of a hun- 
dred years ago, knew the art now nearly lost, the art of writing letters- 
In our archives are found about one hundred letters, sent by Saulnier 
to the address of Bishop Rosati, from December 1819 to February 
1843. They are most human and interesting. They give a faithful 
pen picture of the period in which Saulnier lived. In reproducing 
this picture I do not intend to deliver a panegyric on the virtues and 
labors of the "great missionary," Father Saulnier. Saulnier was 
not a great man. He could not preach, he was not a learned theolo- 
gian nor a forceful character, but played a part in the history of the 
diocese of St. Louis and he is the only French secular priest who 
lived to see the transition of the diocese of St. Louis from the French 
period to the modern period. We describe the life and character of 
Father Saulnier as it is reflected from his letters with all his defects, 
errors, labors and virtues. 

Edmond Saulnier was born at Bordeaux in Southern France, 13 
March, 1798. In Bordeaux he was also educated, but in 1815 and 
1816 we find him at Paris in a school on Rue du Regard. (Notice in 
his memoranda.) At Bordeaux he received tonsure on March 31, 
1817; there he also met the priests and students who had attached 
themselves to Bishop Du Bourg of Louisiana to labor in the missions 
of Louisiana. A true Gascon, he was quick to take fire, therefore he 
resolved to leave home and family to work for the souls of the lost 
sons of France on the banks of the Mississippi. So he approached 
DuBourg and asked for admission into the diocese of Louisiana. Not 

189 



190 REV. F. G. HOLWECK 

being ready, however, to leave with any of the parties sent across the 
Atlantic by Bishop DuBourg-. he followed later, it seems, alone, and 
arrived at the Barrens, Perry Co-, Missouri, in May 1819. Seven 
months before his coming the wandering Seminary of Bishop 
DuBourg had found a fixed abode there, with Father Rosati, CM., as 
Rector. At the Barrens Saulnier studied philosophy under Philip 
Borgna who. on Jan. 5. 1819, had arrived from Italy with Father 
Cellini. 

In November 1819 Bishop DuBourg opened St. Louis Academy 
on Second street and gave to the newly ordained priest Francis Niel 
the important offices of Pastor of St. Louis church and Director of 
the College. He found it difficult, however, to provide the new 
institution with professors. So he called the young cleric Edmond 
Saulnier from the Seminary to teach in the place of Perrodin\ On 
December 4th (1918) he left the Barrens on an old and stiff horse and 
made his way through the hills on the West side of the river- He 
arrived in St. Louis on December 8th, having spent the feast of the 
Immaculate Conception on horseback in the wilderness. 

There is no need to dwell on the conditions prevailing at St. Louis 
Academy ; we refer our readers to the article from the versatile pen 
of Father Garraghan, S.J. - Just one month after the arrival of 
Saulnier the new brick Cathedral, built by DuBourg, or rather its 
main nave, was blessed by the Venerable Servant of God, Felix de 
Andreis, the Vicar General of the St. Louis District of the Diocese of 
Louisiana, January 9th, 1820. DuBourg sang the Pontifical Mass 
with as many or as few ministers as could be found. The parish 
now, at least, had a church ; it may have looked more like a long 
and narrow bowling alley, but the bare walls were richly decorated 
with valuable rugs and costly paintings which DuBourg had brought 
over from France ; the French Revolution had ruined many noble 
families of France financially, and works of art could be bought at 
bargain prices. The easy going Creole population of St. Louis was 
very much in need of regular pastoral care. For over fifteen years, 
since Father Janin had preceded the Spanish garrison for the South, 
services and instructions were held at irregular intervals and abuses 
were prevailing. Father Niel, used to the simple life of his home 
parish at Saint-Antonin, in Southern France, was shocked and in 
Lent 1820 he preached a series of forcible sermons against the scan- 
dalous balls which were held by the members of his flock (letter 20 
March, 1820). He created a sensation and raised angry feelings 
without any perceptible results. In the same year Bishop Du Bourg 
made peace with Father Antony Sedella. the pastor of the Cathedral 
of New Orleans and the unruly faction in his episcopal city and left 
for New Orleans, on November 20th, 1820. 



' The latter left the theological career, went to Louisiana and married 
the daughter of Mrs. Smith of Grand Coteau ; a.s such he played a part in the 
life of Father Cellini. 

^ St. I^uis Catholic Historical Review, I, p. 2,85. 



FATHER EDMOND SAULNIER 191 

Saulnier catechized the colored children of the parish ; he went 
into his work heart and soul ; he even intended to copy a biography 
of the holy Negro, S- Benedict of San Filadelfo, which he found in 
Rosati's library, to draw from it material for his instructions. Little 
did the black Creole pickaninnies of pure and mixed blood care about 
the old Sicilian saint who never in his life instructed a negro. Also 
other impractical ideas went through his head and through the pen 
into his letters : he desired to bring the glad tidings of salvation to 
the wigwams of the benighted Indians of the West ; then he thought 
of joining the Lazarists, like Fathers Dahmen and Cellini and others, 
to give himself entirely to God by the vows of religion. On March 
8, 1822, he wrote : Volo facere Domine quod vis, quia vis, sicut vis, 
fiat voluntas Dei in superioribus erga me ^. But Bishop Du Bourg 
would not listen to the fancies of the young man ; he advised him to 
become a secular priest and serve his French countrymen in St. Louis, 
instead of the Red Man on the Western border lines of Missouri. 

When, in fall 1822, Bishop Du Bourg arrived in St. Louis from 
New Orleans, he gave Saulnier the minor Orders and Subdeaconship 
on September 20th, Deaconship on September 21st and the Holy 
Priesthood on September 22nd. 

The Academy of St. Louis did not prosper ; there were few pupils 
and, in spite of the dearth of priests for the missions, there were four 
priests acting as teachers (letter of 14 Nov., 182)2) : Niel, Michaud, 
Deys and Saulnier. Niel was sickly ; his health went up and down 
like a thermometer (letter 20th March, 1820) ; the professors being 
young and inexperienced, there were grave disorders. Saulnier, tired 
of toiling amongst these "butterflies," tried to get away : he wanted 
to go to lower Louisiana, wherefore he handed his resignation to the 
Bishop ; but Du Bourg would not hear of it. 

The main difficulty at that time were the finances of St. Louis 
Parish. There was a debt of 4,500 dollars on the Cathedral- The 
money had been advanced by the trustees of the church, Bernard 
Pratte, Auguste Chouteau (the founder of St. Louis) and his step- 
brother, Pierre Chouteau. These gentlemen wanted their money. 
But collections amongst the Catholics of the city were hopelessly 
small. The people had not as yet been trained to understand that 
the duty of maintaininng the church must rest on them exclusively. 
Up to 1804 the Spanish Government had provided for everything 
and the tithes were only nominal. The American Catholics of those 
days relied upon the contributions which streamed into the country 
from Europe. Besides, business was in a most deplorable condition. 

Niel tried his very best to satisfy the creditors ; of the offerings 
of the faithful he retained hardly anything for himself, living per- 
sonally like a beggar — yea, he contracted a personal debt of 1,200 
dollars which remained unpaid for many years. He tried to get 
money at St. Charles by instituting a lottery, without success ; then 



3 I shall do, O Lord, what Thou wilt, because Thou wilt and as Thou 
wilt; may the will of God be done by the will of my superiors. 



192 K.EV. F. G. HOLWECK 

he arranged another lottery at St. Louis to save the church block, 
but also this enterprise ended in smoke. On December 17, 1822, the 
legislature of Missouri authorized the trustees of St. L,ouis parish 
to sell as much of the church block as was necessary to indemnify 
themselves. Wherefore on September 16. 1823. four lots on Walnut 
Street were sold, but they realized only 1.204 dollars- Father Niel 
himself was the buyer; on May 25, 1824, he transferred the lots to 
Pratte and the Chouteaus who. being of kindly disposition to the 
church, unlike their brother trustees in other parts of the country, 
in July 1828. gave them back to Bishop Rosati for a note of $4,748.28 
at six per cent interest. The difficulties caused by the debt were 
drawn out into the year 1830: in 1829 the church owed to the trustees 
$5,230.60. including the unpaid interest. The debt was paid by Bishop 
Rosati in three installments from moneys obtained in France by 
Bishop Du Bourg, then Ordinary of Montauban in Southern France. 

On December 2. 1824 Father Niel had been commissioned by 
Bishop Du Bourg to go to France to collect funds and to gain priests 
and students for the diocese of Louisiana. He left in March 1825, 
after a splendid farewell celebration arranged by the good citizens 
of St. Louis. But in July he was still in Philadelphia, since the con- 
dition of his health did not permit him to go on board a ship. Late 
in summer he crossed the Atlantic. Between spells of sickness he 
journeyed all over P>ance introducing the Society for the Propaganda 
of Faith, which had been organized at Lyons by Father Inglesi, gave 
lectures on the missions of Louisiana, Missouri and Illinois and col- 
lected considerable sums. This money however was used by Bishop 
Du Bourg for New Orleans and the missions in Lower Louisiana. 
For, as soon as Bishop Du Bourg changed his residence from St. 
Louis to New Orleans, he seemed to lose all interest in the missions 
in Missouri and Illinois. One priest after another was taken away 
from Missouri and sent to some mission in Lower Louisiana ; he tried 
to transplant the momentum of the religious houses to Louisiana ; he 
even thought of erecting another seminary there, a measure which 
would inevitably have ruined the establishment at the Barrens. He 
also maintained that all the books, paintings, church regalia, etc-, 
which he had gathered in Europe in 1816-1817 were his personal 
property anfl demanded that these things be sent to him to New 
Orleans. In June 1824, Saulnier had sent him seventeen boxes of 
hooks ; he asked for the paintings ; Saulnier hesitated and only when 
Du Bourg insisted, he sent him the pictures of S. Matthew, S. Ann 
and S. Mary of h'gypt. anfl a large valuable Crucifix. 

Du Bourg and his Vicar (General Rosati, after the departure of 
Niel had a[Ji)ointefl Saulnier quasi-Pastor of the Cathedral. On March 
(25th, 1824. Rosati was consecrated Bishop of Tenagra and Coadjutor 
of Bishop Du Pjourg anfl had taken up his residence at the Barrens. 
The Seminary could not disjjcnse with the services of Kosati, where- 
fore he did not reside at St. I^^juis; his presence in the Seminary was 
far more urgent. 



FATHER EDMOND SAULNIER 193 

To the priests, at that time, according to circumstances, were given 
two kinds of faculties : the minor and major faculties. The minor 
faculties were similar to those which an ordinary priest enjoys to-day ; 
the major faculties included the power to dispense from certain im- 
pediments and were given only to priests who were the heads of dis- 
tant missions. Because Saulnier could easily communicate with the 
Bishop or his Vicar General, he enjoyed only the minor faculties. On 
December 31, 1824, the Bishop, as a New Year's present, sent to Saul- 
nier the communication that he had appointed the Jesuit Father Van 
Quickenborne, the Superior of the house at Florissant, his Vicar Gen- 
eral, and that Saulnier had to apply to Van Quickenborne for eventual 
dispensations. Saulnier was utterly disappointed ; in a series of letters 
he complained bitterly, inveighing against the Jesuits as such, and ex- 
postulating with the Bishop : how could he run after the Jesuit who 
was now at Florissant, then at St. Charles or Portage ; he would need 
the offices of a special messenger for these errands. Besides, the fees 
for dispensations had been a source of revenue for the college and the 
meagre household of the priests. As it was, all of them were poor 
enough ; his own cassock was so worn, that the ladies of the city were 
taking up a collection to supply him with a new one. He was so ex- 
cited over this "chicanery" that he could not say his office (19 April 
1825). And, on May 29th, to prove that it was impossible to run after 
Van Quickenborne for dispensations, he stated that a Miss Robidoux 
had called that afternoon and wanted to be married the same evening, 
because her Protestant bridegroom had to start for the mines the fol- 
lowing morning ; this case was perplexing since the woman had been 
married before in Detroit. He was tired of this business; if he was 
to be harassed in such a manner, he wanted to be relieved of his po- 
sition and removed to New Orleans or some other mission. Rosati 
complained to Bishop Du Bourg of Saulnier's arrogance ; the latter 
was ordered to apologize which he did in a letter of July 31, 1825, 
but in the same missive Saulnier turns again against the Bishop and 
loads him with reproaches. Later on the major faculties were restored 
to him. 

On April 25th Saulnier asked for a priest who might be sent to 
the English Settlement at James' (Prairie du Long, III.) and to 
O'Hara's (now Ruma, 111.) Saulnier was actually alone in St. Louis, 
the priests at the college were gone and the college itself had sunk to 
utter insignificance. He feared that it would have to be closed (15 
Nov. 1825) The president, Mr. Brun, he writes, is a pious man, but 
otherwise amounts to nothing. Mr. Shepard is a Protestant and the 
revenues are not sufficient to pay the meagre salaries : 200 and 400 
Dollars. He wants Rosati to send him Father De Neckere for the 
College and for the parish, especially for the English sermons. Since 
Mr. Shepard is a Protestant, he is out of place at the Catholic insti- 
tution ; it is true. Father De Neckere is sickly, but no other work is 
required of him but a sermon on Sundays; if De Neckere cannot come, 
please send Mr. Audizio. But Rosati answered, that he needed both 



194 REV. F. G. HOLVVECK 

at the Barrens; he even considered the removal of another professor, 
Mr. Demaillez who was teaching French. This was the hmit: on Dec. 
6th 1825 he speaks daggers and poniards: Am I to be killed by force? 
1 am still sick in consequence of a sick-call to Edwardsville on August 
19th. am expected to do all the work in St. Louis and in addition 
to provide for Vide Poche. "If I succumb, they shall bury me and all 
is over... if you want me to die, all right, I shall die!" he exclaims 
with the pathos of a true son of Gascony. "But I refuse to let Mr. 
Demaillez depart, for he is also chanter at the church. You have to 
send me Audizio by all means, for Vide Poche. The college is very 
shaky. Brun wants to make a contract and rent it for six years, but I 
am against this plan ; a priest must stand at the head of it, not such a 
bore like this Mr. Brun etc." 

What could Rosati do? He yielded and sent him Audizio. But 
Saulnier soon found that the good Italian priest knew no decent French 
and hardly any English. So xA.udizio returned to the Barrens (June 
17th 1826) and the ardently desired Fleming De Neckere arrived, end 
of May 1826. He had been ordained at the Barrens on October 13th 
1822. The people were delighted. His English sermons attracted great 
crowds. Also the aftairs of the College were regulated (Jan. 4th 
1826) for one year: Saulnier stood at the head of it. 

In Lent of the same year dispensation had been given for two 
weddings ; the fee was 100 dollars each, which fee was promptly paid ; 
but Saulnier was afraid of coming trouble; such an exorbitant tax 
could not be maintained long. 

But the exultations over De Neckere's arrival were shortlived. 
We have given the history of the fight for regular English services 
in a former issue of this Review ''. When De Neckere was gone 
(August 1828), gossip went high. Saulnier vv'as openly accused of 
jealousy; since he could not preach himself, his enemies said, he had 
ill-treated poor De Neckere until the latter fled in dismay. The rumors 
were not entirely unfounded, but in a letter of Sept. 2nd Saulnier 
energetically protests against such an insinuation. Pie says, the Pro- 
testant preachers are triumphant, for as long as De Neckere was in 
St. Louis, their churches were deserted, but now the new Presbyterian 
church is finished and all the Americans run there, instead of, hitherto, 
to the Cathedral. 

When Bishop Rosali did not answer, the blood rose into the 
Gascon's brains and he wrote on September 12th: "It seems, that I am 
to be condemned to all the devils and that all maledictions must be 
hurled against me, but I can only tremble, if I consider my own ignor- 
ance and how little fruit I bear, because 1 cannot announce the word 
of God, because 1 am intellectually so limited, not knowing how to 
direct myself and others." He says all Flemings (meaning also the 
Flemish Jesuits), who so far came to St. Louis, had only caused 
trouble. On Oct 10th he excuses himself for his arrogant letter. 

* Vol. II. p. 5. 



FATHER EDMOND SAULNIER 195 

He was again all alone. He could not understand why no priest 
wanted to stay with him at St. Louis. And there is so much work 
here; besides, from all parts of Illinois come demands for priests, 
even from Prairie du Chien, far up the Mississippi. There is 
nobody to take care of Vide Poche and also Kahokia is without pas- 
tor, since old Father Savine has left his post to go to Lower Louisiana, 
on May 26th 1826. The College has been closed or rather it has not 
been reopened since De Neckere and Desmaillez were gone. A gentle- 
man by the name of Servari who had offered his service a year before, 
was teaching school to about ten to twelve pupils (Letter 27th Feb. 
1827.) 

In fall 1826 a report spread in the newspapers that Bishop Du 
Bourg had resigned. On Ascension Day 1826 he had preached in the 
Cathedral of St. Louis, Saulnier accompanied him to the boat and on 
June 1st he sailed from New York, never to return. His resignation, 
which he had sent in February, was accepted by the Holy Father on 
the very day when Du Bourg's ship entered the port of Havre (July 
2nd.) On July 18th DuBourg from the Seminary of Angers sent a 
letter to the "Ami de la Religion," stating that it was not ill health 
which moved him to resign, but other important reasons. The Cath- 
olic Miscellany said : Vexations and oppositions caused his resigna- 
tion. (Letter 21st Oct. 1826.) Du Bourg was abandoned by everybody; 
towards the end, on account of the Seminary he had lost also the 
friendship of Rosati. To his many plans the priests showed a passive 
resistance ; even his friend. Bishop Flaget opposed him, still more the 
Archbishop Marechal of Baltimore ; at last he imagined that there 
existed against him a secret alliance of the clergy. The Nullifidians, 
Freemasons and bad Catholics of New Orleans hated and culminated 
him. And in addition to all this he grieved over the Inglesi incident, 
which had brought him into disrepute at home and abroad. He pre- 
ferred to go. And he was so poor when he left his diocese that he had 
to borrow forty dollars from Father Saulnier because he did not have 
enough money to pay his fare. Later on the Bishop paid the money 
back to Saulnier's mother. 

At first no one in St. Louis and New Orleans believed the reports 
about DuBourg's resignation, because, before leaving, he had spoken 
of many plans for the future, not mentioning his intention to resign 
to anyone. But on the eve of the consecration of Bishop M. Portier 
(Nov. 4th 1826) the documents arrived in the episcopal residence at 
St. Louis, containing the news of the demission of Du Bourg and the 
appointment of Rosati to the office of Administrator of the two 
dioceses of St. Louis and New Orleans (until then one diocese of 
Louisiana) with residence at New Orleans (2nd July 1826). But al- 
though Rosati refused to reside at New Orleans and finally (20th 
March 1827) was nominated Bishop of St. Louis and Administrator 
of New Orleans, he resided but little at St. Louis ; mostly he sojourned 
in the missions of Lower Louisiana, until, on May 16th 1830 he could 



196 REV. F. G. HOLWECK 

consecrate in the Cathedral of New Orleans his friend and pupil De 
Xeckerc to the bishopric of New Orleans. 

On Xoveinber 5th 1826. on the day of the consecration of Bishop 
Portier. the Gemian priest Father Anthony Joseph Liitz, arrived 
from Paris. His life for 21 years was intimately connected with that 
of Father Saulnicr. Great friends they never were, the Gascon and 
the Frank from Baden. At least Father Saulnier in his letters hardly 
ever has a good word for Father Lutz. 

On February 24th 1827 Father Saulnier resumed his agitation for 
the College on Second Street. He says, that Mullanphy donated to the 
Madams of the Sacred Heart a plot for a girls' school. He thinks, 
that also a boys' school ought and could be opened in connection with 
the Cathedral. He wants Rosati to send Chiaveroti to him, who had 
arrived with Lutz. Servari, Chiaveroti and himself could easily main- 
tain the school. He advises him to sell his farm on the River des Peres 
for this purpose. On July 23rd 1827 he writes that the Jesuits intended 
to re-open tlie College on Second Street; but the affair came to nothing. 
On June 10th 1828 he says that Servari {bon diable, who talks of get- 
ting married, then of resuming his studies for the priesthood), him- 
self and the Cathedral clergy contemplated to re-open and manage 
the Academy in fall. But Rosati refused to enter upon these plans. 
On Nov. 2nd the Jesuit P. Verhaegen, opened a college on Ninth and 
Washington Avenue thus absorbing the former Academy near the 
Cathedral. In 1832 the college building was changed into a chapel in 
I'.onor of the Mother of God, in which at first Mass was said for the 
Catholic negroes. This chapel had room for about six hundred people 
< Rosati to Timon, 26, Feb. 1832). On Septuagesima Sunday 1834 
Father Lutz held services in this chapel for the Germans, for the first 
time.' 

At that time there was not a single priest in all Illinois. Old Kas- 
kaskia was vacant and was visited only occasionally by the Lazaristf 
Timon and Cellini ; also Prairie du Rocher was without a pastor and 
ancient Kohokia as well. Not before July 1830 could Bishop Rosati 
provide for these old parishes : Pailasson went to Kaskaskia, Doutre- 
luigne to Kahokia ; both, however, stayed only a short time. Saulnier 
had an assistant in Father Lutz who, in spite of his defective French, 
attended the two parishes of Vide Poche and Kahokia. Saulnier re- 
peatedly asked for another assistant, but the Bishop had nobody to 
send. After, on June 29tli 1828 he had ordained Regis Loisel, he sent 
him to the Cathedral ''' ; but Father Lutz on July 30th went to the 
Kansas Indians and leather Loisel was sick most of the time and bed- 
ridden in the house of his mother. Lutz returned in December, but in 
spring he went North to preach to the Indians in the Northwest Ter- 
ritory and Loisel went back to the Seminary. Neither did he fare 
Ijetter with Father Dussaussoy whom Rosati appointed assistant at 



• Cath. Hist Review of St. Louis, Vol, IV, 1.5 

• Cath. Hist. Review of St. Louis, Vol. 1, L 



FATHER EDMOND SAULNIER 197 

the Cathedral in August 1828. Dussaussoy ,a pupil of the Jesuits, had 
come from S. Michel, Louisiana. Dussaussoy was expected to teach 
catechism every Sunday before and after Vespers, besides he was to 
attend Kohokia, Edwardsville and Vide Poche, together with Loisel, 
when the latter was not in bed. The English sermon was to be at nine 
o'clock. Voila de bonnes choscs, wrote Saulnier (29 July 1828) ; nine 
o'clock is too early for the English sermon, it ought to be after High- 
mass ^ And how could Dussaussoy give catechetical instructions 
three times each Sunday, twice for the children and once for the 
adults and at the same time attend the outlying missions? But — he 
writes — melius est obedire quam jiibere, quamvis hanc sententiam de- 
gusto, mea natura potestatem amat ^. There Saulnier spoke the truth ! 
On August 18th Saulnier again uses hard words on account of the 
entire arrangement concerning the instructions, the sermons and the 
missions. Besides, he writes on February 12th 1829, Dussaussoy is 
lazy, he only thinks of eating, drinking, sleeping, perspiring and keep- 
ing us company ; he refuses to obey me, etc. But if a person reads 
the letters of Dussaussoy of the same period, things sound entirely 
different. He was weak and the transition from the soft climate of 
Louisiana to the rough and changeable weather of Missouri was too 
dangerous. He was sick continually with some pulmonary trouble. 
Finally he was compelled to leave. On April 11th 1829, with Father 
Van Quickenborne, S. J., he left for the East to recuperate in France. 
Saulnier accused Van Quickenborne of having enticed Dussaussoy 
away. 

From Saulnier's letters we also learn the history of the Proper 
of St. Louis (the offices in addition to those of the Roman Breviary). 
Du Bourg had obtained the oral permission from Pope Pius VH (in 
1815) to compile his own church calendar. Du Bourg selected one 
hundred feasts, the Offices of the Passion of Christ, some feasts of 
the Blessed Virgin and a great number of feasts of Saints from many 
calendars of the Latin Church and the Roman Martyrology. Mostly 
he selected such saints who had preached the Gospel to pagan nations. 
Because he did not have approved offices for all these feasts, he com- 
posed the lessons and orations himself, like those for the feasts of S. 
Frumentius of Abyssinia, S. Boniface of Germany, St. Bruno-Boniface 
of Russia etc. The Proper was printed by Cummins at St. Louis, but 
it was not finished before November 1822. The Ordo was niade by 
Rosati, but so arbitrarily, that cacii year several saints was missing, 
even some of the general Roman Calendar. (Letter 6. Dec. 1825). For 
1827 Saulnier made the Ordo for the first time. Du Bourg biir.self 
had commanded him to omit the office of S. Ferdinand, because the 



'' Loisel spoke English well; Saulnier himself after the departure of 
De Neckere had preached both in English and French at High Mass and, 
after a while to the great dissatisfaction of the Irish had put oflF the English 
sermon to the afternoon. 

* It is better to obey than to command; I understand that this sentence 
is true, but my nature prefers to command. 



198 REV. F. G. HOLWECK 

lessons relate, that the saint personally used to carry wood on his 
shoulders wherewith to burn heretics. The former manuscripts of 
the Ordo compiled by Rosati he compares in a letter to the tower of 
Babel. But under the direction of Saulnier also there came an un- 
ceasing rain of criticisms about the Ordo and poor Saulnier who had 
so loudly reproached Rosati. came to the conclusion that it was im- 
possible to issue an Ordo entirely free of errors. The irregular, al- 
ways vaccinating calendar of Du Bourg was abolished, when Anthony 
Blanc became Bishop of New Orleans in 1835 and when Saulnier, 
the editor of the Ordo was moved to Arkansas Post. St. Louis and 
New Orleans then adopted the simple Ordo of Baltimore. 

Towards 1827 the quarrel about the debt resting on Du Bourg's 
Cathedral broke out a second time in earnest. A Madame Lac^uaisse 
had willed her property to Saulnier in favor of the church, but nobody 
would buy it for a decent sum. Saulnier, like so many others, had 
come to America, full of holy enthusiasm, to work for the salvation 
of souls. And now it was the care for the miserable mammon which 
took up all the forces of his activity. Saulnier was disappointed. In 
the mean time everybody saw, that something must be done in the 
matter of arranging for a larger church. Laville and Morton, the 
builders of the Courthouse presented plans for an entirely new church ; 
an Irishman by the name of English, offered to enlarge the old church. 
To the debt resting on the Cathedral were added the personal debts 
of Father Niel, which Rosati paid upon the advice of Saulnier. Th ;n 
the streets were to be paved, at the expense of nine hundred dollars 
The city wanted twelve feet of church property (cemetery) to widen 
Market Street, in short, there were difficulties on all sides, so that 
Saulnier did not know what to do. In addition the rumor spread 
ihrough the city that the Jesuits, in connection with their college, 
were going to o])en a church, in which there would be a sermon in En- 
glish every Sunday. Saulnier. on May 9th 1829, warned Rosati in 
energetic words, never to give his permission, because then the Cathe- 
dral would be vacant on Sundays and everybody would run after the 
Jesuits. 

In his fmancial difficulties Saulnier once spoke to Bryan Mul- 
lanphy. MuUanphy said, that, as far as the Sisters of Charity were 
concerned, Saulnier should let him know what they needed; he was 
going to consider them as his own daughters ; as long as he lived, they 
should not suffer for anything; he would pay all their expenses. But 
when Saulnier cautiously asked him to finish the Cathedral church 
and ask for this good work a perpetual solemn anniversary, to be held 
at the Cathedral, also that he might found an Orphan Asylum for 
boys, Mullanphy answered, Saulnier should not dictate to him what 
good works he was to do; he would in time think of this himself and 
he would await, what idea C^od would jnit into his minrl. (January 19th 
1829). 

On February 1829 Saulnier wrote to Bishop I'iosati that he gave 
the last .sacraments to Mr. Auguste Chouteau who received them with 



FATHER EDMOND SAULNIER 199 

great devotion. Auguste Chouteau was the same man who on Feb. 
15th 1764 had directed the founding of St. Louis. It seems that 
Auguste Chouteau had been a practical CathoHc all his life — at least 
according to Colonial ideas. On February 24th Chouteau died ; the 
following day Saulnier sang the exsequial Requiem ; he received three 
dollars and fifty cents for his services — also according to colonial 
ideas ! 

The receipts of the church and of the clergy must have been 
deplorably miserable. On February 24th, 1829 Saulnier writes that 
he would like to have a salary of two hundred dollars, or at least of 
one hundred dollars. The accidentals were beggarly ; the Sunday 
collection brought two to three dollars. The Christmas collection, 
which Saulnier used to take up in person, amounted to 25 dollars 
in 1825. Finally Saulnier was tired of all this stinginess and penury. 
On February 12th, 1829, he writes he was tempted to have himself 
suspended, to get rid of all the misery. He insists that the Bishop 
should send him to Kahokia or somewhere else- On May 16th, 1830, 
he writes, if Bishop Rosati should come to St. Louis, he should please 
not bring along De Neckere, who had just got over a spell of serious 
illness at Ste. Genevieve. Saulnier says: "I endeavor to overcome all 
prejudice against De Neckere and I am glad that he is to be Bishop 
of New Orleans, but the people of St. Louis are so enthusiastic over 
him, that his presence in St. Louis would injure the authority of 
Rosati and his own." 

In 1830 the Bishop and his people had agreed that the old partly 
dilapidated Cathedral should not be enlarged, but that the city would 
build a new Cathedral. Collectors were sent out, but these returned 
discouraged and disgusted. Saulnier saw that he could not collect 
more than four thousand dollars in the city. Poor prospects indeed ! 
Besides, one of his assistants had run away : Father Mascaroni had 
returned to the Barrens ; also Rodier left. In place of the latter, an 
Alsatian named Zender, had come, "an undefinable creature," wrote 
Saulnier — "how such a subject could ever have been ordained (Letter 
2 June, 1830), full of pretensions, extremely suspicious, with truly 
Ostrogoth ideas? he believes that everybody thinks only of him and 
speaks of him alone ; he demands of the negress Margarite that she 
should clip his hair and his tonsure; everybody can see that he is an 
imbecile, an idiot," etc. No doubt Saulnier was an expert in criticizing 
and abusing his fellow priests ! 

At this time a peculiar affair occurred, which is reflected also in 
Saulnier's letters. The latter writes on July 26, 1830: 

"All the Irishmen who read the Catholic Miscellany, are aston- 
ished to read that Mr. McMahon has received tonsure and fear lest 
you will confer upon him also other orders, whilst you know, that 
ten years ago he intended to marry in Cincinnanti and that on the 
eve of this second marriage his first wife with two children arrived 
from Ireland to live with him. Soon after he has left this wife and 
went to Lexington. People wonder why he leaves his wife to misery 
and to the mercy of others- Messrs. Mullanphy. Walsh, Lynch, etc., 



200 REV. F. G. HOLWECK 

resent the fact that he has received Holy Orders, etc." But all this 
was malicious gossip. John McMahon had complied with all the 
requirements and conditions of the Roman Court and had received 
the necessary dispensation on July 25, 1829; his wife found refuge in 
an Irish monastery. On July 17, 1831 he was ordained deacon, on 
November 20th priest and attended Apple Creek and Kaskaskia from 
the Barrens. On August 22nd, 1832, he was appointed pastor of 
Galena (Fever River) and Prairie du Chein, but died of fever in 
Galena June 19th. 1833. This is one of the rare cases, that a man, 
during the lifetime of his wife has been ordained priest. For further 
particulars we must refer the reader to F'r. Rothensteiner's article on 
Rev. lohn McMahon, in the Illinois Catholic Historical Review, 
Vol. li. No. 3. 

Between June 26, 1830 and September 1, 1831 Saulnier had no 
chance nor reason to write a letter to Bishop Rosati, since the latter 
resided in St. Louis, busy with the preparations for the erection of 
a new Cathedral. But on September 1 he sent him a letter, although 
he lived in tiie same house with the Bishop. He opened his whole 
heart to him ; he implored him by all things sacred in heaven and on 
earth, to take him away from St. Louis, to send him to Vide Poche 
or Prairie du Rocher. to Kaskaskia, Sangamon (111. )or Arkansas. 
"There are so many priests in St. Louis," he says, "and I am the beast 
of burden for all — I have to feed them all — in August 336 loaves of 
bread were eaten in the house — I am disgusted — utterly — You must 
remove me, absolutely." 

But, it seems, Rosati was in no great hurry ; he was used to such 
outbursts from the part of the nervous Gascon. When the Bishop, 
however, went to the Barrens for a few days, Saulnier sent a letter 
after him complaining the he was sick of fever and insisting that he 
must be removed- And now Rosati yielded to his entreaties. He 
saw that he could not retain the man in St. Louis. But of all the 
missions which were dependencies of St. Louis, he gave him the most 
difficult and most distant : on November 28 he appointed him pastor 
nf the Post of Arkansas, way down South, near the mouth of the 
.Arkansas into the Father of Waters. We have given an account of 
this mission and the dismal failure of Saulnier's administration in 
the first volume of this Review, p. 243-268. On December 14th he 
arrived at the Post, in company of Father Beauprez and a young 
Irishman, Patrick. In I-'ebruary of the following year he collected 
four hundred dollars for his Arkansas mission, at New Orleans. He 
conceived great plans: a church, a residence and a convent for Sisters 
were the goal of his ambition. But on June 28 a Iragi-comical quarrel 
with the son-in-law of his host robbed the sensitive (iascon of all his 
courage aufl cut short his career on the Arkansas River. He took 
the next boat (13 July) and fled to St. Louis, where he arrived 
towards the end of July. 

Bishop Rosati pitied the poor man who so abruptly had fallen 
out of the seventh heaven. On August 22nd he appointed him pastor 
of Vide Poche (Car(jn<Iclet) and (Jravois (Kirkwoodj. Saulnier's 



FATHER EDMOND SAULNIER 201 

first letter from Vide Poche is dated Nov. 28th. It gives no informa- 
tion about what passed between him and the Bishop after his arrival 
in St. Louis from the Post of Arkansas. 

In the vicinity north of the mouth of the River des Peres, four 
miles south of St. Louis, Clement Delor de Treget founded a colony 
in the year 1776, first known as Delor's village, later as Prairie a 
Catalan, also Louisbourg; finally it was named "Carondelet" after 
the Governor of Louisiana. The people of St. Louis nicknamed the 
village "Vide Poche" i. e., "Empty Pocket." Holy Mass was cele- 
brated now and then in a house along the river banks. On the 16th 
of July, 1818, Bishop Du Bourg visited the colony and said that a 
little Church in honor of Our Lady of Mount Carmel should be built 
on the hill. This was done. De Andreis drove the first stake; the 
material of the old and dilapidated church of St. Louis was used and 
the church was built as best they could under the circumstances. It 
was always considered a mission church. The first resident pastor 
was Father Saulnier. 

Just as he tried to bring the Sisters of Mercy to Poste d' Arkan- 
sas, so he now tried to establish a branch in Carondelet. On May 2, 
1833, the erection of a small house containing two rooms was begun 
and the Sisters took charge of the same on December 13, 1833, not 
as a parochial school but as an orphanage. The church in Carondelet 
was in a pitiable condition. For that reason Saulnier began with the 
erection of a new rock church. The corner stone was laid on June 
29, 1834; on December 24, he himself blessed the church using the 
"benedictio loci." On January 24, the old church collapsed. 

On October 26, 1834, the new Cathedral in St. Louis had been 
consecrated. The celebration lasted a week. St. Louis now had a 
church of which it could be proud, and which even today is one of 
the sights of the City. The Cathedral built by Bishop Du Bourg had 
been changed to. a warehouse, but burnt to the ground on the night 
of April 6, 1835. With this event the regime of Bishop Du Bourg 
was at an end. 

On March 25, 1836, six sisters of St. Joseph from Lyons, France, 
arrived in Carondelet under the leadership of Sister Delphine and 
Sister Febronia Fontbonne and her brother. Father Fontbonne. They 
came at the request of Bishop Rosati because the sisters at hand (the 
Madames of the Sacred Heart and the Sisters of Mercy) were not 
sufficient for the present needs- They moved into the house of the 
Sisters of Mercy and opened a school. 

Sister Delphine was made Superior in the bouse at Carondelet. 
A division took place ; some of the Sisters were against Sister Del- 
phine, but Saulnier interfered although this was a matter for the 
Spiritual Director Father Fontbonne. Saulnier also thought the Sis- 
ters ought to take more interest in the parish, the services and the 
Church choir, than their French rules allowed them. This was the 
cause of strained relations between Mother Delphine and Father 
Saulnier. With this Father Saulnier's troubles began. 



202 REV. F. G. HOLWECK 

These troubles were augmented by Father Sauhiier's fondness 
for drink. On December 2L 1838, he wrote a letter to Mother Del- 
pliine, the contents of wiiich plainly showed that the writer was under 
the influence of liquor. The Bishop had already reprimanded him 
earlv in June. Saulnier, a true Gascon, wrote : it would take years, 
probably a lifetime to forget the memory of the reprimand. 

In St. Louis they showed him the cold shoulder. Father Lutz 
threw a hor.-^e whip at his feet and called him "infant," "imbecile," 
and the like. Saulnier had to promise Bishop Rosati not to touch 
intoxicants. But one day in November, 1838, Saulnier rode into 
St. Louis and bought a bottle of whiskey, part of which he drank 
in the evening and the rest he finished in the morning- Later on he 
stated that as one of the older priests (he was then priest 16 years, 
and forty years of age), he was entitled to use something stronger 
for his health. In our days a priest of twenty-five years is considered 
one of the Junior clergy. He let the empty bottle stand in the room 
of Bishop Loras of Dubuque, who had just returned from France 
with some young priests. Bishop Loras was indignant and the young 
men were scandalized. In February, 1839, when Saulnier met Father 
Elet, S.J., (President of the St. Louis University), the latter called 
him a drunkard, an animal, and told him to give his parish to some- 
one who could do some good. Saulnier, in childlike simplicity, related 
all this to Rosati in a letter dated Feb. 18, 1839, and used this oppor- 
tunity to oppose the Jesuits, saying that the Jesuits would finally 
usurp all his rights. Ten years previously, in 1829, he had already 
issued a philippic against the Jesuits, especially against Father Van 
Quickenborne. 

In August 1832, he became pastor of Vide Poche. His last letter 
to Bishop Rosati is dated April 20, 1842. He wishes the Bishop a 
happy journey and a pleasant return. Bishop Rosati and Father 
Lutz went to Baltimore on April 25, and from there to Rome. He 
was never to see St- Louis again. He died in Rome, September, 25. 
1843. On November 30. 1841, Bishop Rosati consecrated the Rev. 
Peter Richard Kenrick as his Coadjutor. This took place in Phila- 
delphia. Bishop Kenrick, being an Irishman, was not very welcome 
in St. Louis. He did not announce the day of his arrival When the 
boat arrived, no one was there to greet him. He gave his baggage to 
a teamster anrl followed the wagon on foot to the Cathedral. 

<')ne of the first official acts of Bishop Kenrick was the sus- 
pension of Father Saulnier, in the year 1842. He allowed him to 
go to New Madrid, where his friend Ambrosius Hcim was pastor. 
Some of his parishioners and a few sisters of St. Joseph petitioned 
the Bishop in favor of .'^aulnier but in vain. Kenrick wrote to Rosati 
that he had to suspend Saulnier (his intemi)eratc habits were .so fully 
known, etc.. letter flated Feb. 20, 1842), in order to make reparation 
for his previous scandals. His successor was Fontbonne, his former 
rival- He did not reject him entirely but on July 22. 1842, he ap- 
pointed him pastor of St. Philip's Church at French Village, Illinois, 
today Fdgemont. F.ast St. Louis. His last letter to be found in the 



FATHER EDMOND SAULNIER 203 

archiepiscopal archives was written from this place and bears the 
date, Feb. 8, 1843, addressed to Kenrick. In this letter he writes that 
he could not say much about French Village regarding the census. 
Father Loisel of Cahokia would know much more about this. Father 
Loisel had said Mass for the first time at the village on October 27. 
1836. The village was not separated from Cahokia and made a 
parish of its own until April 18, 1841. Bishop Kenrick came for the 
first time on July 16. 1843, and appointed Father Saulnier as first 
pastor a few days later. It seems that Saulnier did not reside at 
French Village but at Cahokia with Father Loisel. When he came 
to French Village, he most likely stayed with one of the colonists or 
lived in the sacristy. 

During Saulnier's administration, the terrible floods of 1844 took 
place. The colonists suffered very much from the floods and still 
more from the fever resulting from the floods in the low lands. Loisel 
died a victim of the fever May 10, 1845. Saulnier left for a "healthier 
climate" on April 1845. 

When the students of the Seminary went to the Bluffs above 
French Village to spend their vacation there in 1845, the church had 
been desrted ; the students used it for their spiritual exercises, ac- 
cording to O'Hanlon, "Life and Scenery in Missouri'' p. 98. "Little 
did we then imagine the unsanitary danger to which we were ex- 
posed. It was only the year before, when all these bottom lands had 
been submerged many fathoms deep, under the floods of the Missis- 
sippi and now that these had disappeared, new stagnant pools of 
water had been formed, while the malaria, which produces fever and 
ague, more than usually abounded. This we were constantly inhaling 
day and night, and before our vacation term had concluded, symp- 
toms of the localized illness were developed amongst the priests and 
students. We resolved therefore to leave these dangerous haunts, and 
no sooner had we returned to St. Louis, than we were all attacked 
successively with bilious fevers and intermittent agues. In fact our 
Seminary became a hospital and the doctor's visits were not only 
daily but hourly made." 

Under such circumstances one can hardly blame Saulnier for not 
stajnng in French Village or Cahokia. With the permission of Bishop 
Kenrick, he remained at the Cathedral to wait there for a new ap- 
pointment. But he was never again to be a pastor. There was no 
longer a scarcity of priests and Bishop Kenrick apportioned all pas- 
toral work, as far as possible to the younger clergy. 

We find the following, rather meager, dates in a book of receipts 
and expenses which Saulnier kept (Feb. 1844 to Nov. 1857) and in 
which he made notes which were both political and personal. 

As we are not giving a sketch of Bishop Kenrick's activities, the 
following important dates of Saulnier's life from this time on, will 
suffice. 

On May 2, 1845 he went to St. Patrick's where he became an 
assistant, with St. Cyr and Wheeler to Father Lutz. The administra- 



204 REV. F. G. HOLWBCK 

tion of the German pastor at St. Patrick's was of short duration; in 
the following year Wheeler was appointed pastor, Lutz was made 
Vicar General and Saulnier returned to the Cathedral as chaplain of 
the Sisters of Mercy (Fourth and Spruce). Father Simon Paris was 
pastor at this place since 1844. Father Saulnier and Father Paris did 
not get along very well because of their different dispositions. More- 
over the presence of Bishop Kenrick did not help to make him feel 
more comfortable and Father Paris therefore advised him to return 
to French Village which at that time belonged to the new Chicago 
Diocese. But Saulnier refused to do this and gave the following rea- 
sons in his characteristic manner. (June 4, 1847). 

Nolo ire ad Villam I do not care to go to the Village. 

Causa Calumnantium because of calumny. 

Causa aquae because of the water. 

Causa morbi because of sickness. 

on account of the necessity of rid- 

Causa equitandi ing on horseback. 

Causa magnae solitudinis because of lonesomeness. 

because of the necessity of taking 
Causa edendi in aliis Domibus. .. .meals with strangers. 
Causa multarum domuum po- 
tandi et ludendi et aliarum cau- because of the drinking and gambl- 

sarum ing in many homes. 

Causa oblivionis meae post because I will not be remembered 

mortem after my death. 

Causa dispersionis mearum re- because everything belonging to me 
rum nihil obtinendarum mihi will be given away and nothing will 

pro anima mea remain even for my soul. 

He therefore remained in St. Louis. On the 5th of August 1848 
he received his citizenship papers. He was made Chancellor September 
15, 1850 because of his knowledge of Diocesan affairs. The days of 
the French regime were a thing of the past however, St. Cyr and 
Saulnier were the only ones who remained. The other French priests 
who were still living went to other dioceses. 

On October 5, 1854, Saulnier made a trip to France, his first visit 
since 1819. He took $900.00 with him on this trip; the trip to New 
York (via Chicago, Cleveland) lasted three days. The fare on the 
steamer Canada (with Bishop Hughes and Timon) to Liverpool cost 
$130.00; he visited Paris and Bordeaux and returned to St. Louis on 
March 9, 1855. He still had $250.00 when he returned. His scholar 
Patrick Mclaughlin, who was with him in Vide Poche and Poste, 
presented him with $100.(X) on his return. 

In the year 1856 the I-'athers Wheeler and P. Ryan (later Arch- 
bishop of Philadelphia) were assistants at the Cathedral; while Father 
Paris was in France, h'ather Ryan was made administrator. Saulnier, 
who had very little to do, complained much about these two men. 



FATHER EDMOND SAULNIER 205 

In September 1856, he wrote : "Remark well, that the Revs. 
Wheeler and Ryan, no matter if they have appointed a week at each 
turn for the sick call they ought to stay, they are going out e^^ery night 
after seven. The 20. August they came for a sick call. I was obliged 
to see a girl, administered her speechless and she died two hours after. 
Then the 1, September, Mr. Wheeler not willing to go on a sick call 
(on the other side in Illinois), by chance Mr. Laufifet (?) of Detroit 
went to that sick and administered him and the sick died. During the 
night, the 2, Sept. at half past seven, a couple came to be married and 
then Mr. Wheeler was absent and the marriage was performed at half 
past eight when Mr. Wheeler returned. I was on the point of telling 
the Archbishop when Mr. Ryan promised to be more punctual." 

Later on in September, he writes again: "The 21, they came for 
a sick call at 8 o'clock ; as the sick was in eminent danger, the two 
priests being absent, I was obliged to go and returning from the sick 
call the RR. gentlemen were not arrived. Mr. Wheeler came at 9, Mr. 
Ryan came at 9.30. At breakfast I told them that I would inform the 
Archb., but they promised again that they would be attentive to their 
duty." 

On March 8, 1862, Saulnier was made chaplain to the Carmelite 
Sisters whose headquarters were at Baltimore and who had established 
a convent at Clay Farm near Bellefontaine, in the vicinity of Holy 
Cross Church, Baden. He died there March 22, 1864, at the age of 
66. He died of a stroke whilst saying Mass. Saulnier was a heavily 
built man, he had a powerful voice and was very fond of solemn cele- 
brations conducted after the French manner. He was a great admirer 
of Rosati and trusted him like a child. He told him his troubles as a 
child would go to his mother. He told him all his troubles great and 
small. As he was a man of good will and genuine piety, he could have 
accomplished great things, had he been able to overcome difficulties. 
Today a few priests are still Hving who, in their youth knew him, as 
for instance, Father M. S. Brennan, who is his successor today in 
Carondelet who, in his reminiscent moods, often speaks of Father 
Saulnier with great reverence. 

F. G. HOLWECK. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CATHO- 
LIC NEW MADRID 



II. 

The Churches of St. John the Baptist and 
The Immaculate Conception. 

It is neither a very interesting nor a very important account we 
have to otTer in regard to the religious growth of the old river-town 
of New Madrid during the last hundred years. Political upheavals, 
destructive earthquakes, a sanguinary war with armies traversing the 
territory from south to north, from north to south, and chiefly the 
dearth of priestly help in the very extensive diocese of St. Louis, were 
the main causes of the slow development, often looking for all the 
world like a sad retrogression of Catholic life, in the city of New 
Madrid and vicinity. Good, earnest priests came and went : not one 
of them, save the first pastor, died in the place. Some earnest attempts, 
even heroic efTort>. were made to inaugurate a greater advance. They 
failed, not through incapacity, but through lack of means. Then there 
were also a number of languid efforts, succeeded by real setbacks. 
There were men of high talent who seemed to waste their efforts on a 
hopeless desert. Yet, religion thrived, though it showed but few out- 
ward signs of progress, and today the Parish of the Immaculate Con- 
ception, the successor of the Parish of St. Isidor, and St. John the 
Baptist, is one of the better country parishes of the Archdiocese. We 
have gathered in our narrative all the data we could find in printed and 
manuscript sources. We hope our readers will help us fill out the 
lacunae by their own investigations. 

On the 5th day of January, 1818, William Du Bourg, Bishop of 
Louisiana, arrived in St. Louis and began to bring order out of the 
disiccta membra of his vast diocese. The work was, of necessity, 
^adual : it was in November i820 that New Madrid was to receive 
his immediate attention. In a letter to Father Joseph Rosati, sent 
from New Madrid on that date. Bishop Du Bourg writes : 

My dear Father Rosati : 
I stopped here to sec wliat condition Religion is in at this place. These poor 
people, in all sixty Catholic families have been in the last twenty years without 
any religious assistance whatever, no marriages, no baptisms, no sacraments. — 
Still they wish to have a priest: but I do not think they have the means to sup- 
port one; neither do I believe that is would l)e rckkI for a priest to stay here. 
Nevertheless, I deem it necessary that a Missionary should come here 3 or 4 

'■•2f'206 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CATHOLIC NEW iMADRID 207 

times a year. Mr. Robert McCoy, ^ at whose home I am now, will give him lodg- 
ing and board; he has a nice hall where Mass may be said. The congregation 
will give the Priest $70.00 every time he comes : he shall remain each time a 
fortnight to instruct, etc. I wish that Fr. Potini should undertake this mission. 
He may go first to Cape Girardeau to Mr. Steinbeck, whose family are Catholic, 
and will say Mass there for the few Catholics of that quarter. Thence he will 
go to Mr. Hopkins', 29 miles farther. He will fare very well there; Mr. Hop- 
kins' family also are Catholic. From Mr. Hopkins' to New Madrid the distance 
is about 30 miles, and, I am told the road is good all the way down. Fr. Potini 
should take along whatever is needed for the celebration of Mass and the ad- 
ministration of the Sacraments. I think that at Cape Girardeau, they will also 
contribute their share of the expense for the priests' journey. He may begin as 
soon as possible. 

■i- L. Wm. Bp. of La. 

On further reflection, I think Fr. Cellini will be more suitable for this 

mission than Fr. Potini, on account of his more mature age. - 

There is a slight mistake in this letter as to the length of time 
during which New Madrid was deprived of priest and altar. From 
a letter of Father Maxwell to Father Gibault at New Madrid it appears 
that old missionary was still the pastor of New Madrid in October 
1801. Louis Houck in his History of Missouri states that "until his 
death in 1802 he (Gibault) was active in all spiritual matters, and as 
priest of the parish received a regular salary from the government." 
Others give the year of Father Gibault's death as 1804;^ which opin- 
ion seems, at least, probable. Therefore the interval between Father 
Gibault's last ministration and the coming of Bishop Du Bourg is less 
than that given by at least one and possibly four years. I mention this 
point in particular because later on that period of utter desolation is 
extended to twenty-five years. 

To return to our letter: Not Father Potini, but Cellini was sent 
to New Madrid. On May 24, 1821, Father Rosati writes to Father 
Francis Baccari, Vicar General of the Congregation of the Missions 
in Rome as follows: 

"Father Cellini, besides the sick calls and confessions, has the charge and 
direction of the work here at home. Moreover, he has a parish of French, 
people, amounting to 70 families, at New Madrid, on the Mississippi river, more 
than 100 miles from the Seminary. He goes there three or four times a year, 
and the trip takes him four or five weeks each time. Those poor people had had 
no priest for twenty years. You may well imagine in what condition they were. 
Ignorance cannot go any farther. It is morally a forest to frighten the stoutest 
heart. However, there are good dispositions. Father Cellini went there for the 
first time during the month of March ; he baptized there a great many people, 
even adult persons, and two Protestants ; he urged them to build a church, and in 
a short while, when that church is finished (it -does not take long in this country 
to build), he will go there again." 



1 Robert McCoy had been employed under the Spanish Regime as a Secre- 
tary of the Civil administration. Many legal papers signed by him arc to be 
found in the New Madrid Archives, preserved at the Jefferson^ Memorial. 

- Archives of the Catholic Historical Society of St. Louis. 

3 Father Pierre Gibault's last years arc clouded not only in sorrow and dis- 
appointment, but no less in doubt and uncertainty. There are writers who main- 
tain that the old missionary returned to Canada, his native land. But there is, 
as far as wc could find, no proof of this. 



208 REV. J. ROTHENSTEINER 

The church was not built at that time, and there is no indication 
that Father CeUini repeated his visit. Yet there is an obscure allusion 
to other visits in a letter of Father Cellini to Father Rosati, dated 
October 22, 1821 : 

"I have written to Mr. McCoy on the subject you mentioned to me in your 
letter: and I hope that when our Brothers arrive there, they will be assisted as 
we wish." 

The McCoys were, no doubt, the family of Robert McCoy of New 
Madrid, with whom Bishop Du Bourg had made arrangements for 
future priestly services in 1820. 

Bv an accident, or rather a dispensation of Divine Providence, 
Mother Duchesne of blessed memory the first Superior of the religious 
of the Sacred Heart, was to bless the sadly-forsaken place with her 
presence. Baunard-FuUerton gives the following acount in The Life 
of Af other Duchesne: 

On the return trip "the Cincinnati" ran aground on a sandbank opposite 
New Madrid, a hundred (nearly two hundred) miles from St. Louis. The river 
was so low that it was impossible to foresee when the boat could proceed — 
this delay and uncertainty were harassing! Mad. Duchesne... resolved to turn 
this interval to account by making her annual retreat... A fortnight elapsed in 
this way. and then she received a pressing invitation from Catholics in the neigh- 
borhood. Mr. and Mrs. Kay, to come and stay in tlieir house. Mad. Duchesne 
Miss Pratte accordingly spent five days with these kind people." 

The next visit made to New Madrid by Lazarist missionaries was 
that of Father John Mary Odin.' just ordained, but to become founder 
of the Church in Texas and finally archbishop of New Orleans, accom- 
panied by the deacon John Timon, who was to rise, in the course of 
time, to the dignity of the first Bishop of Buflfalo. The trip was made 
during September and October 1824. It is narrated in full in the 
Annales de la Prop, de 1. Foi vol. II. 

All that bears on New Madrid is the following: "After a three days' journey 
(from Jackson) we arrived at New Madrid. Our sojourn there was short, in 
spite of the great needs and the earnest prayers of the inhabitants, who have 
rot had a resident priest among them for nearly twenty-five years. Mentioning 
their return in his Diary, on Oct. 31, 1824, Rosati writes: Saccrdos unus (mit- 
tendus foret). Novo Matrilum, ubi plurimum desidcratur. 

"One prie.st should be sent to New Madrid, where he is much 
needed." 

And under date of December 1, 1824, the Diary of Rosati reads: 
"Duobus viris Xovi Matriti promisi saccrdotem in illam civitatem 
mi.ssurum initio veris proximi." 

I have promised two men of New Madrid to send a priest to that 
city at the opening of the Spring of next year. (1825). 

Some one must have been sent, for on April 12, 1825, Bishop 
Du Bourg writes to Rosati evidently in answer to some good and hope- 
ful news communicated to him by Bishop Rosati : "I am much pleased 
with the dispositions manifested at New Madrid." 



♦ Printed in Life of Father De Andrcis. 

• Bi*bop John Mary Odin was ordained to the priesthood May 4, 182.3. 
Letter in the Annales, Bishop John Timon, Sept. 23, 1826. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CATHOLIC NEW MADRID 209 

From the Diary of Bishop Rosati it appears that Father John 
Odin, CM., made another visit to New Madrid, this time in company 
of Father Leo DeNeckere, also a future bishop of New Orleans. 
Under date of April 3, 1826, he writes : "I have sent De Neckere and 
Odin to New Madrid, to remain there until Pentecost." And on April 
17: "Through the courtesy of Mr. McCoy I have received a letter from 
Mr. Odin, whom I had sent to New Madrid on the 3d with Mr. De 
Neckere. On April 4 De Neckere preached a sermon at the town of 
Jackson, having been very kindly received by the people of that place, 
among whom there were some few Catholic families." And again, on 
May 10, records the return of De Neckere and Odin to the Seminary, 
from New Madrid: "There (at New Madrid) they endeavored to in- 
struct the people (about eighty families) who had for many years 
been deprived of all spiritual help, by giving Catechetical instructions 
twice a day, and two sermons on each Sunday and Feast-day. On 
Ascension day they gave First Holy Communion to fifteen boys and 
girls. The number of communions would have been much larger, if 
the inhabitants of the country had not been prevented from attending 
by frequent and heavy rains, which caused an inundation, and by 
urgent labors on the farms. They gave Baptism to more than fifty 
infants. Being now fully convinced of obtaining a resident priest, the 
people of New Madrid have decided to erect a church-building, for 
which purpose they have started a subscription and have already raised 
five hundred dollars. It is a pity that such a dire spiritual need con- 
nected with so much good will could not at once find relief." Still a 
number of years had to pass before New Madrid was again to have a 
church and a priest of its own. 

But Fathers Odin and Timon were to return to New Madrid once 
more, Timon having been ordained priest on the 23rd of September, 
1826. Bishop Rosati's Diary tells us that Odin and Timon started for 
New Madrid on October i. "On the 12th of October (1826) the Bishop 
writes to Odin at New Madrid : "Father Niel has already seven priests 
for this country. We will have wherewith to have someone at New 
Madrid." On October 19, Rosati received letters from Timon and 
Odin, who were still at New Madrid. On October 20, the Bishop 
wrote to Odin : "The news that you and Father Timon sent us, caused 
us much gratification. You may assure those gentlemen that they will 
not be deprived of the visits of the priests, and that, as far as possible, 
we shall send them the same. The next visit may take place in the 
beginning of January, vita comite." On October 31 both missionaries 
are at the Seminary once more. Bishop Rosati remarks that they had 
endeavored to excite the people of New Madrid to the proper spirit 
for gaining the indulgence of the Jubilee. Their success was marked 
by more than sixty confessions, forty holy communions, and a num- 
ber of baptisms." 

Whether the promised visit was made in Spring of ^1827. we can- 
not say, as Bishop Rosati, at that time, was absent in Kentucky. 

In searching the Archives for a document concerning Father 
Lewis Tucker, we found a weatherbeaten paper of great importance 



210 REV. J. ROTHENSTEINER 

for our present purpose, the ReiX)rt of Father John Timon, CM,, con- 
ceniing tiie New Madrid and Post of Arkansas for 1830. It is ad- 
dressed to Bishop Rosati and dated December 4, 1830: 

"1 can send Von, Monsignenr, but very imperfect accounts of New Madrid 
and Arkansas. The length of time has effaced much from my memory, and I 
cannot now lay my hands on my notes. What I can recollect is that at New 
Madrid there arc about 90 Catholic families, almost all Creole French, and all 
in utmost want of instruction, ignorant but attached to their religion. During 
the last live years about eiglity persons received the holy Communion, about 
one hundred and twenty went to confession, and a great many children, both of 
Catholic and Protestant parents, were baptized, as were also about eight adults. 
Before the visit Mr. Odin made to them, they had not a priest, save on a pass- 
ing visit, for many years, and now they are without one these three years. New 
Madrid is one of the oldest posts of Louisiana; it had its commandant in the 
times of the French and Spanish domination, and a church whicii has been 
swallowed up by the river. The ancient site, by the encroachments of the Mis- 
sissippi, is now a quarter of a mile from the shore in the river. The inhabitants 
lately made a subscription for building a new church, about $650.00 were sub- 
scribed, but they seem little inclined to begin, until they can have assurance of 
a clcrg>-man. .Ml professions desire that one might be sent. They would also 
wish that the priest might superintend a school; and that, if possible, some nuns 
might be sent for the instruction of female children. I do not know any point, 
where, as I think, after some privations and sacrifices in the beginning, a good 
school or college might be more advantageously placed." *^ 

Father Timon's suf^gestion was favorable received by the Bishop, 
but could not be carried out until two years had elapsed. Now, two 
young and energetic men were detached for the upbuilding of New 
Madrid. 

On April 27, 1832, Rev. Victor Paillasson ^ departed for that place 
from Kaskaskia, where he had been pastor since December 22, 1830, 
in company with the newly ordained Peter Paul Lefevere ** as assistant. 
On October 13. 1832, Bishop Rosati had given the Sisters of Loretto 
permission to found a monastery and school of their order at New 
Madrid. Father Paillasson entered u{X>n this laborious task with 
great zeal and energy. Rut on the 29th of June he came to St. Louis 
with the safl news that the house he had almost completed was destroyed 
by fire. The particidars of this undertaking and failure we learn from 
a letter of the youthful assistant Peter Paul Lefevere: 



• .Archives C. 11. S. of St. Louis. 

' We quote the following from the Chancery Records of St. IvOuis : 
l'ailla»son, Victor : — 

Apr. 19, 1830, .Assistit ad ordinationem in Barrens, Mo. 

iXjo Annotatur ut Pa.stor in Kaskaskia, Randolph Co., 111. 

1831 Dec. 22. Canonicc in.«tituitiir parochus in Kaskaskia. 

18.31 Kc^idet Pastor in Kaskaskia ct Visitat Prairie du Roclier. 

27. April 1832. Profcctus est in Xew Madrid Co. Usque ad 1836. 

1836 Intrat in Novitiatum Socictatis Jcsu in IHorissant, St. Louis Co., Mo.. 
iH. .Mail. 

29. Junii, 1832. ,'\dvcnit ex New Madrid in St. lyouis, annuntians domum 
quam impcnsis $50r) acdificaverat incendio dirutam. 

■ On Father, afterwards FJishop Lefevcre's missionary activities in North 
Mits^Airi, Illinois and Iowa. Cf. Illinois Catholic Historical Review, Vol. II. 
p. 327. $ ». 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CATHOLIC xVEVV MADRID 211 

New Madrid, June the 24, 1832. 
Most Reverend Sir:- 

You are undoubtedly already informed of the great misfortune tlmt hap- 
pened to us on the eve of Corpus Christi by the combustion of our house which 
was already nearly completed. At that dreadful event, struck with sadness and 
grief, we both thought immediately to abandon our post, and to return to St. 
Louis; but seeing the apparent anxiety and activity of the people to renew what 
we had undertaken, Mr. Paillason found it expedient that he alone should go 
up in order to inform you of the sad and serious condition to which this mis- 
fortune has brought us, and to know what there should now be done. As he 
seems to have more courage than I, and to show a kind of punctilio to recom- 
mence the establishment: I write these lines by his instigation to expose to you 
my depression, and also the embarrassment and grief which might cause too 
dangerous an engagement. You know Most Rev. Sir, that in the prospectus he 
has given of this establishment he has expressly specified and determined, that 
it would be erected and directed on the same plan as that in the Barrens, and 
also that there would be erected a convent of nuns for the purpose of keeping 
a female school. Besides he has expressly given notice that in both of these 
Seminaries or Academies, as they call them here, no mention would ever be 
made of Religion, or of whatever regards the Catholic doctrine and worship. 
Now the people, seeing the loss of so great an improvement and benefit for this 
place, offer willingly to subscribe for the rebuilding of that Seminary. We, 
after a sufficient inquiry and information, find that the building, in the manner 
the people desire and will have it, would cost, at least, from nine hundred to a 
thousand dollars, making deduction of all superfluities and considering the 
building as rough and simple as possible; and the sum of the subscriptions, 
calculating at large, could only amount to five hundred dollars. So that we 
would run into debt four or five hundred dollars. Moreover, being once en- 
gaged, we would incur debts upon debts ; later for the convent and after that 
for the church. You conceive very well that this could never be paid with the 
revenue of the school, which, I am sure, will never exceed the expense of our 
corporal sustenance. 

Besides you know very well that the school we would be able to teach could 
and would never be able to satisfy the idea and expectation of the people; 
which, since our arrival, they have continually kept up and increased, thinking 
to establish and erect themselves upon the ruins of the Barrens. So, considering 
the little prospect and hope of future progress in the propagation of faith, 
knowing the inconstancy of the people, and that their only motive and intent 
is their temporal interest, having no money in cash, I shall never venture to 
engage myself for one dollar, under the obligation of paying it with the revenue 
of a precarious school. Because, Most Rev. Sir, knowing the dreadful situation 
of many priests of America merely on account of debts, I dread them more 
than death itself, and would prefer to cultivate the land from morning till even- 
ing rather than entangle myself so far. It would also be very painful to me 
to depend upon the whim of the people, for a worldly subsistance, because they 
would have subscribed for the house, without having ever the consolation of 
seeing any conversion to God, and even without having any time of working 
for my own salvation. Till now we never said Mass in public, but always pri- 
vately, and even missed it often ourselves on account of manual labor. We 
preached about six times in the court house, where the people assembled merely 
to see one another for amusement and pass-time, as they say it themselves. You 
see that the present and future consolation, either temporal or spiritual, is very 
small, and besides our character differs in many points, one from another. If 
therefore you could apply some remedy to my present situation which is lament- 
able, or assign me some place, where by means of a frugal sustenance, I could 
work with more fruit for the salvation of others and that of myself, which is 
the only motive that brouglit me to America, you would infinitely oblige. 

Most Reverend Sir ; 
Your most humble and obedient Servant, 

P. Lefevere. P. » 

« Archives C. H. S. of St. Louis. 



212 REV. J. ROTHENSTEINER 

Bishop Rosati requested Father Lefevere to stay at New Madrid 
until Father Paillasson's return from the Post of Arkansas, whither 
he had been sent. Then on August 29, 1832, Lefevere was sent to the 
mission oi Salt River in Northwestern Missouri, to become in due 
time bishop and administrator of Detroit. 

Father Victor Paillasson continued his ministrations at New 
Madrid until 1836, when he entered the novitiate of the Society of 
Jesus at Florissant, May 18. 

After a brief interval Father Paillasson found a successor in the 
person of the newly ordained Ambrose Heim. ^" Being born at 
Rodalbe in the diocese of Nancy in 1807, he came to St. Louis 
June 15, 1833, and was raised to the priesthood July 23, i837, 
by Bishop Rosati in the chapel of St. Mary's of the Barrens. 
Immediately after his ordination the youthful priest became 
pastor of New Madrid, and remained there until 1841. Father Heim 
built a church of wood and dedicated it in honor of St. John Baptist. 
This was the second church-building after Father Gibault's church of 
St. Isidore had been washed away by the river in 1816. Father Heim 
became pastor of Prairie du Long, and in i843 chaplain of the Sisters 
of the Visitation at Kaskaskia, and in 1847 Secretary to the Bishop. 
Father Heim was the First Spiritual Director of the first Conference 
of St. Vincent de Paul. " He died January 3, 1854. His monument 
in Calvary Cemetery bears the brief but eloquent epitaph : Father 
Ambrose Heim "the priest of the poor." 

Father Heim's departure from New Madrid was a real calamity, 
in as far as three long years had to pass, ere another priest was sent 
there, the well-remembered Father Lewis Tucker,^- grandson of Joseph 
Tucker, the earliest Catholic settler of Perry County, Mo. Lewis and 
his brother Hilary were among the first students at the newly-founded 
Seminary of St. Mary's of the Barrens. He was raised to the priest- 
hood in the Cathedral of St. Louis by Bishop Rosati September 21, 
1835. Father Tucker's first appointments were to St. Michaels, now 



'° The following items we transcribe from the Chancery Records of St. 
LouU: 
Heim, .Ambrose: 15 Junii, 1833 advenit St. Ludovicum, studiosus. 

23. Julii, 1S37, Presbyter ordinatus fuit in ccclesia St. Mariae in Barrens, 
Perry Co., Mo., ab Illmo. Josepho Rosati. 

1837 S'atim fuit Parochiis in New Madrid — usque ad 1841. 

1842 Est pastor ecclesiae St. .\ugustini in Prairie du Long, Monroe, Co. 111. 

1843. Dicitur rcsidere in Kaskaskia — etesse Capellanus Sororum Visitationis 
CO loco 

1844. .Annotatur ut quasi Vicarius residens S. Ludovici apud Eccl. Cathe- 
dralcm. 

1847. Est adhuc in eodcm loco sed annotatur ut secretarius Episcopi. 

3. Jan. 1854. Est adhuc Secretarius Archiepiscopi residens apud ecclcsiam 
Cathcdralem, ubi e vita dcccssit die 3. Jan. 1H54. 

'• Cf. Paul Schultcs interesting article on the First Conference of St. Vin- 
cent de Paul in the St. Louis Catholic Historical Rcfiew, Vol. Ill, p. 5. s. s. 

" On Father Lewis Tucker, of "Chronicles of an Old Missouri Parish." 
(Predericktown.) 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CATHOLIC NEW MADRID 213 

Fredericktown, and then to Potosi. At New Madrid he remained from 
February 18, 1845 to October 15 of the same year, a period of eight 
months. The young priest's health began to fail, and he was appointed 
pastor of his first mission, St. Michael's, where he remained until his 
death, November 30, 1880. Father Lewis Tucker was a most excellent 
priest. The high esteem in which he was held at Fredericktown has 
been recorded by the present writer on another occasion. In regard 
to the feelings of the people of Potosi, we have the record in a petition 
sent by them to Bishop Rosati at the time of Father Tucker's 
appointment to New Madrid. Among the points mentioned are the 
zeal of Father Tucker in making converts, the great respect enter- 
tained for his character by the non-Catholics of the place, and his 
ability as a preacher, having full command of the English language. 
Among the forty signers we find the names of Firmin Desloge, and 
Andrew Sarrafin as the only French ones ; all the others are unmis- 
takably Irish, as Casey, Flynn, O'Brien with one name of English 
sound : John Pierce. But the petition was of no avail. Father Tucker 
went to New Madrid and having fallen dangerously ill, was removed 
by order of the bishop to St. Michael's, Fredericktown. 

After an interval of two years, during which the Lazarist Father 
Louis Scaphi served as pastor of the place, the Rev. Aloysius Rosi " 
was appointed to New Madrid and remained for one year, 1848-1949. 
Father Rosi has become a legendary personage in Ste. Genevieve 
County, probably owing to his having lost his life by drowning, on the 
occasion of a sick-call. Pie is buried in the Church of Bloomsdale. 
Father Rosi found no immediate successor at New Madrid. For the 
period of a year the pastor of Benton, Scott County, paid occasional 
visits to the place. But from 1850-1851 Father John Hennessey, ^* 
the future archbishop of Dubuque, filled the position, to be succeeded 



13 From the Chancery Records of St. Louis: 
Rosi, Aloysius, alio in loco Ludovicus Rossi vel Rosi ; Presbi'ter ordinatus est 
Apr. 29, 1848, in ecclesia St. Vincent de Paul, St. Louis. 

1848. Est Pastor in New Madrid usque at 1849. 

1849. Est Pastor in Richwoods usque at 1853. 
1853. Mutavit residentiam ad French Village. 

1853. Aug. 29. immersus fuit in rivulo prope Bantz Molain, visitans aegrotos. 
Sepultus fuit Sept. i, in Bloomsdale, Mo. 

Several years ago there appeared a half historical, half legendary, account 
of Father Rossi or Rosi in a Ste. Genevieve paper, and was reprinted, we be- 
lieve, by Father Dunn. It contained one seemingly miraculous occurrence. We 
have a copy of the article among our collections. 

1* A Sketch of Bishop John Hennessy of Dubuque is given in J. G. Shea's 
Defenders of Our Faith, p. 230 & 231, and of course, in Clark's Lives of our 
Bishops. In the Chancery Records we find the following items: 
Hennessy, John: Ordained 1850 in Cathedral (Nov. i). 

1850. Pastor of New Madrid. 
1857. Pastor of Kirkwood. 

1866, Sept. 30. Consecrated Bishop of Dubuque. 



214 REV. J. ROTHENSTEINER 

in 1851 by the Rev. F. B. Jamison.^^ 1851-1853. In November of 1853 
Rev. Jamison was suspended. Again there is an interval of half a 
year, to be broken by Father Simon Grugan '*"' in i854. Then comes 
the brief pastorship of Rev. James Murphy,^" and another sad vacancy 
from 1856-1857. The years 1857 and 1858 are marked by the pastoral 
efforts of Father JuHan Turmel,'^ and then from 1859 to 1867 New 
Madrid is dependent for spiritual ministrations on the occasional visits 
of missionary priests. 

These years are marked by the great Civil War, that was espe- 
cially harrassing and destructive on the border between North and 
South. Some of the important battles of the Civil War were fought 
in the vicinity of Xew Madrid. The old church of St. John was con- 
sumed by fire within this period. A good part of the Records were 
lost with the church, or even at an earlier date, as Father J. A. Con- 
nolly, the one time pastor of New Madrid, states in a letter dated 
January 9. 1881. 

Father Francis McKenna,^^ born August 15, 1832, ordained May 



'5 Jamison, Francis, from Diocese of Baltimore: 

1836, Dec. 26, given faculties and took up residence at cathedral. 

1837 to 1840. .Annotatur ut secundus Vicarius St. Ludovici. 

1844 to 1847. College and University Professor. 

1851. Pastor of New Madrid. 

1853. Suspended. 

1854. Residet in Cape Girardeau pueros docens. 

1855. Professor in College at Cape. 
1858. Died. 

"Grugan. Simon: Ordained Apr. 10, 1852. July 1854, Pastor of New Madrid. 
1854 Aug. was made pastor of Potosi. 
1857. Left Diocese. From Cathedral Records. 

'T Murphy, James: Ordained Sept. 23, 1843. 

1844. Missionary at the Barrens. 

1845. Resided in Ralls Co. Attended to surrounding missions. 

1846. French Village, Cole Co. 

1847. Boonville. 

1848. Jefferson City. 
1R49. Kirkwood. 

1850. Liberty. 

1851. Went to Europe. 

1852. Returned — Pastor in Tully, Lewis Co. 

1853. Lexington. 

May, 1K55. Pastor of New Madrid. 
Sept. 26. 1855. Pastor of Bridgeton. 

1856. Aprilis, Profeclus est in suam regioncm? (From Cathedral Record.) 

" Turmcl, Julian: Ordained June 20, 1857. 
S^'pt. i8«;7. was «cnt to .\'cw Madrid. 
May, 1858. Richwoods. 
Jimc, 24, 18^8. Pastor of Ixtuisiana, Mo. 
1861. Left Diocese for San Francisco. 

'» .VjcKcnna. Francis: I'.orn Au;;. 15. 1832. Ordained May 30, 1867. 

1867. Pastor of New Madrid. 

iRTA to J«6o. NVw Madrid. 

1869 until 1873 Mexico, Mo. 

1873 until death at Mohcrly 1892. Pastor of Moberly. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CATHOLIC NEW MADRID 215 

30, 1867, became pastor of New Madrid almost on the day of his ordi- 
nation in 1867. He remained in charge until 1869. His administration 
is noteworthy through the fact that_it saw a new church arise under 
the new title of The lynmaciilatc Conception. The Church Records of 
New Madrid state that the new edifice was dedicated on the 9th day 
of May, 1869, by the Reverend John F. McGerry, CM., at the request 
of the pastor Father McKenna. The attendants of the solemnities 
were Fathers A. Nerrina, CM., and Francis O'Brien. In 1869 Father 
McKcnna was appointed to the parish of Mexico, and in 1873 to that 
of Moberly, where he died in 1892. 

From 1870-1872 New Madrid had as its pastor Rev. Philip Patrick 
Brady,-° who in the course of time became Vicar General to Bishop 
Kenrick and died as Pastor of St John's Pro-Cathedral, in St. Louis, 
March 6, i893. 

Father Edward Smith -^ was pastor of New Madrid from 1872 
to 1874 and after a few years interval during which the parish was 
attended from Charleston, and the church-building itself had to be 
dragged away from the river bank to save it from the waters of the 
Mississippi (1875), New Madrid received its most zealous and suc- 
cessful pastor since the days of Father Ambrose Heim, in the person 
of James Aloysius Connolly, -- our late lamented Vicar General. 
Ordained June 18, 1878, Father Connolly became pastor of New 
Madrid in the very year of his ordination and remained at his post 
of duty until IMay 1, 1882. We found a characteristic letter of the 
youthful Father among the treasures of our Archives and as a beauti- 
ful monument to the zeal and staying qualities of our dead Monsignor 
we will reprint it here just as it was written more than forty years 
ago. It is addressed to Rev. H. Van der Sanden, the Chancellor and 
prospective historian of the Archdiocese and is dated New Madrid, 
Mo., January 9, 1881. 

Reverend and dear Father :- 

Enclosed please find a five dollar bill ($5.00), for dispensation granted to me 
for C. and L., early in December last. The ceremony was performed a few 
days ago. Yoilr share of the donation is larger than mine. I do not know when 
I shall visit the city; not before next fall, if then, unless something unforeseen 
will demand my presence there. Having no business in the city, I am not one 
of those who would go there for pastime. I could not, had I any inclination. 



="> Brady, Philip Patrick: Ordained Apr. 3, 1869. 

1869. Lexington. 

1870 to Nov. 1872. New Madrid. 

1872 to 1889 Annunciation Church. 

1889 until his death Mar. 6, 1893, St. John the Apostle. 

21 Smith. Edward: Ordained June 2, 1871. Was Pastor of New Madrid 1872 

to 1874. Afterwards at the Cathedral, Rolla, Mo., and at Lebanon. 
1880 in Kansas City. 

22 Connolly, James Aloysius: Ordained June 18, 1878. 
1878. Asst. St. Columbkill. 

1878— 1882, New Madrid. Cf. the Memorial among the Notes in this 
Number. 



216 REV. J. ROTIIENSTEINER 

as this place is so far away, and expense of going there and returning rather 
heavy. To go often would not leave much at tlie years end out of the salary I 
receive $(+25.00), to pay other expenses. Four hundred and twenty-five dollars 
Will cover the amount when all will have "oeen paid for '80. This, with what 
I receive when I visit Caruthersville and Center, Pemiscot County, Missouri, 
and Osceola, .\rkansas, enables me to supply my wants, and keep out of debt. 
Last Monday I opened a parochial school, which may be termed a "Catholic 
free school." The children receive their instruction free. The parents paying 
only for seats and desks. Xone but Catholic children received. Would I receive 
all applicants and demand a monthly fee I would have more children under me 
than I could well find room for. In the course of time I expect we will be able 
to build a small school house, when all children will be received and charged 
for, but all under the regular Catholic school discipline. After long deliberation 
I concluded to adopt the present plan, believing it would, in a year or so, be 
productive of much good, and a Catholic school a fixity in New Madrid, so long 
as a priest will be left here, which I trust will be always. At present I will oflfer 
no objection if I be the one. To attempt a regular parochial school at present 
would be a failure, but this being carried on as I have commenced will lead 
only, to permanent results. All the Catholic children in town, but five, have 
been attending — their excuse, distance, though some five times the distance were 
in attendance. The old saying is "from small beginnings great results are fre- 
quently achieved." I hope and pray, the same will ere long be said of this under- 
taking. 

As it would be rather long to wait till I would get to St. Louis to confer 
about the records of this church, I think it better to write you all attainable. 
The old church was destroyed during the war, and part of the records lost 
then, or before. There are but three old books, and the fragments of a fourth; 
this the marriage register. The oldest record is that of baptisms. Commencing 
"Die 24 Martii, 1821," "Franciscus Cellini, P. C. M." From April 1821 to "le 
16 Septembre 1832, P. Paillasson," there is no record. Father Paillassons records 
extend to June 18, '36, after which I find the following names, J. Boullie, C. M., 
J. M. Odin, C. M.. J. M. Simonin, C. M., B. Rollando, C. M., Hippolitus Gan- 
dolfo, C. ^L, to December 1837, when Father A. J. Heim assumed charge. He 
remained here until — at least the last register entry is "twelfth of May, 1844." 
After him I find from "third of November 1844" to "first of November, 1845," 
"L. Tucker, P. P." Then follow several Lazarists, whose names I deem it is 
not necessary to transcribe here. If you wish I can write them all for yooi. 

I have been able to find only a few fragments of the marriage register i, 
1821, a few 1835, '40, '46, etc. All thus far except Father Tucker's were 
transcribed by Father Scafi, C. M., "to 15 of November 1847," so that many 
records must have l)een lost, or very few marriages performed, as the first is 
in 1821, the next, being second on same page, is in 1834. I have collected the 
fragments, sewn them together and put them in a book, several marriages have 
been recorded on the same page as baptisms j. e. a baptism or two, then a mar- 
riage or so, and thus for several pages. Our present register will contain all 
baptisms and marriages for the next fifty years unless there be a great change 
in this part of the world. I do not know if this be exactly what you want, but 
it is f)cttcr, than to wait, and then not to receive as much information as the 
above will give you. I have not seen any notice of the ai)pointment of the suc- 
cessor to F-'athcr Tucker. As you may notice at)ove, he was he re from November 
1844 to Nov. '4.S. So all the notices in the English papers in St. Louis were in- 
correct in their statements regarding his time at Fredericktown. When I will 
have been 35 years in New Madrid, I pray it will be an entirely dilTerent place. 
Regards to all my clerical acf|uaintances, 

I remain yours sincerely in Christ, 

J. A. Connolly. 

Here we have the earnest, painstaking, self-sacrificing Father 
Connolly [)ortrayffl to the life. His early interest in Catholic educa- 
tion is particularly noteworthy, tlis hopes in regard to a permanent 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CATHOLIC NEW MADRID 217 

parochial school were realized; and the parish has had a resident 
priest ever since, except for a period of two years, 1884-1886, and 
again from 1888-1889, when it was attended from Charleston. The 
succession of pastors was as follows : 

Patrick McNamee, 1882-1884. -^ 

Hugh O'Reilly, October 15, 1884 to November 15, 1885. From 
that date on Father O'Reilly resided in Charleston, and from there 
attended New Madrid until i886. -* 

Philip Joseph Carroll, -^ June 16, 1886 to September 28, 1887. 

Edward Smith,-*^ February 15, 1888 to April 13, 1888. 

Thomas Edward Gallaher,-^ for one month in 1889. Taking sick 
with fever he asked to return to Old Mines where he remained until 
1893. 

James Joseph Furlong,-** became pastor of New Madrid October 
7, 1889, and remained until June 11, 1908, almost nineteen years, dur- 
ing which time he built a number of churches in the little mission 
stations of New Madrid and adjoining Counties ; at Caruthersville, 
Portageville, East Prairie and Maiden. In the city of New Madrid 
Father Furlong established the Parochial School under the manage- 
ment of the Benedictine Sisters. At present, the Sisters of Loretto 
are in charge. In October, 1905, Father Furlong received an assistant 
in the person of Rev. C. J. Kane. Fr. Furlong died as Pastor of St. 
St. Mary and Joseph Church in Carondelet Oct. 15, 1913. He was a 
most humble, kind and considerate man, and shrewd withal in business 



-3 McNamee, Patrick: Ordained July 4, 1868. 
1881— 1882, Bloomsdale. 
1882 until Mar. 18, 1884, New Madrid. 
Died May 3, 1897. 

-* O'Reilly, Henry Hugo: Bohn Sept. 17, 1849. Ordained May 25, 1872. 
April 3 to Oct. 15, 1884 resided in New Madrid, and visited Charleston— 
From Oct. 15, 1884 to Nov. 15, 1885, resided at Charleston and visited New 

Madrid. 
1885. Iron Mountain. 
Since Jan. 1891 — In asylum. 

-^ Carroll, Philip Joseph : Ordained in Rome May 19, 1883. 
From June 16, 1886 until Sept. 28, 1887, at New Madrid. 
Died Pastor of Millwood, 1898. 

-^ Smyth, Edward: Ordained for Diocese of San Antonio. 
Feb. IS, 1888 had charge of Charleston and New Madrid. 
April 13, 1888, Faculties revoked. 

-'' Gallaher, Fxlward Thomas : Ordained March 7, 1885. 

Rector of Old Mines from 1887 to 1889. 

July 13, i88g, was made rector of New Madrid where he remained one 

month. Taking sick with the fever he asked to return to the Old Mines 

where he remained until 1893. 
Died March 23, 1906. 

=8 Furlong, James Josepli : Ordained May 6, 1888. 

Assistant at Assumption until 1889. 

Pastor of New Madrid from Oct. 7, 1889 until June 11, 1908. 



218 REV. J. ROTHENSTEINER 

matters, but towards the end rather negligent of his personal appear- 
ance. Father Furlong was certainly one of the best pastors New 
Madrid ever had in its long history of 134 years. The inward growth 
and outward development of New Madrid and its dependencies since 
the departure of Father Furlong is too recent for historical treatment. 
We would but mention the names of his successors, the Fathers M. J. 
Taylor. D. W. Clark, and D. J. Ryan. The first of the three. Father 
M. J. Tavlor, built the present church-edifice in the city of New 
Madrid, in 1911. 

But it must be remembared that at least three of the former 
missionary stations attended by Father Furlong, Caruthersville, Port- 
ageville and Maiden, are now well-appointed parishes, with resident 
pastors, and all the appurtenances of modern religious centers. The seed 
of God's word could not be destroyed by the fury of the elements, nor 
by the malice of the wicked, or the shortcomings of the good. 

John Rothensteiner 



OSAGE MISSION DURING THE 
CIVIL WAR 

From the Diary of Rev. Paul M. Pondglione, S.J. * 

Chief Grotamantze died on the 12th of March, I861, aged about 
forty-eight years. Hardly had one month passed since his death, 
when the report of the first cannon fired from Fort Sumter on the 
12th of April, resounding like a thunder clap from the infernal re- 
gions, and reverberating from the far Rocky Mountains, fills the whole 
of our peaceful country with horrible confusion. The Indians are 
bewildered hearing of the fratricidal strife already going on among 
our neighbors in Western Missouri. The war excitement now spreads 
all over the land like wild fire and the hunting grounds of the red men 
are changed into military drilling camps. Here, however, the war 
is not carried on with any well ordered system, and the belligerents 
are far from being regular troops. They are but independent factions 
of wretched men who, at times, call themselves Confederate Militia 
and again go under the name of Union Soldiers. In reality they are 
only bands of desperadoes having nothing to loose. Now, both these 
factions, willing to get recruits from the Osages, have their Agents 
going around the Indian villages promising large bounties to all those 
who will enroll in their companies. Fearing lest Father Schoenmak- 
ers' influence might induce the Indians to decline their offers and 
remain neutral, the Leaders of these bands, in their secret meetings, 
determine that the Father should at once be considered an enemy to 
their cause and put out of the way by assassination. The fear, how- 
ever, of the Father's influence was only a sham pretext, the real cause 
was the greediness those men had for the treasures they supposed the 
Father bad accumulated and secreted in our houses, and, they thought 
that by killing him and dispersing the balance of us, they could easily 
succeed in possessing themselves of a large booty. To carry on their 
plan with an appearance of honesty, they needed some plausible reason 
to show that the killing of the Father had been a necessity of the war. 
Ours being a Government Institution, it was to be expected that our 
Superior should be in favor of the Union, and this was enough to 



* This article is taken from the MS. Diary by the Jesuit Missionary Rev. 
Paul Mary Ponziglione. The present extracts are from Vol. Ill, p. 274— 
Vol. IV, p. 321. We have permitted ourselves a few verbal corrections, but, 
of course, no changes whatever in the sense. The Editor. 

219 



220 REV. P. M. PONZIGLIONE. S. J. 

make him appear as a declared enemy of the Confederacy. And, be- 
hold, the truly Christian Charity of the good Fatlier soon offered them 
an occasion to execute their most wicked intent, and they would have 
succeeded had not God thwarted their plans. At the very outbreak 
of the war. President Lincoln, wishing to conciliate the Indians bor- 
dering on tlie Kansas I">ontiers, dispatched a special Commissioner to 
visit them and provide for their wants. This extra Commissioner, 
with his secretary, were directed by the President to go to take pos- 
session of the Quawpaw Agency, located some fifty miles southeast 
of our Mission. These gentlemen, having reached our place without 
any opposition, did not dare to venture any further by themselves for 
fear of falling into the hands of hostile parties then roving through 
the country. For this reason they requested Father Schoenmakers to 
accompany them, or, rather, to be their guide to the Quaw Agency, 
feeling confident that no one would interfere with the Father on 
account of his being so well known. Father Schoenmakers was a man 
who would never refuse to accommodate anyone, if he had an oppor- 
tunity of so doing. Hence, though in this special case he foresaw the 
possibility of some risk, he, nevertheless, offered his services most 
willingly. They started and reached Quawpaw Agency without meet- 
ing any difficulties. The Commissioner and his secretary were very 
thankful to the Father for having brought them safely to their desti- 
nation, and, not doubting that they would be able to comply with their 
charge without any further assistance from the Father, they bid him 
farewell and he returned to us. The Indians, as well as the white 
settlers around the Agency, noticed the coming of the Father in com- 
pany of two strangers and made no remarks about it. But, when they 
found out that the Father had left and the two gentlemen who had 
come with him were remaining at the Agency, they became suspicious 
and wished to know what their business might be. Having discovered 
what their character was, the alarm was given, an indignation meet- 
ing was held, inflamatory speeches were delivered, and it was openly 
declared that President Lincoln had no right to send there any of his 
officers. Here the passion of the people becomes greatly excited, a 
party is made on the spot, and the resolution is adopted that both the 
extra Commissioner and his secretary must be hung that very night. 
Fortunately, the Commissioner got wind of this conspiracy in time 
and, early in the evening, he and his secretary succeeded in making 
their esca[)c. Hardly one liour had passed since they had left, when 
an infuriated mob surrounded the Agency, filling the air with horri- 
ble yells and curses. Fully confident that the two strangers were hid- 
ing in the building, they rush in and ransack the whole place, but 
finding nobofly, and, believing they were secreted in some of the 
houses attached to the Agency, concluded to set them on fire, and so 
they did. Jubilant at the idea that the two strangers were now most 
certainly burning in the midst of the great conflagration they had 
kindled, they pas.sed that night in barbarous orgies, threatening death 
to anyone who would dare to interfere with the new Government in- 
augurated by the ('onfederacy. 



OSAGE MISSION DURING THE CIVIL WAR 221 

While this was going on, the special Commissioner and his secre- 
tary are out of reach. A light glare illuminating the sky at a great 
distance, like an aurora borealis, tells them that the Agency, which 
was to be their residence, is turning to ashes, they feel thankful for 
their narrow escape, and, wiser than Lot's wife, they do not trust 
themselves to turn their heads to take a full view of the fire. They 
keep on traveling the whole night and the next morning they return 
to our Mission. Father Schoenmakers receives them again with great 
cordiality, supplies them with whatever they needed for their journey, 
and, having rested for a couple of hours, they continue on their way 
to Humboldt in Allen county, where there is no longer any danger 
for them, that place being garrisoned by a number of Union troops. 
And now, the wicked men who were looking for a pretext to justify 
their coming to plunder and destroy our Mission, felt happy, for this 
circumstance was just what they wanted. In their opinion, our 
Superior had betrayed them into the hands of the enemy, and, on 
account of this very fact, he deserved to be court martialed and put 
to death. Nay, one of the leading men became very violent, swore 
before the excited crowd that he would give five hundred dollars to 
anyone who would kill the Father. If the poverty of the miserable 
settlers then living on the western boundaries of the state of Missouri 
be taken into consideration, the sum offered for the assassination of 
the Father was a very large one, and it was no wonder if more than 
one would be found ready to commit such a crime. At once a plan 
of attack was conceived and the prospect of success was smiling on 
them, when Divine Providence came to interfer in defence of the in- 
nocent Father. A young Osage half-breed, who had been raised by 
Father Schoenmakers at our Mission school, by chance, heard of this 
plot and had too noble a heart not to feel indignant. Gratitude com- 
pels him to save the life of one by whom he had been educated. Be- 
sides love and esteem for the person with whom he had been associated 
for several years when living with us urges him to make use of all 
means in his power to save the Father's life and to prevent, if possi- 
ble, the ruin of our Mission. To this end he quickly dispatched one 
of his friends with a message to notify the Father about the conspiracy 
against him and the whole Mission. The messenger reached the Mis- 
sion on the 21st of June. At 7 P. M. the man who had been sent 
delivered the message to Father Schoenmakers, who, having perused 
it, thanks the carrier, and, having dismissed him without showing the 
least excitement in his countenance, he hands the letter to Father 
James C. Van Asshe, and next to me, requesting us to tell him what 
he should do. The matter was a very serious one. He would not 
decide for himself. We felt that a heavy responsibility was resting 
on us, and, for a while, we could not speak a word. But there was 
no time to lose in vain speculation ; something was to be done and we 
agreed that he should try to save his life by leaving the Mission at 
once. The Father reflected for a few minutes and, without agitation, 
replied that he thought it would be better for him to follow our advice. 



222 REV. P. M. PONZIGLIONE, S.J. 

A heavy rain storm, which had begun about sunset, was now rag- 
ing in all its fury, but no attention was paid to it. The best racer we 
iiad in our stables is soon saddled, and, exactly at 8 o'clock P. M., the 
Father is otT, bound for Humboldt some thirty miles northwest of our 
Mission. In spite of the great darkness prevailing and the rain, which 
keeps pouring down in torrents, the Father succeeds in making his 
way safely during that terrible night, and about 7 :30 of the next 
morning finds himself in the midst of his friends in Humboldt. Hav- 
ing taken a much needed rest, on the next day he resumes his journey 
and, by the end of the month, he reaches St. Mary's Mission among 
the Potawatomies. 

The storm of the memorable night was a real Godsend for us all. 
The mob intending to come to assassinate the Father and destroy our 
Mission had made everything ready to leave Spring River in Jasper 
County, Missouri, on the 22nd of June, but all their calculations were 
baffled by the unexpected freshet which lasted, without any interrup- 
tion, for nearly three days and flooded the whole country to such an 
extent as to render it impossible to travel, for all the creeks were over 
their banks, the bottom lands along Spring River, as well as the 
Neosho were, for miles, turned into ponds and lakes. The common 
roads had been so soaked with water that for over two weeks the best 
team could hardly pull an empty wagon through them. This sudden 
change of weather disconcerted those murderous people and forced 
them to give up their plans. As the w^ar was daily making new devel- 
opments, and men were badly needed by the different factions then 
being formed, those who had conspired against us were now hired to 
engage in other expeditions far east into Missouri. By this unexpected 
turn of circumstances our enemies were diverted to our great 
advantage. 

By the beginning of July these belligerent parties, so far, consist- 
ing of independent bands of mercenaries, hardly knowing who was their 
leader and for whom they were fighting, became organized into regular 
companies. These are growing into regiments and volunteer battalions, 
and, as by magic, in a very short time, two most formidable armies 
stand equipped on a war footing; one is known as the Army of the 
Southern Confederacy, the other that of the Union. The different 
states, almost equally divided according to their respective interests, 
either in favor or against slavery, are taking the field to defend their 
rights. Skirmishes at once become events of ordinary occurrance. 
One day the Confederates are beaten; on the next Union men meet 
with reverses ; success is fluctuating between the two. Warlike spirit 
is developing and many deeds of bravery, worthy of a better cause, 
are daily performed. The ranks of volunteers decimated on the battle 
field arc soon filled up by the new recruits. War ; war is the cry that 
fills the air, and the whole of our most beautiful country finds itself 
involved in civil strife. 

The Indian Territory, south as well as west of Kansas, now be- 
comes the natural boundary of a very exten.sive battlefield, and, as our 
Mission, like an oasis in the center of the interminable plains, is one 



OSAGE MISSION DURING THE CIVIL WAR 223 

of the few localities where marching troops, struggling scouts or 
military trains can repair their outfits and receive assistance. This 
makes it a great halting point for friends and foes who, in a moment 
of need, are always willing to unfurl the white flag, no matter where, 
but more so on our grounds, well knowing that our Mission is like 
a neutral harbor where party animosities are forgotten and kind 
hospitality is extended equally to all. In a few months we become 
used to this sort of visitors who come to us by day as well as by night, 
always calling for either food or medicine. 

So far most perfect security and respect for personal property 
has existed in our territory. Neither the Indian wigwam nor the 
half-breed cabin needed any lock or bar at their door to protect them 
against an evil intentioned intruder. But that really golden age has 
now become a thing of the past, never more to return, for this war 
has flooded this country with persons of very bad character, who have 
not the least scruple of entering any house they can break into to 
plunder. Those few of our full-blood Osages who of late have applied 
themselves to agriculture, now see their houses and their improve- 
ments destroyed by roving incendiaries ; their oats and corn fields are 
turned into pastures for cavalry horses, their hogs and cattle are 
butchered by unruly troopers. The poor Indians feel vexed and 
provoked at the sight of such ravages and, well knowing that it is 
useless for them to look for any pay for the suffered damages, in their 
despair, abandon their homes and scatter on the plains to depend again 
on hunting for their living. Only a few families remain in the vicinity 
of our Mission, camping on small out-of-the-way streams where there 
is yet plenty of game. In spile of all these troubles their confidence 
in us is not deminished, and while they leave us to avoid meeting with 
soldiers, they trust in our hands quite a number of their children, fully 
confident that they will be safe. 

In the midst of the excitement while war is raging all over th^ 
country, peace reigns undisturbed on our premises. Our schools, as 
well as those at the convent, are keeping on their usual routine, and, 
at recess time, you would be amused to see how nicely the little boys 
can play soldiers. At the very outbreak of the war a considerable 
number of the Osages had withdrawn far west towards the mountains 
to avoid having any difficulty with the belligerent parties. However, 
they, gradually, all returned near to us and formed two different settle- 
ments ; one on the banks of the Cimaron ; the other on the Washita 
River, both located in the Indian Territory. 

Of the best warriors of the Nation some two hundred were en- 
rolled in a battalion and were annexed to the Kansas Volunteers. 
Most of the able-bodied half-breeds and all our school boys who were 
of age to stand military service joined the Ninth Regiment of Kansas 
Volunteer Cavalry. These made very good soldiers, but the full- 
blooded Osages forming the Battalion, soon proved to be unfit for any 
well organized army. Having no idea of discipline, they would not 
submit to regimental regulations ; moreover, as they insisted on hav- 
ing their wives and children with them, they w-ere a great incumbrance 



224 REV. P. M. PONZIGLIONE, S.J. 

in all warlike expeditions. For these reasons they were all discharged, 
with tile exception of a few who were detained to act as scouts. 
Military discipline was now being enforced, wherever these troops 
were stationed. But, in spite of it, things in general were moving on 
in very bad shape. Civil courts seemed to have lost all their author- 
ity ; wicked men taking the advantage offered them by the war's excite- 
ment, would go around robbing their neighbors and doing -ill sorts of 
mischief. 

On the 24th of August, about 4 o'clock P. M., seven desperate out- 
laws attack our premises, and, after handling me in a rather uncere- 
monious manner, claimed the right of searching the Mission houses, 
nay, even the Sisters' convent, to find, so they say. Captain John 
Matthews, who is reported to be hiding with us. That this was only a 
mean pretext and that in reality they were after plunder soon becomes 
evident. For, once they get into our rooms, they forget altogether the 
Captain they were looking after, and begin to examine our chests and 
private desks to see whether they can find anything of value. But, 
as neither money nor jewels come to their hands, disappointment makes 
them violent. They abuse and threaten us, nay, the chief of the gang 
levels his pistol at my head, apparently determined to kill me, when, 
providentially, several half-breed come into my room. At their sight 
the brigands understood very well that if they would dare to hurt any 
of us, these men would defend us ; for this reason they at once drop 
their arms, apologize and decamp. 

Now Osage Mission has become a great rendevous for warlike 
expeditions. One day we are visited by Union troops and the next 
by Confederates. Some times both parties happen to call on us the 
same day. One night a few cavalry men, belonging to a detachment 
of Wisconsin Volunteers, camping on the banks of Flat-rock, quite 
near us, overtake a party of Confederates who are on the point of steal- 
ing our horses. The noise of the Wisconsin boys who in the stillness 
of the hour are galloping up the hill to our defense comes so unex- 
pected to the Knights of the White Feather (as the guerillas were 
called), that they at once abandon their booty just by the stable doors, 
and run for their lives. Both parties art for a while chasing one an- 
other in the dark over the prairie west of the Mission, exchanging a 
few shots, but, once the Confederates reach the timber belt, which 
rurLs along the Neosho, the Wisconsin boys, fearing that they might 
be decoyed into ambush, give up the pursuit and return to their camp. 
On the 8th of September a body of about two hundred Confed- 
erates, under the lead of Col. Stanwaity, a Cherokee half-breed, and 
two white men acting as Captains (Mr. Livingston and Mr. John 
Matthews), both well known to us, come to pay us a visit at 2 P. M. 
We feel a little uneasy at their appearance, for though it was Sunday, 
we knew very well that they were not coming to attend vespers. But 
the three officers of this Band did not intend to give us any trouble. 
In fact, calling on us they assured us of their esteem, and told us that 
we need not fear anything, for they were going lo have a meeting 
with the Osagcs at the residence of Mr. Joseph Swis. a few miles 



OSAGE MISSION DURING THE CIVIL WAR 225 

further west, and, at the same time, they would take part in the 
wedding feast of Mr. Louis Chouteau, who has just married a Cherokee 
young lady. So they were saying, but the real object of their expedi- 
tion was to make a raid on the town of Humboldt in Allen county to 
retaliate for damages the Union men had inflicted on them in West 
Missouri. They went to camp for the night at the old crossing of 
Four Mile creek, due west of our Mission, and to leave, as it were, 
a mark of having been there, about day break the next morning, they 
hung to a tree a poor white man, a stranger, who happened to fall into 
their hands during the night. This done, they started at full gallop 
for Humboldt. They took the town by storm, and no wonder, for 
most all the men able to carry arms were out in Missouri under com- 
mand of General J. H. Lane. Meeting with no opposition, but, rather, 
with full success at every step, they kidnapped a few negroes, plun- 
dered several stores and houses of all the valuables they could find. 
Satisfied with their booty, they hurried out of town, that very night, 
with their captives. Among the rich spoils they had taken there were 
several kegs of whiskey and it was not surprising if, on the next day, 
by the time these men reached our Mission, they were most all in very 
high spirits, quite boisterous, and all most anxious to get a drink of 
fresh water. Knowing that in our yard we had an excellent well, as 
soon as they touched our premises, all alighted and rushed to the well 
for a drink. Captain John Matthews came in with them, and, seeing 
me, began to apologize for the liberty, said he, of entering the yard 
without being invited. Next, taking me aside, he asked me whether it 
was true that Father Schoenmakers had gone to St. Louis. To this 
I replied that he had just gone to St. Mary's Mission and from thence 
to St. Louis. Hearing this he appeared to be troubled in his mind, 
and, after a while, he said: "Father, you know well that I have always 
been a friend of this Mission, and I am very sorry that the rumor has 
been circulated that I have put a price on the Father's head. But, can 
you believe that I would have dared to commit such a crime and stain 
my hands with the blood of him who with so much love and paternal 
care has educated my children?" He was going to say more, when, 
being called by some of his party, he left me. Noticing that a large 
number of those drunken men had gathered around the well, I also 
went there. As it could be expected, I heard them talking some very 
improper language and declaring that they were bound to go to visit 
the convent, which stood hardly fifty yards apart from the well. On 
hearing this, I remarked that, being then 3 o'clock P. M., the girls 
were yet at work with the Sisters and it would be unbecoming for 
them to go to interfere with them. But the wretches sneered at me, 
saying that they would go to help them. This placed me in a ver)' 
painful position, for, if they would really attempt to go in, I could 
not answer for what might next have been the result of such a visit. 
Meanwhile, in the perplexity of my heart, I was praying to God to 
send his Angel to protect those pure souls to whom I could offer no 
assistance, behold Captain John Matthews is returning towards me! 
As soon as he came close by, calling his attention, I said ; "Captain, 



226 REV. P. M. PONZIGLIONE, S.J. 

look at these men, in spite of my remonstrances to the contrary, they 
talk of going to visit the convent. Now, what do you think of it? Do 
you think it proper for them to go into that house ?"' Here the Captain 
stretched himself and, taking the attitude of a man who is going to 
wrestle, he clinched fists and, after cursing the crowd, he says : "What, 
you vulgar set of scoundrels, you dare to talk of going to visit the 
convent where those angels of Sisters are educating our daughters? 
Shame on you, dirty fellows. Clear out of here quick and go to mind 
your horses or I shall shoot some of you before we leave this place." 
The men knew their Captain well ; they considered him the best marks- 
man in the country, and they left on the spot. Once they had all gone, 
John Matthews told me: "Father, we shall leave in ten minutes and 
shall go to camp for the night eight miles east of this place on Hickory 
creek. You do not need to be uneasy for I shall have a line of 
sentries around the camp with positive orders to shoot anyone who 
would dare to cross that line to come up to give you trouble." Hav- 
ing said this, he shook hands with me, and off he went with his 
command. 

If Captain John Matthews ever was accountable for the threats, 
which in a moment of party excitement, he had made against the life 
of Father Schoenmakers, the noble and really gallant part he acted on 
this occasion to defend the Sister's convent and prevent it from being 
dishonored, deserves our warmest thanks and compels us to look on 
him as our great benefactor. 

No sooner did the Humboldt Volunteers, who were out in West- 
ern Missouri with General J. H. Lane, hear of the raid the Confed- 
erates had made on their town, than they organize a company to start 
in pursuit of them. But, well knowing that it was too late to overtake 
them and punish the men who had part in it, for, on their return to 
Spring River they had all disbanded, they concluded to have their 
vengeance on Captain John Matthews, who was considered to have 
been the most influential leader of that expedition. By the end of 
September a Volunteer Company under the command of General J. 
G. Blunt came from Fort Scott to our Mission looking for Captain 
John Matthews, and, hearing that he was at his residence down the 
Neosho River, near the town of Little White Hair, they bivouac on 
our premises, and, before the dawn of the next morning, they resume 
their march, following an old Indian trail through the woods to avoid 
being noticed !)y anybody. Here difTcrent accounts are given concern- 
ing the expedition. According to some. General Blunt's men at an 
early hour stormed Mr. Matthew's house and, while he was trying to 
defend ihmself. General Blunt shot him dead. However, this is not 
correct for it does not agree with the account I myself received from 
John Matthew's daughter at that time living with him. According to 
her testimony, John Matthews, knowing that he had a great many 
enemies who were looking for an opportunity to kill him, would 
seldom sleep for two consecutive nights in the .same place, but kept 
always moving with a body guard of his Braves from one house to 
another. The very day before he was assassinated, having heard that 



OSAGE MISSION DURING THE CIVIL WAR 227 

several suspicious characters had been loitering not far from his 
residence, he thought it prudent to move and went eight miles down 
south to pass the night with Mr. Louis Rogers where now stands the 
City of Chetopa. He thought nobody had noticed his movements, but 
he was mistaken. His enemies had seen him from ambush wherein 
they were hiding, and, guided by a young man whose name was John 
Burk, early on the next morning they attacked the house in which he 
was sleeping, and, as John Matthews was in the act of raising his 
rifle in his defence, he was shot dead by John Burk and was buried 
not far from the spot where he fell. At his death he was fifty-two 
years old. After he had been killed, John Burk, with his party, went 
to John Matthews' house and, having taken from it, as well as from 
his store, whatever was worth anything, they set fire to the buildings 
and, in the conflagration that followed. Little White Hair's town was 
completely destroyed. This was the end of a man who for many years 
labored hard to provide for a large family of children, as well as to 
promote the welfare of the Osages. Had he kept himself from taking 
part in political strife, in which he was involved by the generosity and 
liberality of his heart, he might have enjoyed his old age with his 
children and grand children on the homestead his industry and energy 
had procured him. But, alas, his children were left orphans, his prop- 
erty was destroyed, the land to which he had a very good title was 
taken away by strangers, the Indian settlement, which was prospering 
under his guidance has disappeared, and nothing is left to mark the 
spot where it was but the humble and undisturbed grave of his 
youngest daughter, lovely little Annie. How bright and sweet that 
child was ! Just eleven years, seven months and twenty-seven days 
was she when, playing with her companions not far from her father's 
house, the fire, which had been lurking through the grass, commu- 
nicated itself to her dresses and at once she was enveloped by the 
flames. Her screams drew immediate assistance, but not quick enough 
to save her life; she had inhaled the flames; her doom was sealed. On 
the 19th of April, 1857, her soul, purified, indeed, by fire, took its 
flight to heaven. 

As to John Burk I shall record to his everlasting shame that he 
was one of the worst characters that ever disgraced American soil, 
and his heart must have been that of a tiger, not of a man. Previous 
to this event he was, for a time, school teacher in one of the Cherokee 
Nation public schools, but, being bound to flee from that country so 
as not to fall into the hands of a mob of infuriated people who were 
going to hang him on account of some shameful crime he had com- 
mitted, he ran to shelter himself under the hospitable roof of John 
Matthews, who, though being a stranger to him, however being much 
respected by all the Indians, might by his influence pacify the mob. 
Burk was not mistaken ; John Matthews' words tranquillized the excit- 
ed crowd ; he gave guarantee for Burk's future behavior, and the man 
was left unmolested and free to go around the country. But, as it is 
most frequently the case with men of such character, instead of getting 
better he became worse. The presence of his benefactor being a con- 



228 REV. P. M. PONZIGLIONE. S.J. 

tinual rebuke to his infamy, he anxiously was looking for some op- 
portunity to get rid of him. And. now meeting with the expedition 
under General Blunt, he joined it, nay. became its guide, and under 
its escort went to murder his benefactor. Blood always calls for more 
blood. Hardly one month had passed since this assassination had taken 
place, when, being pursued by John Matthews' avengers, he was over- 
taken far west and shot dead just at the moment he was trying to 
hide himself behind a bush. His body was left unburied to be the 
prey of vultures and his name shall be in execration forever. 

The success that accompanied the Confederates in their raid on 
Humboldt encouraged them to attempt another one. This time they 
were determined to destroy the whole town. This expedition was con- 
ducted by Colonel Talbot, a Missourian, and his command amounted to 
some three hundred and fifty men. At noon of the 14th of October 
they dash into Humboldt. The troops that were stationed with Gen- 
eral Blunt, apprehending no danger of any attack, had all left. A body, 
of home guards, all together about one hundred men under command 
of Captain Miller and Lieutenant Charles Boland, is the only defence 
left to the town. The quickness with which Talbot's men rushed in 
raised such a panic that, in the midst of the great confusion at once 
prevailing, far from taking arms several of them made their escape. 
However, Captain Miller, as well as his Lieutenant, succeeded in rally- 
ing the few that were left of the Company and, taking a stand, they 
resist the invading party. But, outnumbered and encompassed by 
Talbot's Brigade, they are bound to capitulate ; they were disarmed 
and taken prisoners. Now, Captain Miller, seeing that all was lost, 
calls on Col. Talbot ; he acknowledges his superiority, and declares 
that he and his Company are willing to submit to their fate. But, at 
the same time, he entreats him to be merciful and spare the women 
and children for they had injured nolx)dy. Colonel Talbot was by no 
means a cruel man. All he wanted was to avenge the death of his 
friend, John Matthews, and to retaliate for the burning of the town 
of Oseola in Missouri by General Lane. For this reason, replying to 
Captain Miller, he said he did not want to kill anybody only in case 
armed resistence would be made him. On that spot he orders his 
soldiers to take all the good? they could find in the stores. Next, he 
allows some of his men to help the women and children move their 
valuables and household goods from their dwellings to a large house 
at some distance, where they would have a shelter. This done, the 
whole town is set on fire, with the exception of the churches and also 
a Masonic Hall, besides sonic few residences scattered alx)ut, which 
could not easily be reached without disbanding his men on too large 
an extent of ground. Colonel Talbot, fearing lest in the night he 
might be surprised by Union Troops coming down from the north, 
would not allow his men to bivouac on the place but left that very 
evening with his Brigade, taking with him quite a number of prisoners. 
These, however, he did not intend to keep. In fact, after marching 
them for a few miles, he releascfl them all. On the next morning, 
about 10 o'clock, Talbot was passing triumphantly on our premises on 



OSAGE MISSION DURING THE CIVIL WAR 229 

his return to Missouri, and was followed b}' two hundred wagons 
carrying all the booty he had taken. 

On the 7th of December my dear friend and companion, Father 
James C. Van Asshe, who at that time was visiting the Catholic fam- 
ilies in the vicinity of Fort Scott, had an narrow escape from the hands 
of a Company of drunken Union men, who, about 3 o'clock P. M., 
attacked him on the highway, took his horse, and, having ordered him 
to kneel down, they would most certainly have shot him had it not been 
for the sagacity of their Captain, Mr. Bell, who was the only sober 
man of the party. He, seeing that his soldiers were determined on 
killing the Father, remonstrated that they were not allowed to do any 
such thing without first giving him a fair trial. "Let us," said he, 
"bring our prisoner to the camp; there we shall hold a Court Martial 
and condemn him to be shot. Doing so, we will be all right." This 
suggestion proved satisfactory to all. The Father was ordered to get 
again on his horse and, surrounded by those unruly fellows, who were 
sneering at him and cursing him at every step, at last all reached the 
camp. Here the Captain told the men to unsaddle their horses and 
bring them down in the next valley along the creek where there was 
yet some good grazing ground left. "This done," said he, "come up 
and we shall have a Court Martial on the Father." The men, yelling 
like a gang of wald Indians, now started down the hill to comply with 
the orders they have received. As soon as they got out of sight, the 
Captain, addressing the Father with great respect, told him not to 
fear, and asked him where he wanted to go. The Father replied that 
he was on his way to the residence of a Catholic family where he was 
expected to celebrate Mass on the next morning. Then the Captain 
answered : "Well, Father, let us go at once, we will soon be there." 
Both started in a gallop and in a short time reached the house where 
the Father was expected, and, apologizing for what his men had done, 
the Captain left him with his friends. 

Paul M. Ponziglione, S. J. 



NOTES 



BISHOr FRANCIS GILFILLAN. 

The St. Louis Catholic Historical Review offers the heartiest 
congratulations to The Right Reverend Francis Gilfillan, D.D., on 
his appointment as Coadjutor Bishop of Saint Joseph, and joins the 
chorus of his friends and fellow priests of the Archdiocese of St. 
Louis in wishing him Ad Mailtos Annos. 

Bishop Giltillan is one of the charter members of the Catholic 
Historical Society of St. Louis, and will, no doubt, inaugurate an his- 
torical revival in our Northern diocese. 



IN MEMORIAM 



Rt. Rev. Joseph Aloysius Connolly, V. G.. one of the charter mem- 
bers, and for years the First Vice President of the Catholic Historical 
Society of St. Louis, died Thursday, September 28, at St. Mary's 
Infirmary, after 44 years in the service of the Church. He was Vicar- 
General of the Archdiocese of St. Louis, member of the School Board, 
and President of the Board of Clerical Examiners. 

Monsignor Connolly was a native of Westport. County Mayo, 
Ireland, and came here with his parents as a boy of 5 years. 

He was ordained in St. John's Church in 1878, and at once be- 
came assistant pastor at St. Columbkill's Church, in Carondelet. He 
became pastor in November, 1878, of the Catholic church at New 
Madrid. Mo., where he remained until 1882, returning to St. Louis 
at that time to become assistant pastor of the Church of the Immacu- 
late Conception. In 1883 he served as assistant pastor at St. Bridget's 
Parish, remaining in that service until the fall of 1886- He then was 
transferred to De Soto, where he remained until Sept. 1, 1892. At 
that time he again returned to St. Louis to take charge of St. Teresa's 
Church, where he was pastor until his death. 

He reccivefl his title of Monsignor from the Pope in 1911, for 
exceptional service. 

The massive church of St. Teresa on Grand Avenue, which he 
built, is the most aj)proi)riate memorial to his name. His demise is 
mourned deeply, not only by his parishioners, but also by a host of 
friends and .admirers within and without the Catholic Church. Ac- 
cording to the expressed wish of Mgr. Connolly, no funeral sermon 
was preached at the burial service, but Archbishop (Jlcnnon spoke a 

230 



NOTES 231 

few touching words of love and praise for his departed friend: "He 
has served for many years in the diocese, as assistant priest, as pastor, 
and finally for these many late years as vicar general. Of him it 
will be said that he was always the servant faithful and good. He 
never failed ; he never forgot ; he never broke a promise ; he never 
deceived. To his people, to the diocese and to Holy Church he was 
thoroughly devoted, and he leaves a place that it will be very difficult 
to fill." 

Mgr. Connolly took a lively interest in the activities of the His- 
torical Society and the progress of our Review and, although far 
more a maker of history than a chronicler, he served the cause by 
suggestion, approval, and gentle criticism. We shall certainly miss 
his presence in our meetings, which he so regularly attended until 
sickness and pain claimed him for its own. May the soul of good, 
kindhearted though rugged, and always earnest and serious Father 
Connolly rest in peace. 



TWO MAXWELL LETTERS. 



Through the courtesy of the Rev. Edwin L. Leonard, Archdioces- 
Director of Charities of Baltimore, we have received two letters of 
Father James Maxwell, pastor of Ste. Genevieve and dated Nov. 17, 
1810, letters that have a bearing on an investigation conducted by 
Archbishop Carroll of Baltimore into the character of Father Max- 
well, then in the 68th year of his age. From a passage of Father 
Stephen Theodore Badin's letter to Archbishop Carroll on the same 
matter, it appears that 43 persons under the leadership of one Joseph 
Fenwick had sent a remonstrance against the Pastor of Ste. Genevieve 
to Bishop Carroll in order to have him removed, or, as Father Maxwell 
openly charges, to have him replaced by Father Badin himself. It 
was six years after the withdrawal of the Spanish authorities from 
Upper Louisiana, and the entire country was now under Bishop Car- 
roll as administrator. Hence his inteference. Letters containing these 
charges were sent by both Carroll and Badin to Father ^Maxwell. 
The^Trappist, Urban Guillet, was the bearer of both letters. What 
the charges were we cannot say at present, as the remonstrance of 
Joseph Fenwick and his co-signers is not at hand, nor the letter of 
Bishop Carroll, nor that of Father Badin. We hope to find these 
letters also, but in the meantime it is safe to say that the charges 
referred mainly, if not entirely, to breaches of ecclesiastical discipline. 
It may be surmised that his long terms of absence from home, whilst 
attending to the affairs of his proposed Irish colony, and a rather 
outspoken contempt for the American Catholic immigrants from 
Maryland and Kentucky, were the main grievances. But as Father 
Badin admits, 12 of the 43 remonstrants were unknown to him and 
7 were not much entitled to his esteem, "whilst the remaining 24 
were of his former Kentucky parishioners. To my certain knowl- 
edge," says Father Badin in his letter to the Bishop of Baltimore. 



232 XOTES 

there were (^besides the cause of Father Maxwell), many causes which 
demand tiie presence of authority of a Bishop to retrieve or improve 
the affairs of religion.." We will give Father Maxwell's answer to 
Bishop Carroll and Father Badin. without note or comment. Only 
this fact, as recorded by Dr. Guilday in his Life and Twws of John 
Carroll, p. 520: "The two pioneer missionaries of Kentucky, Badin 
and Ncrinckx, had been trained in a more rigid school of Theology, 
which seemed greatly of the Jancnistic spirit then prevalent in French 
and Belgian ecclesiastical circles." It was exactly these two men 
who found fault with the priestly character of Father Maxwell. 
Father Maxwell felt aggrieved at what he considered unjust reproach, 
and declared he would cease his pastoral functions and confine him- 
self to saying Mass. But he must have changed his mind or perhaps 
been exonerated, as he continued the pastoral care of Ste. Genevieve 
and its dependencies until his death in 1814. Here are Father Max- 
well's letters: 1. to Bishop Carroll: 

St. Genevieve, November 17, 1810. 
My Lord : : — I received your letter of the 30th of May which has 
been handed to me a few days ago by the Reverend Father Urbain. 
I am extremely sorry to learn that insinuations prejudicial to my 
character as pastor of St. Genevieve have been made to you, which 
put you under the necessity of making an inquiry concerning such 
remonstrances. I know well the sources from which they derive; 
a man by the name of Joseph Fenwick had emigrated to this country 
about fourteen or fifteen years ago. I had rendered him essential 
services, so as to procure him provisions and for other families who 
came with him, from the Spanish government. I discovered at length 
that he was a hypocrite, and a man of the greatest duplicity, under 
a cloak of religion. I therefore withdrew my friendship and intimacy 
from him. which he soon perceived. He about this time had concerted 
measures with the Reverend Mr. Badin to have me removed from 
the parish of St. Genevieve, in order that I might be replaced by the 
Rev. Mr. Badin; but all their schemes proved abortive as they would 
be of no weight with the Spanish government. 

Your Lordship will call to mind that you received a visit from 
Mr. Badin some two or three years ago, you will probably recollect 
that he has had some conversation with you concerning my conduct, 
as this late business was put on foot prior to his departure from 
Kentucky from which conversation you may easily infer whether 
he has spoken in a fraternal or charitable manner of me. I fear 
that your Lordship is not sufficiently aware of the duplicity of some 
French Ecclesiastics ; they are a jealous, meddling, troublesome set 
of men. I had the opportunity of l>eing in a state of intimacy with 
them these five and thirty years that I am a missioner, and I have 
got understanding and discernment enough to know the human mind. 
Your Lordship ob.serves to me that you received a petition having 
the signatures of forty-three persons, heads of families; my congre- 
gation consists altogether of French and I boldly assert that no 



NOTES 233 

Frenchman has signed that petition and that not these persons, heads 
of families, have signed it, who are altogether unknown to me, ex- 
cept Mr. Fenwick who lived for many years past, fifty or sixty miles 
from this place, and who of course can be but very little acquainted 
with my personal conduct. I feel the greatest sorrow and regret to 
show the least opposition and disobedience to the orders of your 
Lordship; but from the causes alleged, I cannot cheerfully submit 
to the investigation of my conduct by the Reverend Mr. Badin ; for 
I consider him judge and party; I should always object to him as 
a judge in either an ecclesiastical or civil tribunal in a case of mine. 
I am under the necessity, therefore, of informing your Lordship 
that henceforward I will desist from exercising pastoral duties in 
Ste. Genevieve, St. Louis, St. Charles and St. Ferdinand, all of which 
churches I have attended to since the evacuation of this country by 
the Spanish government, and will content myself only with celebrat- 
ing Mass. Your Lordship will be pleased to appoint my successor ; 
old age and infirmities have compelled me to adopt this measure, 
added to the mortification of receiving reproaches, when I think I 
do my duty. My Lord, I recommend myself to your prayers and pray 
you to accept the assurances of my highest consideration and respect. 
I remain, your Lordship's 

Most humble and obedient servant, 

JAMES MAXWELL, 
Curate of Ste. Genevieve. 

Our second document is a copy of a letter to Mr. Badin in answer 
to his letter. 

Ste. Genevieve, Nov. the 17th, 1810 

Reverend Sir: — I received your letter a few days ago of the 
22nd of July written in Latin ; it was handed to me by the Reverend 
Father Urbain. I have considered it advisable to answer you in 
English, as my Latin is grown rusty by time. I received at the same 
time and by the same opportunity a letter from his Lordship, the 
Bishop of Baltimore in which he states that a petition was sent to 
him signed by forty-three persons, he presumes the heads of families, 
containing remonstrances against my personal conduct and that he 
has appointed you to make a judicial inquiry concerning the charges 
within alleged. I made answer to the letter as I do to yours, that 
I cannot submit to an investigation of my conduct by you, as I 
consider you would be judge and party in this litigation, for I firmly 
believe that this petition was set on foot by your persuasion and 
counsels ; your conduct heretofore and that of the hypocrite Fenwick 
give me strong reasons to form this belief, and if you had any deli- 
cacy in you, you would have refused this commission. 

What in the name of God has the Charisien Fenwick and others 
whom you call your former parishioners, men unknown to me, I 
suppose vagabonds who strode up and down the Mississippi ; what. 
I say, have they to do with my conduct? Do they form part of my 
congregation? No, if Fenwick was of my congregation I would 



234 NOTES 

have expelled him long- since for having raised his children in the 
manner he has done without the love or fear of God. I have nothing 
more to add. but remain, your humble servant, 

JAMES MAXWFXL, 

NOTE : One of them has been lately arraigned in a court of 
justice for larceny ; and those are mignons of Mr. Badin. 



MEMORIAL 



After storm and strife comes rest eternal. We would subjoin 
this inscription on Father Maxwell's tombstone, Ste. Genevieve Par- 
ish Church : 

Ci git 

Le Rev. Jacques Maxwell 

dec^d^ le 28 Mai, 1814 

age d^ 72 ans 

Cure de Cette Paroisse 

de 1797 a 1814 



Heureux ceux qui demeurent dans votre maison, Seigneur lis 
vous lonerant das tous siecles. 

Psaume 83 — Vers 5. 



From Edwards "'Great West" we transcribe the following inter- 
esting inscription, with the brief note by the author: 

"1840. — In the spring of this year, the Catholic church, which 
is attachef! to the St. Louis University, and called the College, was 
commenced. The cornerstone was laid on a Sabbath afternoon, with 
all the ceremonial observances of the church, and in the presence 
of an interested multitude. There was a parchment deposited in the 
stone, on which was the following inscription : 

Pridie Idus Aprilis, 

Anno reparatae salutis MDCCCXL, 

Americanae Indepenrlentiae assertae et vindicatae 

LXIV, 

Gregorio XVI Pontifice Maximo, 

Martino Van Buren Foedcratae Americac Praeside. 

Admodum Rev. Patrc Joanne Roothaan Proposito 

rienerali Socictatis Jesu 

Lilburn W. Hoggs Missouri Gubernatore. 

fjulielmo Carr Lane Urbis Sancti Ludovici Praefecto, 

Rev. Patre P. J.'Verhaegen Vicc-Provinciae 

Missourianac Socictatis Jcsu Vicc-Provinciali, 



NOTES 235 

Rev. Patre J. A. Elet Sancti Ludovici Universitatis 

Rectore, 

Reverendissimus D. Joseph Rosati Episcopus Sti. 

Ludovici, Lapidem hunc angularem Ecclesiae. 

Deo Opt. Max. 

Sub invocatione 

Sancti Francisci Xaverii, 

Atque 

Sancti Aloysii 

Studiosae luventutis patroni. 

In Urbe Sancti Ludovici aedificandae 

Assistentibus Sancti Ludovici Universitatis Rectore, 

Professoribus, Auditoribus ac Alumis, 

Necnon D'no Georgio Barnett et D'no Stuart Matthews 

Architectis, 

Ac D'no Carolo Cutts muratorum Praefecto, 

Solemni ritu benedixit et in fundamentis posuit, 

Coram magna populi 

Frequentia. 

This church was situated on 9th and Green streets. 



Bishop Benedict Joseph Flaget, twice Bishop of Bardstown, 
Kentucky, and Patriarch of the West by force of age and merit, is most 
intimately connected Vv'ith the See of St. Louis. It was Bishop Flaget 
that made a missionary journey to the various settlements of Missouri 
after the long night of neglect, and brought together the scattered frag- 
ments of parishes for the nucleus of the future diocese- It was Bishop 
Flaget, likewise, who attended to the spiritual wants of Ste. Gene- 
vieve, St. Louis, St. Charles and St. Ferdinand until the coming and 
installation in St. Louis Pro-Cathedral ,of Bishop William Louis Du 
Bourg. Whatever concerns Bishop Flaget and his cathedral city, 
Bardstown, must be of interest to all western, and especially Missouri 
Catholics ; nay, non-Catholics also. For was not Bishop Flaget one 
of our earliest promoters of Christian art. We cull a portion of the 
well written article from the columns of The Dearborn Independent, 
as written by R. Trent. It describes a visit to the Bardstown Ca- 
thedral precincts : 

At the entrance of the grounds is a great iron gate with heavy 
knocker. On either side of the gate is a small brick lodge house, 
where the watchful porter waited to answer the calls of long ago. 
The porters are gone now and the lodge houses are empty, but the 
old St. Joseph's College still opens its doors to the youths who come 
to learn of its wisdom. 

It was early in the heart of Bishop Flaget to build a house of 
worship, and on June 16, 1816, the cornerstone of St. Joseph's 
Cathedral was laid. 



236 NOTES 

Amid the lofty trees of the forests, then practically untouched, 
there arose another temple in the wilderness, a temple which is today 
considered, by those capable of judging, one of the most beautiful 
examples of religious architecture in this part of the world. 

Outside, the Greek style predominates. The walls which are 
three feet thick are made of brick manufactured in the inclosed yard. 
The building is 150 feet long, 74 feet wide and 60 feet high. Across 
the front is a portico with six great Ionic columns. Each of these 
columns is a monument to the patience and painstaking genius of 
the pioneer builders who hewed, sawed and shaped the massive 
supports without the aid of modern machinery. They are tributes 
also to the one-time grandeur of the Old West, for each pillar, 
"shining and tall and fair and straight," is the trunk of a great wal- 
nut tree from the wooded hills of Kentucky. 

A most unusual feature of the exterior of the building is the 
row of 10 white tablets, one above each window. On each of the 
gleaming stones is inscribed one of the commandments from the 
tablets of Sinai. 

The slender spire, crowned by a cross, rests upon a square 
tower in which there was for nearly a century a wooden clock brought 
from Ninove, Belgium. This clock was used until 1915, when the 
silver-toned bells ceased to ring and a new timepiece replaced the 
old one. 

The old bell is one of the most prized possessions of the cathe- 
dral. Made at Alost, in Belgium, for the Monastery of Ninove, it 
for years called pious monks to prayers. From France it was sent 
by Louis Philippe as a gift to Bishop Flaget, and for almost a cen- 
tury now, it has been sounding forth to the little town the message 
of the Old Cathedral. The original bell was cracked some years 
ago, but it was recast and is still in use today. 

The woodwork of the interior of the cathedral is of solid walnut- 
The arrangement and decorations are such as to give the impression 
of Roman architecture. Here again are great columns flanking the 
nave on either side ; here is the deep-toned organ sent from France 
to add to the beauty and dignity of the church in a new land. Here 
is the bishop's throne and the plush throne chair presented to Bishop 
Flaget by King Louis. Here is the wondrous wrought red velvet 
chasuble made by the Queen of France and her courtiers. On the 
back of this vestment there is still traceable the outline of the French 
royal coat of arms, which were removed by Bishop Flaget because 
he felt that they savored too much of autocracy for use in the Land 
of Freedom. 

And here, in the dim light of hallowed tapers, are the treasures 
of the East, treasures that art critics pronounce of priceless value. 
These are the nine paintings presented to the first Bishop of Bards- 
town by I^juis Philippe, King of France, and his brothcr-in-Iaw, 
Francis I, King of the two Sicilies. On each frame is the inscription, 
"Ex Dono. Franciscus I. utriusque, Sicilae Rex." The collection has 
been valued at more than a million dollars. 



NOTES 237 

In the sanctuary over the high altar hangs "The Crucifixion" 
by Van Br^e. the Flemish artist. The congregation has been offered 
$100,000 for this painting alone, but has refused to sell at any price. 
In this picture the Virgin Mother and John, the beloved disciple, 
are standing gazing at the figure on the Cross, while the weeping 
Magdalene clasps the feet of the dying Christ. 

On the wall of the right aisle nearest the altar is Rubens' "The 
Flaying of St. Bartholomew." This is considered the most valuable 
painting of the collection. The shadows on the picture are heavy, 
and only when the western sun lights up the rich colorings of the 
artist's brush can the vividness of the scene be to any degree com- 
prehended. But it is worth waiting for the light to get a glimpse 
of the figures. 

On the left is Murillo's "Crowning of the Blessed Virgin." This 
is a more pleasing picture, resembling to a marked degree the "Im- 
maculate Conception." The cherub faces are very similar, and the 
soft clouds and subdued radiance are the same. The other paintings 
are: "The Winged St. Mark" by Van Dyck, "St. Peter in Chains" 
by Van Dyck, "St. John the Baptist" by Van Dyck; "The Annun- 
ciation of the Blessed Virgin" and "The Descent of the Holy Ghost 
at Pentecost," thought to have been painted by Van Dyck, and "St. 
Aloysius Teaching the Youths" by an unknown artist. 

These are the treasures of the Old Cathedral, and it is a treasure 
house indeed. It is a wonderful thing to find a gem of such sym- 
metry and beauty in the crude setting of a little town not far from 
the Kentucky mountain district." 



We have given space to this description of Bishop Flagets treas- 
ures, partly on account of their inherent interest, but more so on ac- 
count of an event in the Bishop's life, most intimately connected with 
them. 

Under the caption "Bishop Flaget and Congress," George F- O'- 
Dwyer published an interesting letter in the New York "America," 
which we will reprint here, on the principle: "Colligite fragmenta ne 
pereant." 

Religious articles, such as paintings, church furniture, and ob- 
jects to enhance the beauty of Catholic churches, colleges, and insti- 
tutions have been imported, from time to time, into the United States 
by the Bishops of the Church. In the constructive period of the 
country, from' 1800 to 1850, customs officials, authorized by Congress, 
exercised a proper courtesy, and levied only a nominal tax. In most 
cases the articles were admitted free. Occasionally, however, over- 
officious individuals at the ports, whether through scrupulous exact- 
itude, or just plain bigotry, held up articles or levied a full tax. 

While Louis Philippe of France was Duke of Orleans he gave 
to the saintly Bishop Benedict Flaget of Bardstown, Ky., valuable 
paintings and church furniture, with which to grace the sanctuary 



238 NOTES 

of the Bishop's Cathedral in Bardstovvn. When the articles arrived 
here in the latter twenties of the nineteenth century, United States 
officials levied the full duty on them, although they were free gifts 
and not within the intent of the revenue laws of the time. But the 
customs officials of that period chose not to take this view of the 
matter. 

Finally, interested individuals in the Bishop's diocese took the 
matter to Congress and a bill was drawn up in 1828 which "author- 
ized the remission of the duties on certain paintings and church 
furniture presented by the King of the French to the Catholic Bishop 
of Bardstown. Kentucky." 

The bill came up for a third reading on the floor of the House 
of Representatives on Monday, March 19, 1832, and, after it was read 
by Mr. Dougherty, the Catholic clerk of the assembly, Mr. Hogan 
of New York, (a Methodist) arose and "regretted that he felt it his 
duty to oppose the passage of the bill." Among other things he 
said that "The bill proposed to promote no national interest — it 
addressed itself to the mere liberality of the House. Did our Consti- 
tution recognize any connection between Church and State?" Then 
Representative Charles VVickliffe of Kentucky, a non-Catholic, was 
considerably stirred up by the apparent bigotry of his fellow-member, 
and he called him to task in the following language: 

"The duty of defending the principle involved in this bill devolves 
upon me, and I will detain the House but a very short time in its 
discharge. About four years ago I presented the application of a 
worthy individual whom the bill proposed to relieve- The application 
had always met with the approval of the Committee on Ways and 
Means and the bill had passed the House twice without objection, 
but was never acted upon in the Senate for want of time. 

Mr. Speaker, the House will pardon me while I trespass long 
enough to do justice to a worthy man. Bishop Flaget ; he is my 
constituent and friend. He is a man who has devoted a life of near 
seventy years in dispensing acts of benevolence and the Christian 
charities. He was once a resident of this district, having under his 
charge the valuable College of Georgetown, where his labors in the 
cause of science, morality, and religion will long be remembered by 
all who knew him. 

His destiny, or the orders of the Church to which he belongs, 
placed him at the head of the Catholic College in Bardstown. . . . 
Connected with this institution is the Cathedral or Church. The 
expenditures incident to these establishments have been more than 
equal to the private means and contributions devoted to the purposes 
of the institution, and its founder has felt, and still feels, the conse- 
quent embarrassments. These have been, in .some measure, relieved 
by considerable donations of church furniture and college apparatus 
from persons in Italy and France. 

The duties upon such articles have been remitted heretofore by 
the liberality of Congress. The articles upon which duties have been 
paid, and which the bill contemplates to refund, consist of paintings 



NOTES 239 

and other valuable articles, presented some years since by the then 
Duke of Orleans, now King of the French, to the Bishop of Bards- 
town. He could not refuse to accept the offering; by accepting, 
however, he had to pay the duties- The articles were not brought 
into this country as merchandise, do not enter into the consumption 
of the country and therefore do not, I humbly conceive, fall within 
the principle of your revenue system. They are specimens of art 
and taste, as ornaments to a house of public worship. 

I trust, Mr. Speaker, that the circumstances that this application 
is in behalf of a Catholic Bishop will not prejudice the mind of any 
member of this House. I would extend this relief to any church or 
public institution and to none sooner than the Catholic. I live among 
them. They are, like other denominations, honest in their religious 
opinions, content to worship in the mode their education and habits 
have taught them to believe was right, and which their judgments 
approve. They are honest, industrious, and patriotic citizens, devoted 
to the free institutions of the country. I mean not to say that they 
are more so than any other denominations ; cerainly they are not less 
patriotic and liberal in their opinions and practises than others of 
my constituents. 

I hope the gentleman from New York will withdraw his opposi- 
tion to this bill ; the amount involved is small, but it is to the very 
worthy man. Bishop Flaget, at this time of much consequence. At 
least, I shall look with confidence for the judgment of this House in 
favor of the passage of the bill. 

Gulian Verpla«k, Representative from New York, reiterated Mr. 
Wickliffe's sentiments. He said that "The principle adopted by the 
Government was that it should not tax the donations of learned or 
pious men from abroad to institutions of religion or literature in 
this country. That principle had first been settled in reference to 
books and apparatus presented to one of our colleges- . . . We 
ought not tax fruits of philanthropy or good-will. Enough and more 
than enough has been done to check this species of friendly inter- 
course, and all those acts of kindness between different nations which 
were calculated to cause men to remember that they all formed parts 
of one great family. ... It was not gracious to tax the donations 
which our brethren abroad might be disposed to make to the insti- 
tutions of the new world." 

The protesting spirit of Mr. Hogan of New York was by this 
time sufficiently chastened and as "the explanation was so perfectly 
•atisfactory he, with pleasure, withdrew his objections to the bill." 
It was passed, forthwith, without further opposition. 

This interesting incident in the life of the saintly pioneer of 
Kentucky and the Middle West. Bishop Flaget. is not chronicled in 
the encyclopedias, including the "Catholic Encyclopedia" ; neither 
does the incident occur in Clarke's "Lives of the Deceased Bishops." 
So, for purposes of a complete record, the incident will no doubt 
interest Catholic historical students. 



240 NOTES 

Anent the revival of historical studies in the Benedictine Order, 
P. Edmund, O. S- B.. writes in his circular letter of Sept. 22, 1922: 

"We certainly have a right to expect our own members to take 
interest, seeing so much enthusiastic expression outside of our Order. 
The great American Catholic Historical Association is doing its full 
share in helping us. The members of that organization have shown 
in every wav that they are profoundly interested in our "Historical 
Revival." They have given it a big lift by bringing it prominently 
before the public in our leading Catholic papers. They have promised 
us every possible assistance and have shown that they mean to keep 
their promise. The N. C. W. C. has also recorded our endeavor. For 
all this help we can pronounce a grateful "God reward you." There 
has been a deep personal interest taken by the Father of the Catholic 
Historical movement in America, Dr. Guilday, and to him we owe a 
special token of thankfulness- 

Now. every honor begets its corresponding obligation. It is an 
honor for us to be the first religious order in America to take up this 
movement. It is an honor for us to be the first child of the American 
Catholic Historical Association, in the sense that we are a branch of 
the great Catholic Historical Movement in this country. It is an 
honor to have an opportunity to develop our own history. These 
privileges have their obligations. These obligations are expressed in 
the National Benedictine Report. It contains the resolution that we 
recommend to our General Chapters the formation of an American 
Benedictine Historical Association; that this Association hold its 
meetings at the same time and place as the National Catholic Asso- 
ciation and co-operate with the same, and that every monastery be 
urged to have one or more representatives in the Benedictine Associa- 
tion to direct the work of research and the chronicling of events in 
their monasteries. 

That is evidence that something has been done ; now let us do 
something more. New Haven may be too remote for most of our 
monasteries to take an active part in the meeting to be held there. 
Yet some of us must attend. I undersand that three monasteries will 
have representatives there. But there should be more to make the 
things look right. If it is absolutely impossible for some of us to 
attend this meeting, then let us not fail to send in a report of some 
kind so that those in attendance will have our advice or opinion to 
act on. This report should concern archives, libraries, the writing 
of history, the general catalog and above all should set forth what is 
being done in .our own institutions for the development of history, be 
that ever so little- This will give our representatives at New Haven 
a chance to act and plan according to our needs. It will prepare the 
way for our affiliation with the American Catholic Historic^il Asso- 
ciation, as well as form a scheme or plan for our general chajjter to 
act on next summer. 

In conclusion I would suggest that we cultivate the habit of cor- 
responrling with one another more freely concerning this movement 
and thus help in every way to make our efforts a genuine success." 



NOTES 241 

REVEREND HENRI PRATTE, SEPTEMBER, 2, 1822 

Just one hundred years ago, last September second, there died in 
his native town of Ste. Genevieve, Missouri, one of our noblest pio- 
neers in the American priesthood, Father Henri Pratte, Pastor of 
Ste. Genevieve. 

A number of his letters are preserved in the archives of the 
Diocesan Chancery of St. Louis. Bishop Rosati wrote a brief me- 
morial of Father Pratte, the pastor of Ste. Genevieve, which contains 
the main data of his short, yet most active and faithful life: 

"On the 2nd day of September. 1822, the undersigned buried 
on the epistle side of the sanctuary of this church (Ste. Genevieve) 
the remains of Rev. Henry Pratte, pastor of this congregation, who 
died on the first day of September of this year, at 11 a. m- He was 
born January 19. 1788, in this same parish, went to Canada in 1803, 
and having completed his studies at the Seminary of Montreal was 
ordained priest. As he desired to devote himself to the spiritual 
care of his own people, he called upon Mgr. Flaget, Bishop of Bards- 
town in Kentucky, who was at that time administrator of this diocese, 
and who appointed him pastor of Ste. Genevieve. This parish had 
been without a resident priest since the death of Mr. Maxwell (May 
28th, 1814), being only occasionally visited by Mr. Olivier, the pastor 
of Prairie du Rocher. 

Mr. Pratte took possession of the parish in October, 1815. Since 
that time he has entirely given himself to the promotion of the wel- 
fare of his flock and the greater glory of God. He repaired the 
church by having it plastered, and furnished it with a new floor, 
finishing the ceiling, and covering the church with a new roof. And 
when the church could no longer contain the rapidly increasing 
population, he built a new sacristy, enclosing the old one in the body 
of the church. 

Another church he built at Old Mines, Washington County, and 
still another at St. Michael's (Fredericktown), which he frequently 
visited to hold divine service- This place (i.e., Ste. Genevieve) owes 
to him the renewal of its piety and the blessing of Christian education 
of the children, in which he took the deepest interest, especially in 
regard to the First Holy Communion of the children, to which he 
would admit them only after a long preparation. Always full of love 
for his fellowman, he refused the request of no one who required 
his assistance. His house was always open to all priests traveling 
through the city on their way to their stations in the various parts of 
the diocese; also to the young students whom the Bishop sent to the 
seminary. For this institution he had a great aflfection, ever pro- 
moting its interests and frequently rendering it important services. 
Whilst all seemed auspicious that this worthy priest should finish 
the course of his good works in a long sequence of years. Divine 
Providence, whose dispensations are always adorable, took him away 
in the very bloom of youth. 

A nervous fever snatched him away within three weeks. As 
soon as he saw that his disease was fatal, he called Mr. Olivier, who 



242 ' -NOTES 

heard his confession and gave him the Viaticum. We ourselves, on 
the very day of his death, administered Extreme Unction. His 
funeral was held amid a vast concourse, not only of his parishioners, 
but also of Protestants. The respect of all who knew him followed 
him to the grave. His memory will be in benediction, not only in 
this parish, but in the entire diocese, and especially in the seminary, 
that will alwavs know him as one of the principal benefactors. 

JOSEPH ROSATI, 
Rector of Seminary." 

F"ather Pratte's remains lie buried near the High Altar of the 
church of Ste. Genevieve. The present pastor. Very Rev. Charles 
Van Tourenhout has placed a beautiful memorial stone above the 
tomb of the first native priest of Missouri, Henri Pratte. 



A MAP OF 1836. 



A beautifully engraved and colored "Map of the State of Mis- 
souri and the Territory of Arkansas, published in Philadelphia by 
S. Augustine Mitchell, in the year 1836" was recently presented to 
the Catholic Historical Society of St. Louis by the Very Reverend 
Charles \'an Tourenhout, P. R., of Ste. Genevieve, Missouri. Old 
maps are always interesting and important documents, and more es- 
pecially if they give the ancient lineaments of one's own native state. 
Of course, a map of eighty-six years ago must show a much different 
Missouri from that we know today. There is no Platte purchase 
shown, within the Missouri line, but the western boundary is as 
straight as an arrow, south to north. There is no Kansas City shown, 
but there is the town of Westport about where you would expect 
Kan>as City, and where Kansas City now spreads out its tentacles in 
all directions. 

There is no Kansas State or Territory, and the Indian tribe that 
has given its name to that state and its eastbound river, is here 
designated as the Koncas. There is an Indian Territory which 
extends from the boundary of Arkansas on the South to Canada on 
the North, and from the western boundary of Missouri to the Rocky 
Mountains. 

The Indians settled m Indian Territory along the western boun- 
dary of Missouri and .Arkansas are. beginning in the North: the 
Kickapoos, Konzas, Delawares. Shawnees. Piankashaws, Wcas and 
FV>rias. Osagcs, and to the west of them the Pawnees ; then north- 
ward of the Osages, the small tribe of the Senecas ; then about the 
headwaters of the Arkansas River, the Cherokees. Creeks and Choc- 
taws. The territory south of the Red River is marked Mexico. 

Indian names deck the maj). and civilization and towns hugged 
up close to the rivers in those days. The hunting grounds of the 
Osage Indians were equally divided between Missouri and the pres- 
ent state of Kansas. There is no St. Jo.seph on the map. very little 



NOTES 243 

of St. Louis, no Maysville, no Dekalb County, not even a Hannibal 
& St. Joseph Railroad. There are just two counties shown from 
Westport to the north line. They are Clay County and Clinton 
County. 

The map also shows that there was no Iowa line at that time. 
North of Missouri it was called Wisconsin territory. Clay County 
was a little longer than it is now, but the real long- one of the two 
was Clinton County. It included at that time practically all of 
Clinton, Dekalb and Worth Counties. Chariton County extends from 
the Missouri River to the boundary line of Wisconsin Territory. 

The steamboat routes to Pittsburgh, New Orleans, the Falls of 
the Illinois, Prairie du Chien, Fort Snelling, Fort Leavenworth and 
the Yellowstone River are given in a corner of the map. St. Louis is 
credited with a population of 14,125 souls, Howard County, 10,854; 
all Missouri with 140,454. That was the condition of Missouri and 
the West in 1836. 



St. Ange Commandant of St. Louis. According to Scharff (His- 
tory of St. Louis I p. 75) and Shepard (History of St. Louis, p. 14) 
the government of the new colony of St. Louis was self-constituted 
and Louis St. Ange de Bellerive ruled it by popular action or acclama- 
tion. But this statement is wrong. When the British Highlanders, 
under Captain Stirling, reached Fort Chartres, in October 1765, Cap- 
tain St. Ange withdrew his force to St. Louis and there continued the 
command which was left to him when DeVillers departed from Fort 
Chartres to New Orleans. He was never elected commander of St. 
Louis by the settlers. 

The "Louisiana Historical Quarterly". April 1921, published the 
following document : 

Oath of allegiance to the King of Spain Taken by the Inhabitants 
of Illinois Before Louis St. Ange de Bellerive. 

Translation : 

In the year one thousand seven hundred and sixty-nine, on this 
nineteenth of November, we, Louis St. Ange de Bellerive. Captain, 
commanding the Spanish colony of Illinois, ceded by His Most 
Christian Majesty to His Catholic Majesty, by virtue of the orders 
addressed to us by His Execellency, My Lord O'Reilly, Commander 
of Benfayan, of the Order of Alcantara, Lieutenant General and Gov- 
ernor of the Province of Louisiana, in consequence of the act of pos- 
session, which we have just taken, and Inspector General of His 
Catholic Majesty's armies. Captain General of said colony in the name 
of His said Catholic Majesty. 

We ordered that all subjects of this colony who wish to remain 
here under the domination of His said Majesty, take the oath of allegi- 
ance which he demands, and on the moment, being assembled in the 
chamber of the said Government, we made them take the oath of 
fidelitv, as follows, viz : 



244 NOTES 

That they promise and swear to God to His Catholic Majesty to 
he faithful to Him and to sacrifice their lives for his service, to warn 
him or his commandants of anything coming to their knowledge pre- 
iudicial to his state or to the support of his crown and of his person, 
and to live under the laws it shall please His said Catholic Majesty to 
impose on them, to all of which submitted those hereafter named whose 
names are hereafter designated and marked. 

Signed by about seventy citizens of St. Louis. 
Lefevre Debruisson etc., etc." 

In this document St. Ange styles himself "Captain, commanding 
the Spanish colony of Illinois." Houck (Hist, of Missouri I p. 17 ss.) 
explains the position of St. Ange as follows : When St. Ange sur- 
rendered to Captain Stirling, Fort Chartres and the territory ceded 
to England, he retired with his troop of soldiers and officers and mili- 
tary stores to territory still under his jurisdiction, although ceded to 
Spain, and in which he was the only embodiment of legal authority 
until the arrival of the authorities of the new sovereign. His authority 
on the west side of the river remained in full force and did not re- 
quire action on the part "of the people." It is to be presumed that St. 
Ange understood this. In all his official proceedings, after removing 
the seat of the government to the new town, he followed the procedure 
followed at Fort Chartres. Ulloa, in the instruction he gave Captain 
Ruiz, seemed primarily to contemplate the formation of a new settle- 
ment north of the Missouri, of which Ruiz was to be chief, not inter- 
fering with the existing settlement of "the Illinois" south of the Mis- 
.souri. Again, in 1769. Ulloa ordered the Fort "El Principe de As- 
turias" to be evacuated and delivered to Captain St. Ange. From all 
this it is clearly manifest, that St. Ange was fully recognized as the 
supreme civil and military commandant west of the Mississippi for 
some time after the Treaty of Fontainebleau. 

And for this reason the setlers of St. Louis "des Illinois" swore 
the oath of allegiance under the direction of St. Ange, "Captain, com- 
manding the Spanish colony oi Illinois", on Nov. 9, 1769. — On Febru- 
ary 17, 1770, three months after the date of the above document, St. 
Ange resigned, and Don Pedro Piernas, a "captain of infantry" the 
first Si)anish lieutenant-governor, assumed the government of the 
Illinois country (St. Ix)uis and dependencies). 

It is said that when Captain Stirling, the first English commander 
at Fort Chartres, died in January 1776. on the request of the inhabit- 
ants there, St. Ange came over from the Spanish possessions to take 
charge of the post of Fort Chartres until the arrival of Captain Stir- 
ling's successor. Captain Frazer, from Pittsburgh. This romantic 
incident is a fiction, because in January 1776 St. Ange was dead over a 
year; he died Dec. 27. 1774, at the house of Madame Chouteau. St. 
Ange was never married. In his will which was made Dec. 27, 1774, 
St. Ange bequeaths 25 livres for Masses and 500 livres for the con- 
struction of the church of St. Louis. 



DOCUMENTS FROM OUR 
ARCHIVES 



DIARY OF BISHOP ROSATf 

1826 

APRIL 

1 Saturday. Mass early in the morning in the chapel. Qrn- 
fessions of the Nuns. In the evening, Confessions of the 
Seminarians. 

2 Low Sunday. Early in the morning, Confessions of the 
Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Confessions of the par- 
ishioners. Assisted at High Mass, during which I preached 
on the Gospel of the day. The dogmas of faith are not 
separable from the precepts of morality : hence our 
Savior gives in this Gospel a number of instructions cal- 
culated to build up our faith and morals. With regard to 
faith: 1. he proves with still greater evidence the truth 
of his resurrection; 2. When, breathing upon the dis- 
ciples, he says: "Receive ye the Holy Ghost," he shows 
that the latter proceeds from both the Father and the Son ; 
3. the divine mission of the Apostles ; 4. the power to 
remit sins, etc. With regard to morals: "Peace be to 
you": this threefold announcing of peace signifies a three- 
fold peace, namely, with God, with men and ourselves ; it 
was fitting that Christ alone should announce that peace, 
because he alone by his passion and death gave us that 
peace which he announces. 1. By sin we had become the 
enemies of God, hence vessels of wrath, sons of ven- 
geance; we all were under a curse: Christ reconciled the 
world with the Father. 2. Before the death of Christ 
charity was known to but a few men; Christ taught us 
the motives why we should cultivate this virtue: we all 
are the sons of the same Father, members of the same 
Church, heirs to the same kingdom, members of the same 
body, etc. 3. Peace with ourselves : there is no peace for 
the wicked ; the wicked are like the tossing waves, which 
can never rest. This peace consists in order, whereby the 

245 



246 DOCUMENTS 

body is subjected to the mind, the passions to reason, and 
reason to God. This order was unknown, etc. First Com- 
munion of the children in the church. Vespers in the 
same place. 

3 Monday. Mass in the chapel. No Conference. Sent to 
New Madrid Frs. De Neckere and Odin, who will remain 
there until Pentacost. Arrival of Fr. Dahmen. 

4 Tuesday Mass in the same place. No Conference. 

5 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. 

6 Thursday. Mass early in the morning. Conference to 
the Nuns, on the proper use of the Sacrament of Penance ; 
dispositions, etc. 

7 Friday. Early in the morning, Chapter; went to confes- 
sion. Mass in the chapel. 

8 Saturday. Mass early in the morning. Confessions of 
the Nuns. In the evening. Confessions of the Seminarians. 

9 Ilnd Sunday after Easter. Early in the morning. Con- 
fessions of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Confessions 
of the parishioners. Assisted at High Mass, during which 
I preached on the Gospel of the day : "I am the good 
shepherd." 1. What Christ does for us as the shepherd 
of our souls ; 2. what return we should make to him, as 
members of his flock. Vespers in the church. 

10 Monday. Early in the morning, Spiritual Conference to 
the Seminarians, on the Observance of Rule (Mr. Loisel). 
Mass in the chapel. 

11 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community, on the 
observance of Rule. Bro. Sargiano " and Mr. Permoli. 
Mass in the chapel. 

12 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. Received letter from 
Fr. Saulnier. 

13 Thursday. Mass early in the morning. At 6 o'clock went 
to the church, where Matin and Lauds of the Dead vyere 
said for the soul of Mrs. Fournier, the sister of the Right 
Rev. Bp. of New Orleans, and most zealous benefactress 
of this Mission of Louisiana, and particularly of this 
Seminary. Assisted at High Mass in cope, and after it, 
gave the ab.solution. In the evening, received through the 



T» Cf. St. Louis Cath. I fist. Review, Vol. Ill, p. 34'. Note 107. 



DOCUMENTS ■ 247 

mail letters 1. from Fr. Tichitoli; 2. from Fr. Rosti*"; 
3. from Mr. Hay.^^ 

14 Friday. Early in the morning, Chapter; went to con- 
fession. Mass in the chapel. 

15 Saturday. Mass in the chapel early in the morning. Con- 
fessions of the Nuns. In the evening, Confessions of the 
Seminarians. 

16 Illd Sunday after Easter. Early in the morning, Con- 
fessions of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Confessions. 
Answered Mr. Hay f- wrote to Fr. Savine.^^ Assisted at 
High Mass, during which I preached on the Sunday's 
Gospel : "A little while, and you shall not see me," etc. ; 
but the world shall rejoice: and you shall be made sorrow- 
ful," etc. Vespers in the church. 

17 Monday. Early in the morning. Spiritual Conference to 
the Seminarians, on performing well our Exercises of 
piety: 1. motives; 2. means (Saucier). Mass in the 
chapel. 

18 Tuesday. Mass in the chapel. Through Mr. McCoy »* I 
received a letter from Fr. Odin whom I sent to New 
Madrid with Fr. De Neckere on the 3rd of April. On 
April 4, Fr. De Neckere preached in the town of Jackson ; 
he was well received by the inhabitants of that place, 
among whom some catholic families were found. 

19 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. 

20 Thursday. Mass early in the morning in the chapel. Con- 
ference to the Nuns, on the Sacrament of Penance. At 
about eight o'clock in the evening the Right Rev. 



8° Grand Coteau, February 17, 1826. Had already found the money for the 
payment which you wished me to make, when the Superioress (Madame Aude) 
assured me it had been made long since, but unknown to the Sister (Mary 
Layton), whence the latter's letter to her uncle. Am well. 

81 Of Cahokia, 111.; he was a convert. 

82 I authorize Fr. Savine to marry your daughter to Mr. Savage. I must say 
however, that, no matter what the circumstances, it is always a most grievous 
sin to marry outside the Church. Still, owing to your attachment to Religion 
since you have known the truth, I am willing to relax the striCftness of Ecclesias- 
tical law in this instance, in order to permit your daughter to fulfill her duty, 
hoping that by her good example she will contribute to the respect rendered to 
our Holy religion. 

83 Having heard from Mr. Hay what took place in connection with his 
daughter's marriage to Mr. Savage, I authorize you to validate this union. Im- 
press upon Miss Hay the realization of her fault, the nullity of the marriage. 
Accept nothing, even if they insist. 

8* Cf. Rev. E. Pruente: The Beginnings of Catholicity in Cape Girardeau, 
in 5"/. Louis Cath. Hist. Reviezv, Vol. Ill, p. 56. 



246 DOCUMENTS 

Du Bourg. Bishop of New Orl., arrived here; through 
him I received letters: 1. from Fr. Borgna ; 2. from 
Fr. Tichitoli; 3. from Fr. Sibourd; 4. from Mrs. La- 
dotte; 5. from Fr. Portier. The Bishop talked to me at 
g^eat length about the journey which he thinks of making 
to Europe for the good of the Diocese. 

21 Friday. Early in the morning, Chapter; went to confes- 
sion. Mass in the chapel. Went to see the Nuns with the 
Bishop. Wrote: 1. to Fr. Borgna*"; 2. to Fr. Tichi- 
toli ^* ; 3. to Fr. Saulnier ". 

22 Saturday. Early in the morning, Mass in the chapel. 
Confessions of the Nuns. In the evening, Confessions of 
the Seminarians. 

23 IVth Sunday after Easter. Early in the morning, Con- 
fessions of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Confessions 
of the parishioners. The Right Rev. Bishop Du Bourg 
assisted at High Mass in cope, and preached ; as to me, I 
stayed at home, writing letters: 1. to Fr. Boccardo *V: 
Genoa ; 2. to Fr. Baccari *^, Vic. Gen. of the Congrega- 
tion, Rome; 3. to my brother^", Sora; 4. to Fr. Col- 
ucci ", priest of the Cong, of the Mission, Rome; 5. to 
Fr. Giriodi ^^, Superior of the College and house of St. 
Lazarus, Piacenza. 



88 Received the barrels of rice, sugar and molasses, the linen-cloth, the 
books, Fr. Boullier's trunk. You will receive a set of Calmet and Fenelon. Sell 
the clock: I must make money by all possible means to pay my debts. 

" Fr. Rosti cannot leave Grand Coteau unless someone else is sent in his 
place. Before long you will get a companion whom you will like. 

•^ If the children are ready, Bp. Du Bourg will give them Confirmation. 
Compare the Ordo and have it printed in St. Louis. 

■• Received your letters; am glad to hear you persevere: the fulfillment of 
your wishes is nearer than you think. Bp. Du Bourg is going to Rome: he will 
obtain what you and I so much desire. 

•" Bishop Du Bourg, the bearer, needs no introduction. His purpose in going 
to Rome, is to assure the continuation of the good already done; he is desirous 
to make another establishment in Louisiana, though I could not consent to it 
on account of our lack of subjects and means. You may remedy the first by send- 
ing us Frs. Tornatorc and Boccardo; we trust in Providence to remedy the 
other. 

•** More than a year without news from you. Entrust this to Bp. Du Bourg. 
He had offered to me to go himself to see you; but I did not wish him to give 
himself that trouble. As soon as you get thi.e, go to Rome to see him: he will 
give you details about me. 

•' Cannr/t believe you forgot me, and attribute your silence to absorbing 
work, and am sure you continue to do for us, etc. 

" Although I had never the privilege of seeing you, yet I may say I know 
you well through Fr. De Andreis. Perhaps Bp. Du Bourg will go to Piacenza on 
his way to Rome. The purpose of his journey is to consolidate our establish- 
ment in his vast Diocrsc. We nerd subjects. If anyone among the nujjils of the 
College should feci an inclination for this Misson and to join our Congregation, 
the Bp. will obtain for him from Rome the necessary dispensation. 



DOCUMENTS 249 

24 Monday. Mass in the chapel, early in the morning. At 
about eight o'clock, started from the Seminary with the 
Bishop, and accompanied him as far as Ste. Genevieve, 
where we arrived around two o'clock. 

25 Tuesday. Mass early in the morning in the church of 
Ste. Genevieve. Bidding goodbye to the Bishop I left him 
about 10 o'clock and returned to the Seminary, where J 
arrived about six. 

The Bishop of New Orleans, much concerned about the extreme 
necessity in which the Diocese is laboring, wishing to complete the 
works begun, and desiring to render stable in this country the foun- 
dation of our Congregation, has decided to go to Europe: ist, in 
order that he may obtain from the Superior General at least two 
priests of the Congregation capable to be made Superiors; 2nd, in 
order to obtain from the friends of the propagation of Religion the 
means necessary for the foundation of a Seminary in Louisiana, 
etc., etc. 

26 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. Thomas Moore, whom 
I had sent to Louisiana on account of his health, feeling 
that the air of that country did not benefit him any, has 
returned to the Seminary, wishing to die here in the midst 
of his fellow-students and friends. Received a letter from 
Fr. Portier. 

27 Thursday. Mass early in the morning. Conference to the 
Nuns, on Meditation. Received a letter from the Bishop 
of New Orleans ^^ Wrote to Fr. Odin ^*, at New Madrid. 

28 Friday. Early in the morning, Chapter; went to confes- 
sion. Mass in the chapel. 

29 Saturday. Early in the morning, Mass in the chapel. 
Confessions of the Nuns. In the evening. Confessions of 
the Seminarians. 

30 Vth Sunday after Easter. Early in the morning. Con- 
fessions of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Confessions 
of the parishioners. Assisted at High Mass, during which 
I preached on the Gospel of the day, on the necessity, 
efficacy and qualities of prayer. Vespers in the church. 



^' Original in the Archives of St. Louis Archd. Chancery A. short note. 
Have written to Frs. De Neckere and Odin to come back before Pentecost, so 
that you .may be here (at Ste. Genevieve) on Monday May is, in order that you 
may not miss the boat. Fr. Dahmen will announce Confirmation for the Tuesday 
(May 1 6). 

** Received your letter. Bishop Du Bourg arrived here on the 20th and left 
on the 24th. Found at Ste. Genevieve Thomas Moore who came back here to die 
in the Seminary. Fr. Portier wrote to you, sending a beautiful alb and two 
amices. He will come here in October. Fr. Desmoulins is with him at the College, 
and Fr. Blanc, the elder, at Baton Rouge. Am expecting you for Pentesost. 



250 DOCUMENTS 



MAY 



1 Monday. Rog-ations. Mass in the chapel. Communion. 
After Mass we beg-an a Novena in union with the prayers 
of the saintly priest Prince of Hohenlohe, for the recovery 
of Thomas I^Ioore. As rain prevented us from having the 
procession, we sang the Litany of the Saints, and, after 
that, solemn Mass, with deacon and sub-deacon. After 
dinner I held the examination of the College boys. 

2 Tuesday. Rogations. Mass in the chapel. Spiritual Con- 
ference of the Community, on Prayer (Bro. Blanka ®® and 
Mr. Timon). At 9 o'clock, Litany of the Saints in the 
church and solemn Mass. 

3 Wednesday. Rogations. Mass in the chapel. Procession. 
Solemn Mass in the church. In the evening, Confessions 
of the Seminarians. 

4 Thursday. Ascension of our Lord. Early in the morning. 
Confessions of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Con- 
fessions of some lay people. Assisted at solemn Mass in 
cope and mitre, and preached on the feast. Solemn Pon- 
tifical Vespers. 

5 Friday. Early in the morning. Chapter; went to confes- 
sion. Mass in the chapel. 

6 Saturday. Early in the morning Mass in the chapel. Con- 
fessions of the Nuns. In the evening, Confessions of the 
Seminarians. 

7 Sunday within the octave of the Ascension. Early in the 
morning, confessions of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. 
Confessions of some lay people. Assisted at High Mass, 
during which I preached on the Gospel of the day: Testi- 
mony rendered to Christ and Religion by the Holy Ghost ; 
2. Testimony rendered by the Apostles; 3. Testimony we 
should render to Christ and Religion. Vespers in the 
church. 

8 Monday. Early in the morning. Spiritual Conference to 
the .Seminarians (Mr. Thompson ""), on the prej)aration to 
be made for the feast of Pentecost. L Motives: (a) obedi- 
ence to the wishes of the church; (b) should we fail to 
make this preparation, we will lose the graces prepared 
for us, and even if we would receive them, they would 
remain fruitless. 2. Means: (a) solitude; (b) recollec- 
tion ; (c) meditation and consideration of our needs ; (d) 
prayer. Mass in the chaj)el. 



•• Cf. St. Louis Cath. Hist. Review. Vol, III, p. 340, Note 104. 
•• Cf. Ibid., p. 344, Note 120. 



DOCUMENTS 251 

9 Tuesday Spiritual Conference of the Community (as 
yesterday) : Bro. Vanucci. Mass in the chapel. In the 
evenmg Confessions. 

10 Wednesday At 2 o'clock in the morning, Fr. Permoli 
celebrated Holy Mass for Thomas Moore, and gave com- 
munion to him and to the others. Our prayers have not 
been heard. Mass in the chapel. At 8 o'clock p m 
return of Frs. De Neckere and Odin from New Madrid! 
1 he people there, amounting to eighty families, have been 
for niany years destitute of all spiritual help. By having 
catechism twice a day, sermons twice every Sunday and 
least day our missionaries endeavored to instruct those 
people. On Ascension Thursday they gave the first com- 
munion to fifteen boys and girls. There would have been 
many more communions, had not persistent and heavy 
rains, inundations, and the urgent occupations of farming 
prevented the people of that neighborhood from attending 
the catechetical instructions. Our men baptized more than 
fifty children. The people of New Madrid, trusting that 
they will get a priest, have determined to build the church 
and for this purpose have made a subscription, which' 

1 r3 . ^?^ ^^^ complete, has already reached a total of 
1,5(j0 dollars. 

11 Thursday. Early in the morning. Mass in the chapel 
Conference to the Nuns, on the Preparation for the feast 
of Pentacost. After supper administered the last sacra- 
ments to Thomas Moore, cleric of this Seminary. At half 
past ten, after an agony of a quarter of an hour he passed 
away quietly; Frs. Odin and De Neckere were with him 
This young man had made himself most dear to me and 
to all by his meekness, his innocence, his obedience and 
his other clerical virtues. 

12 Friday. Early in the morning. Chapter; went to confes- 
sion. Mass. 

13 Saturday. Early in the morning. Confessions of the Nuns. 
At 9 o'clock, after the chanting of None, Prophecies, 
blessing of the Baptism Fount. Pontifical solemn Mass! 
In the evening Confessions of the Seminarians. 

14 Pentecost Sunday. Early in the morning. Confessions of 
Confirm- the Brothers and of others. After chanting Tierce, I 

ation4o. administered the Sacrament of Confirmation to 40 boys 
and girls, addressing to them before a short exhortation. 
Celebrated solemn Pontifical Mass. at which Mr. Timon 
preached. Pontifical Vespers in the church. After night 
prayers I notified the members of our Community of mv 
journey to Louisiana. Appointed Fr. Odin Superior and 



252 DOCUMENTS 

Fr. Permoli Assistant ; begged all to be most careful in the 
observance of the rules, and recommended myself to their 
prayers. 

15 Pentecost Monday. Early in the morning said Mass in 
the chapel. At 5 o'clock addressed a short exhortation 
to the Seminarians on the necessity of making good use 
of the graces which we have received at the occasion of 
this feast, proposing to them the example of the late 
Thomas Moore. Finally I announced to them my journey. 
At about 8 o'clock I left for Ste. Genevieve with Fr. De 
Neckere ; from Ste. Genevieve we are to sail, I for New 
Orleans, and he for St. Louis. From the Seminary to 
Ste. Genevieve we had a most painful journey, on account 
of the high water of the Mississippi River which had 
overflowed and covered all the land along the river. We 
arrived at Ste. Genevieve in the evening, and were re- 
ceived most cordially by Fr. Dahmen. 

16 Tuesday. Said Mass early in the morning in the church 
of Ste. Genevieve. After Mass, I heard the confessions of 

Confirm- some of the candidates for confirmation. This finished, 

ationso. and having invoked the assistance of the Holy Ghost, 

after a short exhortation I administered the Sacrament of 

Confirmation to about fiftv boys and girls. Wrote to 

Fr. Odin ". 

17 Wednesday. Mass in the church of Ste. Genevieve. 
.Ground five o'clock p. m., the steamer General Brown 
arrived at Ste. Genevieve. Bidding goodbye to Frs. 
Dahmen and De Neckere, I went on board, and there found 
Fr. Savine, the former Rector of Cahokias. The rest of 
th( day and i)art of the next night were employed in load- 
ing the boat. We left Ste. Genevieve about midnight. 

18 Thursday. At 5 a. m., we stopped near Brazeau to take on 
wood. At half j^ast ten we passed Cape Girardeau, and 
at 10 p.m.. New Madrid. 

19 Friday. At 6 a. m., we reached the place called "Second 
Bluffs." Wrote to Fr. Tichitoli ''\ At 10:45 we passed 
Memphis. Wrote to Fr. Bigeschi °" and Mr. Bringier '*"'. 

20 Saturday. We spent more than half of this day in looking 
for an anchor lost in the preceding trip of the boat. 



•* If you receive money for Mr. Manning, keep $i6, which he owes us. If 
Fr. Le Saulnier of Montreal sends you any Intentions and tells you to draw on 
him, make three lyr.ifts and sent them \.(> Vr. iJc Neckere in St. Louis. 

•• Bishop Du Bourg is on his way to Europe. Am coming to see you. 

•• Enclose a letter of Bishop Du Bourg. Shall see you. 



DOCUMENTS 253 

21 Sunday. At 8 a. m., we stopped at Natchez. At 9 p. m., 
we passed in front of the church of Pointe Coupee. 

22 Monday. At 6 a. m., we reached the church of St. John 
the Baptist. There Fr. Savine landed, and after saluting 
Fr. Mina, Rector of this church, we continued our journey. 
At 9 o'clock we arrived in New Orleans. On leaving the 
boat, I went straightway to the Rectory, where I found 
Frs. Borgna, Michaud, Moni, Bigeschi, Portier, Jeanjean 
and Caretta ; took dinner there, after which I went to the 
Bishop's residence, where I saw Fr. Sibourd. Paid a 
visit to Fr. Anthony. 

23 Tuesday. Went to see the Consul of France. Wrote to 
Fr. Odin,^°^ and to Fr. Dahmen,^"- at Ste. Genevieve. 

C24 Wednesday. Early in the morning, came to the Monas- 
tery. After saying Mass there, I visited the Community, 
and, after dinner, the Novices. Wrote to the Bishop of 
New Orleans, ^°^ and to Fr. Potini ^°* and the Nuns of 
the Assumption ^°'. 

25 Thursday. Mass in the Bishop's church, and Benediction 
of the Bl. Sacrament. In the evening Benediction. 

26 Friday. Mass in the same place. Benediction of the Bl. 
Sacrament. Wrote to Fr. De Neckere ^°°. Received a 
visit from the French Consul; Paid $36.50 to the steamboat 
Gen. Brown for my passage and freight. 

27 Saturday. Mass in the same place. Benedict, of the Bl. 
Sacrament. Saw Fr. Ganihl, the Pastor of Mobile. 

28 Sunday within the octave of Corpus Christi. Came to 
Confirm- ^^^ Monastery, and there said Mass, and at 3 p. m., admin- 
ation 12. istered the Sacrament of Confirmation to 12 girls. 



i°o Cf. St. Louis Cath. Hist. Review, Vol, III, p. 319, Note 21. The letter 
herewith enclosed will inform you that your uncle etc. He was received in St. 
Louis amidst the roar of guns ; all the population etc. I left him in good health. 
Beg you to mail the enclosed. 

^" A most happy journey. Everybody is well. 

^°2 Read the enclosed to learn the news. Send to the Seminary three pieces 
of gauze. 

^°* Arrived here on the 22nd to everybody's astonishment. It is generally 
admitted that your trip will turn to the benefit of the Diocese. Fr. Portier has 
decided to keep the College until you come back. It seems that satisfactory ar- 
rangements may be made with Fr. Desmoulins. I think I prevailed on Fr. Bi- 
geschi to remain in the Diocese. 

10* News of himself. 

lOB Not recorded. 

i°* Recorded only under date of June 5. Put in the List of the Deceased Fr. 
Gallagher and Thomas Moore. 



254 



DOCUMENTS 



29 Monday. Mass in the Bishop's church, and Benediction 
of the Bl. Sacrament. In the evening Benediction. 

30 Tuesday. Mass in the same place. Benediction. 

31 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. Benediction. Saw 
Mr. Du Bourg, the Bishop's brother^". 

JUNE 

1 Thursday. Mass in the same place. Benediction. 

2 Friday. CflQebrated Mass in the Cathedral; after which 

and a short exhortation / confirmed some thirty boys and 

Confirm- girls. Went to see Mr. Burthe. whom I did not find at 
ationjo. hon^e 

Saturday. Mass in the Bishop's church. 

Sunday. Mass in the same place. Saw Fr. Mina. 

Monday. Mass in the same place. 

Tuesday. Mass in the same place. The thermometer goes 
up to 90°. 

Wednesday. Mass in the same place. 

Thursday. I celebrated Mass in the Bishop's church. At 
7 a. m., I administered the Sacrament fo Confirmation to 
about sixty gprls in the Cathedral. At 5 o'clock, I accom- 
panied Fr. Sibourd to the boat. He, who for sixteen years 
exercised the functions of Vicar General of New Orleans, 
broken down by his age and labors, is returning to Europe, 
much regretted by all. Received a letter from Fr. Blanc. 

9 Friday. Mass in the Bishop's church ^^^. 

10 Saturday. Mass in the same place. 

11 IVth Sunday after Pentecost. Mass in the Bishop's 
church. At half past eight, assisted at High Mass in the 
cliapcl of the Monastery, where they celel:)rated the feast 
of St. Angela. I preached after the Gospel. After Mass 
I administered the Sacrament of Confirmation lo four girls. 

12. Monday. Mass in the Bishop's church. Received a letter 
from the Trustees of the Parish of St. Joseph '"". 



Confirm- 
ation 6o. 



Confirm- 
ation 4. 



>•» Cf. St. Louis Cath. Hist. Review, Vol. IV, p. 98, Note 67. 

'<*• Answer to Fr. Anthony Blanc's (Baton Rouge) letter: I consent that 
the church be built on the spot where three acres of land are ofTercd you, and 
authorize you to accept this land in the name of Bp. Du Bourg, who is still 
Bishop of this Diocese. 

*•• Letter to Fr. Potini. Am sending you the dispensation requested. Shall 
come to »ec you. 



DOCUMENTS 255 

13 Tuesday. Mass in the same place. Answered the Trus- 
tees "°. 

14 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. Received a letter 
from Fr. Saulnier. 

15 Thursday. Mass in the same place. Wrote a Pastoral to 
the people of the Diocese for the Jubilee. 

16. Friday. Mass in the same place. In the evening, heard 
a confession. Received a visit from a barefooted Carmel- 
ite, whose name is Joseph of the Expectation; he was 
Publica- coming from Mexico and asking the faculty to celebrate 
Jubilee ^ Mass ; but, as he brought with him no dimissorial letters 
See No. 9 from either the Superior of his Order or the Bishop of 
Los Angeles, whence I could be sure that he was not under 
any censure and had left his country with the permission 
of his Superiors, I did not think that I could in conscience 
grant him the permission which he was begging. Went 
to see the Bishop's brother. 

17 Saturday. Mass in the same place. 

18 Vth Sunday after Pentecost. Mass in the Bishop's church, 
Confirm- after which I administered theSacrament of Confirmation 
ation6. ^.q three boys and as inany girls. 

19 Monday. Mass in the same place. Fr. Portier, hitherto 
President of the College, communicated to me letters which 
he had received from Propaganda. He is ordered in the 
name of holy obedience to accept the Episcopal office and 
the charge of Vicar Apostolic, which he had refused. He 
will resign in the hands of F. Desmoulins, already desig- 
nated by the Bishop of New Orleans, the president of the 
College and will sell lo the Bishop, at two-thirds of the 
purchase price, all the furniture of house and school. 
Wrote'": 1. to the Right Rev. Bp. of New Orleans "^ ; 



110 I answer your letter of the 5th inst. in lieu of Bp. Du Bourg. Your re- 
quest to have Fr. Rosti in place of Fr. Potini, who wishes to leave, is most 
reasonable; and in case your pastor actually leaves, I will do all in my power 
to satisfy your wishes, although I must add, that, owing to the paucity of priests 
it may me very difficult to do as we would like. As I purpose to come before long 
to your parish, we shall have an opportunity to treat this affair viva voce. 

»ii Letter to Madame Aude, St. Michael's, La., not recorded in the Diary 
Shall be at St. Michael's on the 26th. Have everything in readiness for Miss 
Levegue receiving the habit on the next day. 

11- Fr. Portier has received a new Brief and is commanded in the name of 
obedience to submit. He is to leave the College at the end of the month. Fr. 
Desmoulins will take his place. Fr. Portier will do what he had agreed with 
you in regard to the furniture; I, as your attorney in fact will give him notes. 
During the summer Fr. Jeanjean will take charge of the city house, whilst Fr. 



256 DOCUMENTS 

2. to Fr. Dahmen^^^ 3. to Fr. Odin*^*; 4. to Fr. De 

Xcx-kerc ''■'. b^aw Mr- Guillcnain, who told me that the 
interloper who occupies the parish of St. Charles will 
probably never give way. There is, therefore, so far no 
hope of sending Fr. Savine there. Went to see Mr. Gordon. 

20 Tuesday. Mass in the same place. Wrote to the Bishop 
of New Orleans "®. Pastoral letter to the Pastors and 
priests of the Diocese on the Jubilee. 

21 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. Wrote to Frs Dah- 
men"^ Odin ^^« and De Neckere ^'». 

22 Thursday. Mass in the same place. I left New Orleans 
in company with Frs. Borgna and Caretta, and at 6 p. m., 
we reached St. John the Baptist's, where we were wel- 
comed by Fr. Mina. Saw Fr. Savine. 

23 Friday. Said mass in the church of St. John the Baptist. 
Saw Fr. De la Croix. 

24 Saturday. Celebrated Pontifical solemn Mass in the 
church of St. John the Baptist, having for Assistant priest 
Fr. Savine, Deacons of honor Frs. De la Croix and Caretta. 
Deacon Fr. Borgna, who preached the sermon, and Sub- 
deacon Fr. Mina, pastor of that church. After dinner, 
crossed the river with Frs. De la Croix and Caretta and 
at 10 o'clock we arrived at St. Michael's. 



Desmoulins will stay in the country with the boarders. These gentlemen will do 
most readily everything for the common good. Father Portier also shows a great 
deal of generosity. I am pretty sure Fr. Desmoulins will direct things well. He 
has sane views, is firm and persevering. He hegs me to remind you your promise 
of physical apparatus. There will be $200 to pay in November for repairs; no 
hope of getting then anything from the College: we will have to borrow them, 
for wc cannot expect to get a delay, as Messrs. Gurly arid Guyot have failed. 
If you could send some money.... Am leaving N. O. next Thursday, and after 
visiting some parishes of the Coast and of La Fourche, will go back to the 
Seminary. 

Hi When I come you will get a barrel of red wine, one of white wine, your 
bed. etc. For news read tlie enclosed (to Fr. Odin) before forwarding it. 

*** Will leave here Thursday. Bp. Portier will come up with me: he will 
stay with us three months and will be consecrated in St. Louis. He has received 
his Bulls with order to accept under obedience. 

"» Prepare an English sermon for the Consecration of Bp. Portier, which 
Tell Fr. Saulnicr that I find the pretensious of the Irish in St. Louis unrea- 
sonable, and I shall not grant their petition, ,See F. G. Holweck: The Language 
Question in the Old Cathedral of St. Louis, in St. Louis Cath. Hist Review. 
Vol. II, pp. 7-8. 

"• This is certainly the letter al)ove in Note 112, which, begun on the 19th, 
was finished only the next day. 

"^ This must be the date when letter above, in Note 113 was mailed. 
"• //. letter in Note 114. 
"• It. letter in Note 115. 



DOCUMENTS 



257 



27 
Gave the 
habit of the 
Soc. of the 
S. Heart to 
Justine 
Leveque in 
house of 
St. Mjichael 

28 



30 



Institution 
ofFr. 
Audizio as 
Pastor of 
St. Charles 



25 Vth Sunday after Pentacost. Said Mass in the chapel 
S. Heart Convent. Saw the Convent, of which Madame 
Eugenia Aude is the Superior over eight Nuns and twenty- 
six girls. Assisted at High Mass, and after the Gospel 
preached. 

26 Monday. Said Mass in the chapel. 

Tuesday. Blessed the habit of the Society of the Sacred 
Heart and gave it to Justine Leveque, who took the name 
of Louise. This ceremony was preceded by a short exhor- 
tation in which I commented upon this text : "Hearken O 
Daughter, and see : . . . forget thy people and thy father's 
house, and the king shall greatly desire thy beauty" ^■°. 
The ceremony finished, I said Mass. I probed the voca- 
tion of the Sister to whom I had given the habit. 

Wednesday. Did not say Mass, on account of the trip I 
was to undertake. I set out with Fr. Caretta at half past 
nine, and we reached the place of Mr. Casimir Poursine 
at two p. m. We took dinner there, then crossed the river, 
and landed at Donaldsonville, where we were received by 
Fr. De Angelis. In the evening I received a visit of Mr. 
Johnson, Governor of Louisiana. 

Thursday. Did not say Mass. We left Donaldsonville at 
3 a. m., and at 6 o'clock we reached Assumption, where 
we were welcomed by Fr. Tichitoli, the Rector of that 
Parish. I visited the Convent, of which Sister Johanna 
Miles is Superior of the infant Community there, which 
consists of three Nuns, eight postulants and a few school- 
girls. Wrote to Fr. Potini "^ 

Friday. Said Mass in the church of the Assumption. At 
9 p. m., the Right Rev. Portier arrived, bringing me a 
letter from Fr Niel, dated from Rome. Wrote to Fr. 
Audizio ^^- and sent him his letter of appointment to the 
parish of St. Charles and Confessor of the Nuns; 2. to 
Fr. Rosti, wherein I advised him of the coming of Fr. 
Audizio, and asked him to turn over to him the adminis- 
tration of the parish and the care of the Convent, and to 
come to the Ascension, to discharge there the functions of 
Procurator of the house and Assistant of the parish under 
Fr. Tichitoli, who is to be Superior and Pastor; 3. to Fr. 



29 



«» Ps. xliv, II. 

1" Cannot go to St. Joseph's on account of the bad roads and of the lack 
of time. Therefore I beg you to come here (Assumption, La.). 

**« Go to Grand Coteau to take Fr. Rosti's place. Enclosed is a letter for 
him. Am sending you faculties. 



258 DOCUMENTS 

Jeanjean ^-'. Received letters: 1. from Fr. Potini^-'; 
2. from Fr. Bigeschi ^-^ ; answered the latter. 

JULY 

1 Saturday. Did not say Mass, because Fr. Portier had 
determined to leave for New Orleans, hence in the morning 
I wrote several letters which he was to take along: 1. to 
Fr. Niel '-" ; 2. to Fr. Borgna. 

2 Vlth Sunday after Pentecost. Said Mass in the chapel 
of the Convent. Assisted at High Mass and preached after 
the Gospel. Vespers in the church. Received letters : 
1. from Fr. Borgna; 2. from my brother, in Italy. 

3 Monday. Did not say Mass, as I was unwell. Answered 
Fr. Borgna's letter. ^-^ 

4 Tuesday. Did not say Mass, for the same reason as 
yesterday. Answered my brother ^-*. Received a visit of 



123 You will receive the copies of the Pastoral printed by Mr. Bressa. Please 
get the bill and settle it. 

1-* Original in Archives of St. Louis Archdioc. Chancery. According to your 
promise I expected you here; Fr. Tichitoli was right, whether he intended to 
stop you, or knew your intentions, when he told me you would not come to St. 
Joseph's. There is something under all this. I had asked him to get you a boat 
at my expense; and you can still do it; as for me I cannot leave before Mon- 
day afternoon. At any rate you would not permit me to leave before I make 
arrangements for my successor, a thing which is necessary, as you will under- 
stand if we can have a talk. 

^•^ Shall be here Monday. Do me and Fr. Tichitoli the pleasure of coming. 
Grant you the faculty of blessing 3,000 rosaries. Beg you to visit the Convent 
from time to time and to hear the Confessions of such Sisters as will ask to 
go to you. 

'■-'' Did not say anything about you in my letters to Rome, because I 
thought you would not go. Never ceased thinking God would make use of 
you to secure some recruits for this country. I do not believe that Bp. Du 
Bourg resigned ,therefore nothing is to be done. My views agree with yours : 
so do come and we will work well together. 

'2^ If M. Michaiid wants to go to tlie College, and Fr. Dcsmoulins agrees, 
I will send you Fr. I'ermoli, on the condition that Supper shall be taken at 
home and Community hlxcrcises regularly performed. I consent to your hav- 
ing the first part of the Catechism printed by Mr. Bressa. Saw Fr. Bigeschi 
and asked him to give a mission at Iberville and to lu-lp you at Donaldsonvillc. 

''•* Original of which in the archives of the Procurator (jcn. C. M., 
Romf. — Received yours of March 20, a wonderfully speedy delivery owing to 
the distance. Have copied the greater part of it and sent it to Fr. Borgna; 
his silence, at any rate is not due to forget fulness, but of neglect. You will 
have a good prrKjf thereof in his next, namely, the picture which you were 
asking for. Indeed, I have yielded to his entreaties and posed for it; before 
I left New Orleans the face was fmishcd and, so far as 1 could say, it is a 
good likeness. You will get it before winter, and will be indebted for it to 
Fr. Borgna. I am much pleased with your affection for our confreres and 
the hospitality you tendered to our Vic. Gen. and Fr. Ferrari. Perhaps you 



DOCUMENTS 259 

Fr. Potini. He persists in his determination to leave his 
parish and return to Italy. I declared to him I could not 
in any way approve either. 

5 Wednesday. Did not say Mass, for at half past four I 
left the Assumption with Fr. Tichitoli, and at half past 
seven we reached there. Received letters: 1. from Fr. 
De Neckere ; 2. from Fr. Saulnier ; 3. from Fr. Jeanjean. 

6 Thursday. Did not celebrate Mass this and the following: 
days ; as I had been advised of the imminent coming of 
the boat, and did not know at what time it might pass 
along, I did not wish to miss the occasion. Wrote to the 
Trustees of the church of St. Joseph. ^'° 

7 Friday. Still in the same place, awaiting the boat. 

8 Saturday. Received letters: 1. from Fr. Borgna; 2. from 
the Right Rev. Du Bourg, New York ^^" ; 3. from Madame 
Eugenia. This letter was brought by a girl who is going 
to St. Louis on the same boat as myself, and thence will 
go to St. Ferdinand. Wrote: 1. to Fr. Borgna -^^^ ; 2. to 
Fr. Anthony de Sedella ^^^. Waiting for the boat, the 



will see Bp. Du Bourg before receiving this; he wanted to go to see you, but 
I told him it would be too tiresome a journey for him, and that you would 
go to Rome to see him. During his absence I have to divide my time between 
Missouri and Louisiana. I came down here at the end of May but left the 
city at the beginning of the yellow fever season. Various occupations. Future 
consecration of Bp. Portier : it would be a sight in Italy to see a Bishop 35 
years of age consecrate another 31 years old. The parish where I am now 
is one of the most edifying of the diocese; the new convent there — the fifth 
established in the diocese since our coming. It is harder to establish colleges 
for boys: the one in N. O. has over 150 pupils; that in St. Louis is dying; 
the Jesuits at Florissant have a school for Indian boys ; our Seminary is get- 
ting along fairly; but priests are too few. Regards to Mother and to vari- 
ous persons. 

129 Fr. Potini wishes to leave the parish. I cannot give you at this time Fr. 
Rosti, or anyone else, as I have no priest; but promise to do everything in 
my power to send you one. An understanding, though is necessary : you shall 
give him $400, payable quarterly in advance. 

180 Original in archives of St. Louis Archdiocesan Chancery. — New York 
May 31, 1826. Am sailing tomorrow for Havre, together with Frs. Martial and 
Abell. Lost track of Fr. Brassac at Louisville; trust he is not somewhere 
sick. Stood very well the seven hard days of wretched trip overland. Neglect 
nothing for the furtherance of my projects. Have an understanding with 
Fr. Bigeschi about buying the land; but let him do the purchasing, and keep 
your and my name out of the transaction. Will look eagerly for letters from 
you. Had no time in New York to look after the mill ; anyway could have 
done nothing, for want of money: have not even enough with me to pay for 
my passage, which I shall pay when I am in France. 

131 News from Bishop Du Bourg; see his brother and communicate these 
news to him and to the priests. 

132 I requested Fr. Borgna to go to Donaldsonville to preach the Jubilee, 
reckoning on your consent to absent himself a few days from the parish. 



260 DOCUMENTS 

coming of which had been announced to us by Fr. Borgna, 
I spent the whole night practically without sleep. 

9 Vllth Sunday after Pentecost. Did not say Mass, on 
account of the trip. At half past seven went on board the 
General Broii.'n. From the purser I received letters: 1. 
from Fr. Borgna ; 2. from Fr. Cellini "^ ; 3. from Fr. 
Saulnier ; 4. from Fr. De Neckere. "■* 

10 Monday. At half past one p. m., we were in sight of the 
town of Fort Adams. Wrote: 1. to Fr. De Neckere "°; 
2. to Fr. Saulnier ^^* ; ; 3. to Madame Duchesne ^" ; 4. to 
Fr. Van Quickenborne "®. Sent printed copies of the 
Pastoral and Regulations for the Jubilee to Frs. De 
Neckere and Saulnier for the city of St. Louis, to Fr. Van 
Quickenborne for the parish of St. Ferdinand, and finally, 
for the parish of St. Charles, to the Jesuit who has 
charge of it. 

11 Most prosperous journey. As the water still filled the 

12 bed of the river there were no obstacles to our traveling day 

13 and night. All my traveling companions were very decent. 

14 We suffered a little from the heat ; but towards the end the 

15 temperature began to be more tolerable. I talked quite a 



1S3 Original in archives of St. Louis Archdioc. Chancery. — Bardstown, 
Ky., June 14. 1826. Perfectly satisfied at Bardstown. Suffered much in 
Europe, particularly in Rome. Fr. Baccari must have advised you that he 
granted me dispensation of vows. But lost my papers. Would like you to 
write to Bp. Flaget about it; desires also the Pontifical permission to practice 
medicine. About 400 intentions received when at Grand Coteau and acquitted. 

"* Original Ibid. — St. Louis, June 17, 1826. Am sending this through 
Fr. Audizio. Have been in St. Louis for a month, and suflfer so much that 
doubt that I may continue the course of sermons undertaken. From recent 
experience, affording people a better knowledge of religion would bring them 
to the Church. You should even make sacrifices to foster the interests of the 
Church. From Bp. Du Bourg letter I concluded arrangements were made for 
my support here; this is not the case. Please send me a little strong wine; 
suffer since provision is exhausted. 

>" Received your letter at Donaldsonville. Wrote to Fr. Jeanjean for 
the wine. News of Fr. Nicl, Bishop Du Bourg, Frs. Tichitoli, Borgna, Potini, 
Bishop Porticr; sermon for the letter's consecration. Pastoral to be read 
in English. 

'»• Pastoral letter. If you come to the Seminary, you will be most wel- 
come and your visit may be useful in view of the arrangements to be made for 
the consecration. 

>»^ 8aw St. Michael's; am delighted with it. News of Bishop Du Bourg; 
consecration of Bp. Portier. 

'»• Pastoral letter. Kindly send one of your priests to Vide Poche for 
the Jubilee. I reckon on all your priests and clerics for Bp. Portier's con- 
secration. 



DOCUMENTS 261 

16 great deal about the Catholic religion with Mr. Street, an 

17 excellent young man, and well educated; I expounded to 

18 him the truth, and, as a result, he abandoned the prejudices 
which he nourished against the Catholic church. 
Wrote to Fr. Saulnier about sending the girl to Florissant 
by the first opportunity. 

19 Wednesday. Feast of St. Vincent de Paul. At half past 
six, we landed at Mr. Taylor's, in Bois Bride, about ten 
miles from the Seminary. As soon as my baggage was 
unloaded on the bank, I got a horse, and at once started 
for the Seminary, arriving at the church at half past ten. 
The Mass was already begun. I learned that Albert 
Thompson, a pupil of the Seminary, had died three weeks 
before. I found everything else in good running order. 
A number of letters had come for me during my absence: 
1. one of Fr. Baccari, dated December 30; 2. one of Fr. 
Niel, of December 27 ; 3. another of the same, January 6 ; 
4. another of Fr. Baccari, January 6; 5. one of Fr. Cel- 
lini"^; 6. one of the Right Rev. Bishop David, May 5; 
7. one of the Right Rev. Bishop Flaget, May 26^*°; 8. one 
of Sister Johanna, May 26 ; 9. one of Fr. Potini. I saluted 
all after Mass, and was received with joy. Assisted at 
Vespers in the church. Saw the Nuns, and heard their 
Superior had gone to Kentucky. 

20 Thursday. Said Mass in the Seminary Chapel. 

21 Friday. Chapter ; went to confession. Mass in the 
chapel. Resumed my classes of theology and philosophy. 
I announced to Messrs. Vergani, Paquin and Timon that 
they would be ordained to the priesthood next September; 
and to Messrs. Loisel and Chalon that they would receive 
the Subdeaconate. 



139 Original in archives of St. Louis Archdioc. Chancery.— Bardstown, Ky., 
May 23, 1825. Practically the same as that which was analyzed above in 
Note 133. 

^*° Original /fci<f.— Received last week letter of Bp. Du Bourg on his way 
to New York and to Europe. Said he had undertaken this trip at the instance 
of his clergy for the good of the diocese: but did not state the purpose of that 
trip. We are afraid he may have once more obtained your consent for the 
postponement of the division. If so, the letter I wrote to Father Baccari might 
turn to your harm; do let me know. Fr. Cellini wrote me last year from Rome 
that he would like to work in my diocese; signified my consent if his Superiors 
agreed. He said they were willing on the condition he should continue to belong 
to the Congregation. Was very much surprised when, in an interview, he told 
me he had left your community; upon my asking him whether he had any 
papers attesting his freedom, he declared he had lost them, but added you 
had been advised by Rome and he would write you about it. Kmdly give 
me all the information capable of directing my course of action. Want peace 
with everybody and, above all, within my diocese. 



262 DOCUMENTS 

72 Saturday. Mass in the chapel. Wrote. 1 to the Right 
Rev. Bp. Flaget^*^ 2. to Fr. Cellini "=; 3. to Fr. 
Niel *". In the evening, Confessions of the Seminarians. 

23 Xth Sunday after Pentecost. Early in the morning, Con- 
fessions of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Did not 
assist at High Mass. Wrote to the Right Rev. Bishop 
David ^**. Vespers in the church. 



•** Gave neither any promise or consent to the postponement of the 
division, nor any commissions to obtain that postponement, because I hold 
the dismemberment necessary for the good of Missouri. Even last year I did 
not write to stop the division, and told the Bishop I would abide by the Holy 
See's decision. Lately he did not ask me to take any steps in the matter. 
Himself is convinced that it will be made sooner or later: hence his desire to 
have a seminary in Louisiana. This is the main purpose of his journey: he 
hopes to get money and subjects for its reaJization, and I encouraged him in 
this. I am sure he has no other object in view, but as he made a mystery of 
it all, please do not say anything about it, except to Bp. David. — Curriculum 
'itae of Fr. Cellini. I am sure he comes with intentions most pure ; but found 
him very self opinionated: hence his complaints. You heard, no doubt, of the 
affair at Grand Coteau. I am certain he is not guilty of what was then 
imputed to him. After this unfortunate occurrence he came here very much 
incensed, and left for Rome, determined to leave the Congregation. He did not 
live in our house there; he asked for the demission of his vows, and got it. 
Fr. Baccari wrote to me about it. He is, therefore, absolutely free. I hope 
he may find happiness in your diocese. 

'*= From your two letters I learn of your resolution to work in Ken- 
tucky. Fr. Baccari wrote to me that on your repeated request he had given 
you the dispensation of your vows. Best wishes for your happiness in Diocese 
of Eardstown. Looked for your faculty to practice medicine, but did not find it. 
Remember that when you left here, I gave you all your papers. 

>*3 Your letters of December 27 and March 6 received only July 19. 
Bishop Du Bourg's journey to Europe obliged me to go to Louisiana. The 
defection of some priests caused the prolate to endeavor to get some new 
subjects and means to establish a seminary in Louisiana. Answered exactly 
your previous letters ; my silence with our Vic. Gen. in your regard was due 
to my thinking you would not go to Rome, and when from Paris you wrote 
me you were going, it was too 3atc. No change in our plans so long as I 
am Coadjutor. .\s to subjects for this Diocese, you know our situation and 
the requisite qualities; a condition indispensably to be stipulated is that they 
engage themselves to remain here forever: hence they must have not only 
an Exeat but a declaration of the Ordinary renouncing all jurisdiction over 
them. You know what good could be done in St. Louis through the College: 
hence suitable subjects from France and Ireland would be welcome. Do not 
forget cither our Seminary at the Barrens : a few suitable recruits for the 
Congregation would enable us to do something for the Indian Missions as all 
here desire that kind of work. The Seminary has become tlic center of a 
number of missionaries around. If we had priests and means we would be 
able to work an untold amount of good. Coming ordinations: we do not lose 
entirely our time as you see. So do all you can— this in the supposition I am 
to be Bishop of St. Louis ; but Bp. Du Bourg has the first choice. 

'** Have yours of May 5. Had already your answer with Bp. Flaget's. 
I have remained firm in my resolution, and Bp. Du Bourg's trip shall not alter 
it. Bp. Flaget will communicate to you my letter on this subject. In Louisiana 
the establishments are in good nmning order. The College of N. O. has 
over 200 pupils; Fr. Desmoulins is to be president, now that Fr. Porticr is 
about to be consecrated. He is coming for that purpose to St. Louis in the 



DOCUMENTS 263 

24 Monday. Mass in the chapel. Received letters from Fr. 
Saulnier and Mrs. (Widow) Brazeau, through her boy 
N. Brazeau, who was sent to the Seminary for his edu- 
cation. 

25 Tuesday. A few Confessions. Mass in the chapel. As- 
sisted at High Mass in the church. Wrote to Fr. Borgna.''"* 

26 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. Wrote to Fr. Tich- 
itoli ""^ and to Fr. Potini."^ 

27 Thursday. Mass in the same place. Received letters : 
1- from Mr. Doyle; 2. from Fr. Dahmen. 

28 Friday. Chapter; went to confession. Mass in the chapel. 
Wrote to Fr. Dahmen ^** and to Mr. Rozier.^'*" 



fall. He is very talented, zealous and most pious ; Fr. Sibourd esteemed them 
very highly; as he has some means, he will not have to depend on the people 
for his support. FVs. Maenhaut at Pensacola, and Ganihl at Mobile are all 
his clergy. The Ursuline Convent could not go better. They have \2 novices 
and 90 boarders. The house of the Heart at St. Michael's counts already 12 
Nuns and 30 boarders ; their establishment at Grand Coteau is almost as large. 
Finally the Lorettines have a house at Assumption in which there are already 
eight postulants. Fr. Tichitoli is their director: for the first time since I know 
him he told me he is in good health. In Missouri, the Jesuits (four priests, 
five scholastics and three Brothers) educate a dozen of Indian boys; the ladies 
of the S. Heart also at Florissant have some 30 boarders ; our Convent at 
Betlilehem is going on slowly; finally in our Seminary we have 3 priests, a 
dozen of Seminarians and some ten boys, to whom must be added 10 Brothers 
and a few workmen. The soil is not as spiritually ungrateful as that of 
Louisiana. Missions around the Seminary; success of Fr. De Neckere in 
St. Louis. Heard from Fr. Niel that the Association of the Prop, of the 
Faith is going to put us on their list and the Pope is inclined to help this 
mission; he is going to give orders that 3 Missionaries and money be sent us. 
Providence seems to look down favorably upon us. No news as yet concerning 
the division. Bp. Du Bourg has the first choice ; what will become of me, if 
lie selects St. Louis? Had hoped to see you this year, but the consecration 
of Bp. Portier and the absence of Bp. Du Bourg forbid. Regards to Mrs. Smith. 

^*s Reached here the 19th. During my absence one of our philosophers, 
Albert Thompson, was carried away by typhoid fever. All the others are well. 
Have found tilings in good shape ; very nice crops. Fr. De Neckere is at 
St. Louis; the matter is no longer with his lungs, but with his liver. Fr. 
Permoli gave a mission in Frederickstown in my absence ; broached to him 
the subject we spoke of: he is ready for anything; he begins to speak English. 
Vergani, Paquin and Timon will be ordained in September. A brace for Bro. 
Donati ; not enough straw hats for all. 

1*^ Arrived all well ; Thompson. The Superioress of the Nuns went to 
Ky. with Sister Lucrctia for the Mother's election. Fr. De Neckere in St. 
Louis. 155 Masses said last year for your intentions; we have begun the 50 
you gave me. The Superioress down there tells me she might have sent a 
barrel of sugar to the Sisters here; she will do well. Have a dozen large- 
brimmed straw hats made for us. 

1*" Arrived; all well; Thompson; letters of Frs. Niel and Baccari. There 
was one for you; it was forwarded to N. Orl.; Fr. Borgna opens Fr. Odin's 
letter to me, he will find it and send it to you. 

i*^ The red wine was sent you by Bp. Portier, as a compensation for what 
you gave to his cousin, and the white wine by Fr. Borgna. Paid $8.50 for freight. 

^*9 Am sending you a letter of credit for $307, which will be paid at once 
by Fr. Borgna. Put only $200 to my credit and send me $107 by the bearer. 



2<')4 DOCUMENTS 

29 Saturday. Mass early in the morning. Confessions of 
the Nuns. In the evening, Confessions of the Semina- 
rians, q. f.'*** 

30 Xlth Sunday after Pentecost. Early in the morning, Con- 
fessious of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel- Wrote to 
Fr. Portier. Bp. -Elect of Oleno ^^'^. Assisted at High Mass. 
I asked the parishioners to get busy about making lime. 
Preached on the Sunday Gospel. The miracles which 
Christ wrought for the cure of the body are a figure of 
those which he works in behalf of the souls. The deaf 
and dumb are those who grovel miserably in the state of 
mortal sin. They are deaf: 1. to the inspirations; 2. to 
the admonitions ; 3. to the preaching of the word of God. 
They are dumb: 1. because they do not wish to converse 
with God in prayer; 2. they do not wish to confess their 
sins to the priest. In order, therefore, etc. Vespers in 
the church. 

31 Monday. Early in the morning, Spiritual Conference to 
the Seminarians, on Humility (Walker'^-). Without this 
virtue, we can be neither Christians, nor truly members 
of the clergy. Mass in the chapel. Frs. Saulnier and 
Dahmen arrive at the Seminary. Received a letter from 
Fr. De Neckere ''^ and one from Mr. Rozier. 



AUGUST 

Tuesday. Early in the morning, Spiritual Conference of 
the Community, on Humility. Without this virtue we can 
be neither truly Christians, nor true Missionaries (Bro- 
Oliva and Mr. Paquin). Mass in the chapel. 



150 Wf. niiss the meaning of these letters. 

'*' Found here two more kttcrs of Fr. Niel. I think the resignation he 
had been speaking of is nothing else than the consent necessary for the 
division; two letters of our Vic. Gen. make no mention of it. No letters from 
Propaganda. Preparations for your consecration are being made : I promised 
all our priests and .Seminarians they would go. Ordination in September: 
your cousin (Chalon) will he made subdeacon. If we could have your conse- 
cration on St. Andrew's day, which falls on Thursday, we could have all the 
priests of Missouri. 

'"^ "f-'dmund Isaac Ferdinand Walkir, .son of Abraham Walker and Anna 
Smith, born in .Alexandria, 1). C., the r7th of March, 1809, embraced the 
Catholic Religion, and was baptized in St. Louis by Fr. Saulnier the ist of 

November, 1825; came to the Seminary of ; was permitted to 

wear the ecclesiastical dress the — ." Rosati Catalogus Alumnorum Scm- 

inarii" S. Mariac, p. 71. 

isi Original in archives of St. Louis Archdioc. Chancery. — St. Louis, 
July 26, 1826. .Most pleased U> hear of your return and of your coming here 
for Bp. Porticr's consecration. Fr. Saulnier will give you all the news. Am 
•till losing in health. Cannot prepare sermon; Fr. Verhaegen will do bet- 
ter than I. 



DOCUMENTS 265 

2 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. Wrote to Fr. De 
Neckere ^'**. Frs. Saulnier and Dahmen left. 

3 Thursday. Mass in the same place. Wrote to the Arch- 
bishop of Dublin.^°'' 

4 Friday. Early in the morning, Chapter; went to con- 
fession. Mass in the chapel. 

5 Saturday. Mass early in the morning. Confessions of 
the Nuns. Received a letter from Fr. De Neckere ^" and 
another from Fr. Dahmen. In the evening, Confessions 
of the Seminarians. 

At 7 p. m., arrived Fr. Anselm Augero, a native of Menton, 
in the Diocese of Nice. He had obtained from the S. C. 
of Propaganda the permission, dependent on the consent 
of his Ordinary, to come to this Louisiana Mission, and 
to pass under the direction and dependence of the Bishop 
of New Orleans, whom he must obey in all things, and 
from whom he must receive approbation and faculties- 
This permission was first given him by Card. Litta on 
November 21, 1818; and again by Card, de Somalia on 
May 30, 1824. The consent of his Ordinary likewise was 
granted him on February 4, 1819. Nevertheless, after 
leaving his country he remained in France, first in the 
Diocese of Bordeaux, then for eighteen months in that of 
La Rochelle. Finally from the Bishop of La Rochelle he 
obtained leave to quit the Diocese, on April 25, 1826. As 
the authentic documents which he showed me manifest 
that he is not under any censure, and has come to this 
country with the permission of his Superiors, I gave him 
the faculty to say Mass. And in order to give him the 
opportunity to learn English, a language which is neces- 
sary to the Missionaries in this portion of the Diocese, I 
have kept him in the Seminary. Time will manifest 
whether he may be applied to the ministry. Through him 
I received letters: 1. from Fr. Borgna; 2. from Fr. Jean- 
jean; 3. from the Right Rev. Portier. Received also let- 
ters: 1. from Fr. De Neckere; 2. from Fr. Dahmen. 



"< Am still reckoning on you for the consecration sermon. 

"5 To the Most Rev. Daniel Murray. Thanks for the reception tendered 
to Fr. Niel on his first visit to Dublin. Beg the same favor for a second visit 
the same priest intends to make before coming back to America. 

189 Original in archives of St. Louis Archd. Chancery.— St. Louis, July 
II 1826 Am in very bad shape. Enclosed certificates of Dr. Brun; Dr. Lin. 
of' Ste Genevieve, could confirm the statement. It is all the worse, because, 
moreover, I am inclined to melancholy. Ask therefore to make use of the 
last means left me to recuperate, namely to go back to my native land. As 
to the expense, there are people here offering to help me. 



266 DOCUMENTS 

6 Xlltii Sunday after Pentecost. Early in the morning, 
Confessions of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. Wrote: 
1. to Fr. De Neckere "^ at St. Louis ; 2. to Fr. Dahmen "« ; 
3. to the Right Rev. Portier ^^^ ; 4 to Fr. Jeanjean "° ; 5 to 
Fr. Borgna ''^^ ; on that account, did not assist at High 
Mass. Mr. Timon preached. Vespers in the church. 

7 Monday. Early in the morning, Spiritual Conference to 
the Seminarians, on the Exercise of the Presence of God 
(Mr. Tucker, L.). 1. Motives: it is an excellent means, (a) 
to resist temptations, (b) to avoid sin; (c) to make pro- 
gress in virtue ; (d) to hnd comfort in all the difficulties 
of this life. 2. Means (a) from the sight and considera- 
tion of the creatures turn our thoughts to the Creator; 
(b) recite in God's presence the prayers which we so often 
recite before and after the principal actions of the day. 
Mass in the chapel. Wrote to Fr. Saulnier."' 

8 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community, on the 
virtue of Obedience. 1. Motives: (a) it delivers us from 
the danger of falling into sin ; (b) it adds merit to all 



'^* Your letter afiflicted mc most detply. As I do not wish to have 
anything to reproach myself with, I grant you the permission. Go to Flanders; 
when you are better, go to Rome, and if the Doctors and Superiors d€cidc 
you cannot come back, somebody else will be sent here and you will stay 
there as procurator of our missions. Want to s«e you before you go: will 
give you all your papers and letters. .As to the means, I have nothing: all 
I can do is to give you 500 fr. sent by Fr. Niel and addressed to Fr. Saulnier. 
You may find somebody to advance you that sum. 

•'* Received your and Fr. De Neckere's letter. Answered him by mail. 
You may write to him to kt him know (as above). 

'*• Behold crosses are coming to you before the one you will wear on 
your breast. The episcopal character should not be permitted to be made an 
object of oblo(juy; in reminding people of the respect due to it neither humility 
nor mortification arc offended. Even if the writer of the letter in question 
wanted only to jest, he should have observed proprieties. Tell this to the 
man, and invite him to reflect on the license hit gave himself to open your 
letters without your leave; if he confesses his fault, pardon him; but if he 
manifests that he wrote as he did in earnest, take him by his word and trust 
to Providence to find a pastor who speaks English. I at any rate, doubt hLs 
constancy. Am sorry you have still to teach; try to find a professor. You 
are not the only one to have troubles; mine never cease. We must turn them 
into store for the next life. P/ay that I may more faithfully practice that. 

"■'" Thank you for the information sent. Fr. Angero's papers were all 
right. Permitted him to say Mass and invited him to stay in the Seminary to 
learn English; that will give vt^-, time to know him. Mr. Lawrencet may come, 
but before he starts, remind him that our food, though wholesome, is not that 
of N. Orl., and water is our only beverage ; we liavc rooms only for the priests ; 
hence he will have to sleep in the dormitory and work in the study hall. He 
may havt- some work for about an hour and a half every day, the rest of the 
time will \h: his own. 

"" Fr. Angero (as ab'jve). Fr. De Nekerc's illness and permission to go 
to Europe. Two letters frf)m Fr. Baccari. 

"•- Death of Fr. Bernard (de Deva) ; put his name in the Necrological 
list. Fr. De Neckere; Fr. Angero (as above). 



DOCUMENTS 267 

our actions ; (c) it gives us security and comfort in this 
life. 2. Means : (a) Contemplation of the life of Christ ; 
(b) consideration of the Rules concerning this virtue. 
Mass in the chapel. Wrote to Emmanuel West.^" 

9 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. Wrote to Fr. Baccari.^*** 

10 Thursday. Mass early in the morning. Conference to 
the Nuns, on the consideration of ourselves. 

1 Friday. Chapter; went to confession. Mass in the chapel. 

12 Saturday. Mass in the chapel. In the evening, heard the 
Confessions of the Seminarians. Received a letter from 
Fr. Dahmen. Testimonial letters to Fr. De Neckere who 
is going to Europe. 



^^5 Emmanuel West, Edwardsville, 111. Your step-daughter, Mary Canal, 
having tried her vocation for several months at Bethlehem, judges she is not 
called to a religious life. The Superiors agree. Therefore please send for her: 
to wish her to remain would be against her happiness and freedom. 

^'^* I. Letters received ; thanks for visiting my family. 2. Fr. Niel : did 
not think he was going to Rome; when I learned he was, too late to write. 
3. Fr. Cellini is in Ky. ; good intentions, but self-opinionated. 4. Bp. Du 
Bourg : also excellent intentions ; greatly attached to the Congregation ; he, 
too, has his own ideas. The ownership of the Seminary property has been 
made as secure as possible ; moreover, the Bp. had me lately make a deed as 
his attorney. Anent the Smith donation : the Bishop wishes to see it go 
through when Cellini received it in his own name, he did not approve of it, 
owing to certain circumstances which stirred much gossip. I thought I 
ought in this affair follow St. Vincent's maxim and example, and hope that 
Providence will help us otherwise. Had Fr. Cellini been less precipitate, and 
followed my wishes, everything would have been done without noise, scandal 
and opposition. With regard to the Bp.'s disposing of the subjects of the 
Congr., I have had sometimes to complain that I had not been forewarned of 
the moves; but the case was urgent and I was far away; he never failed to 
notify me, and when I insisted he changed his policy. It is but just to add 
that our ovvii men were the first to ask him for their change, some even with- 
out vouchsaving a word to me about it 5. Fr. Potini has given me much 
trouble ever since he came to America; he is very self-opini/onated. He wants 
now by all means to go back to Europe; he manifests an intolerable spirit of 
independence. I remonstrated with him, but in vain. He does not want to 
come to Seminary ;and all that he condescended to tell me is that he will 
go to Europe when he finds a companion. 6. Fr. De Nekere sick; gave him 
leave to go; will first go home, then to Rome, and thence as the Superiors, etc. 
7. Present condition of the Seminary. Three priests to be ordained: one Mr. 
Paquin is in poor health; Mr. Timon ; Indian Missions. They will remain 
this year in the Seminary to exercise in controversy and write sermons. The 
brothers are well, although some of them think too much of Italy. 8. The 
foundation of a Seminary in Louisiana is necessary; our confreres there 
ought to be reunited under a Superior. Fr. Tornatore. By all means they 
ought not to be left separated as they are. New Orleans is no good for us. 
9. I cannot send Fr. Aquaroni either to Portage des Sioux, or to the Mines 
or to New Madrid. 10. I do not know what will be done in regard to the 
division of the Diocese. Bp. Du Bourg has the first choice ; should he select 
St. Louis I do not see how I could prevail upon myself to accept N. Orl. 
II. The Church: Bro. Olivia works constantly at the stones; we continue to 
prepare the materials, and at prH,'sent are making cement. Hope to begin 
the foundation this fall. 



268 DOCUMENTS 

13 XII Ith Sunday after Pentecost. Early in the morning, 
Confessions of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel- As- 
sisted at High Mass, during which I preached on the 
Gospel of the day. 1. Leprosy of the body is a figure of 
sin. 2. The Lord sends to the priests and to the Sacrament 
of Penance. 3. Only one came back . . . Thanksgiving- 
After Mass I talked to the people on the necessity not to 
grow slack in regard to the building of the church. The 
parishioners were divided into 10 bands, each of whom 
has its own leader, and two bands ought to work every 
week for three days each. Vespers in the church. 

14 Monday. Early in the morning, Mass in the chapel. Con- 
fessions of the Nuns. Wrote to the Rt. Rev. Bishop 
David ^^^ and to Fr. Derigaud.^®® In the evening, Con- 
fessions of the Seminarians and Eu. 

15 Tuesday. Assumption of the Bl. V. Mary. Early in the 
morning, Confessions of the Brothers, and of others. Cele- 
brated Pontifical solemn Mass in the church. Mr. Timon 
preached. After Mass, was read in the church the list of 
the parishioners, divided into bands. Pontifical Vespers 
in the church, after which veneration of the Relic of the 
Bl. V. Mary, and Litany. 

16 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. Wrote to Fr. Saul- 
nie^."^ 

17 Thursday. Mass in the same place. Received: 1: two 
letters from Fr. Tichitoli ; 2. one from Madame Duchesne. 

18 Friday. Chapter. Mass in the same place. Answered 
Fr. Tichitoli.'"^ 

19 Saturday. Mass in the same place. In the evening, Con- 
fessions of the Seminarians. 

20 XlVth Sunday after Pentecost. Early in the morning. 
Confessions of the Brothers. Pontifical Mass in the chapel. 



**'. If Bp. Du Bourg selected St. Louis, do you think I could refuse New 
Orl? The motive is the same which was accepted when I refused the Vicar- 
ate of Miss, and Ala. 

•"" Since I left Ky. have often enquired about you, and have always 
received consolin^j news. Congratulations. Our brother gardener would like 
to have some seeds. 

^•^ Am sending a list of various oI)jects which I need. Mr. Hayden will 
make the choice. If you cannot pay, do not worry about it. 

'"» You may call any priest. The instruction of young ladies is a work 
of interest for the public good and religion. It can be applied to the Monas- 
tery according to the intention of the testator. As to what should be given 
for alms, as he left that to the discretion of ... . any amount will. In regard 
to the land of Mr. B., it would be necessary he should have enough to live 
with his family. Since the intention of Fr. B(ernard) seemed to give him 
the means to live. 



DOCUMENTS 269 

in which I conferred the four Minor Orders upon Mr. 
Gabriel Chalon, being assisted by Frs- Permoli and Aug- 
ero, and Mr. Vergani, deacon. Assisted at High Mass, 
during which I preached on the Gospel of the day. Vespers 
in the church. 

21 Monday. Early in the morning Spiritual Conference to 
the Seminarians, on the Devotion to the Bl. Virgin (Mr. 
Mascaroni). Mass in the chapel. 

22 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference of the Community (Fr- 
Odin), on the Devotion to the Bl. Virgin. After the Con- 
ference was read the Consecration of the Congregation to 
the Bl. Virgin. Fr. Dahmen came from Ste. Genevieve 
to the Seminary. 

23 Wednesday. Mass in the same place. Wrote to the Bp. 
of New Orleans.^'^ 

24 Thursday. Early in the morning, Confessions. Mass in 
the Chapel. Assisted at High Mass. Fr. Dahmen left in 
the afternoon. At four o'clock Fr. De Neckere arrived. 
Received a letter from Madame Duchesne. 

Fr. De Neckere, unable to regain here in America his 
health, which is failing, according to the advice of the 
physicians, is returning to Europe. I gave him the nec- 
essary permissions and faculties, on the condition that he 
should always consider himself as belonging to this Mis- 
sion ; therefore, after he recovers his health in Flanders, 
he should repair to Rome, whence, if his strength permits, 
he will come back to America; if his strength does not 
permit, according to the judgment of the Superiors and 
of the doctors, he shall remain in Rome, so that somebody 



i«9 Came back July lo: Thompson dead; Fr. Bernard also died. His 
housekeeper is given her freedom, with all her children; he leaves her the 
furniture, excpt the chapel and mantel-clock, destined for the Nuns of the 
Assumption. All the rest is to be sold at auction, and after the debts are paid, 
and the stipends for looo Masses are sent to the Capuchins of Castille, the 
money will be divided into three parts : one to go to the Capuchms of Castille 
for the Missions; another to two of his sisters; and the third for some good 
work interesting tlie public weal and religion at the designation of the pastor 
of the Assumption, another priest selected by him anvj the parish judge. 
Finally the lands of the second concession are to be given to poor people who 
are not known as lazy and shiftless. Fr. Audizio went to Grand Coteau; 
Fr. Rosti is with Fr. Tichitoli; Fr. Potini has left his parish; he wants to 
leave America. Fr. De Neckere wrote repeatedly, had people write to me 
about his health. I gave him permission to go back to Europe. There came a 
priest from Nice, .•Xngero by name: I will send him to St. Joseph if the Trus- 
tees agree to give him the same salary they gave to Fr. Potini. Fr. TichitoIi 
has not for some time gotten anything from the parish. The interloper is 
still at St. Charles; but Fr. Mina wrote to Borgna that before long Fr. Savme 
would be able to go there. Bp. Portier is still at the College; in the fall f r. 
Desmoulins will return to the city with the boarders and will take his place. 
All the rest is as when you left. 



270 DOCUMENTS 

else may be sent here from there, and he will act as the 
Procurator of our American Missions. As Bishop and 
Superior of the Cong-regation I gave him testimonial 
letters. 

25 Friday. Chapter. Went to confession. Mass in the 
chapel. Wrote letters: 1. to the French Consul of New 
York*'"; 2. to the Superior of Amiens, a priest of our 
Congregation *'* ; 3. to the Catholics of Belgium ^" ; 4. 
to Fr. Kiel *" ; 5. to Fr. Perreau, Vic. Gen. of the Great 
Almoner of France *^''. Received a letter from Fr. Dahmen. 

26 Saturday. Mass early in the morning. Confessions of the 
Xuns. Wrote to Fr. Baccari *". Fr. De Neckere left ; 



>^° Request for passport in behalf of Fr. De Neckere. 
>'^ Father Peter de Wailly. On January i6, 1827, the Brief Anteactae 
tcmporum of Pope Leo XII put an end to tlie division of supreme authority, 
existing since 1804, between the two Vicars General, and appointed Fr. De 
Wailly Superior General. — Bp. Rosati recommends Fr. De Neckere. 

'*- Capiac Littcrarum ct Doaimcntorum Officialiuma Rmo Josephc Rosati, 
Epo. No. \2. 

"JOSEPH ROSATI, by the grace of God and of the Holy Apostolic 
See, Bishop of Tenagra and Coadjutor of New Orleans ,to the Catholics 
of Belgium, health and benediction in our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Being in the necessity to grant Leo de Neckere, priest of the Congre- 
gation of the Mission in the State of Missouri, America .permission 
to go to his nativ-e country, it being, according to the opinion of phy- 
sicians, the only means whereby he may recuperate his health, I would 
regard myself unfaithful to divine Providence, did I not profit by this 
opportunity to interest your charitj' in behalf of the poor Mission of 
Missouri. True it is that you manifested more than once your zeal 
for the Propagation of Religion by the generous gifts which your piety 
bestowed on the Rt. Rev. Bp. Du Bourg and the late Fr. Nerinckx. 
Still will it be presuming too much of your charity, if I appeal to it 
at the time the most crucial, and for the most noble and most gen- 
erous undertaking which ever presented itself since the establishment 
of this diocese, namely, the Missions to the poor Indians, which are 
to be inaugurated in the near future? You are too well aware of the 
numberless privations to which the Missionaries are daily subject in 
these wildernesses, the difficulties inseparable from that laborious 
ministry, for me to expatiate on these details ; suffice it to say that 
the piety of the faithful of Europe is the only thing we can resort to 
in order to obtain the means to pursue this apostolic work. Your 
great examples in the past embolden me to address myself to you in 
the present occasion, and reckoning on your sentiments of faith and 
religion, I pray God to shower upon you all kinds of benedictions." 
"* Wrote to you on July 22. As Fr. De Necker is going to Europe, I 
repeat what I wrote at that date, lest my letter be lost (same as above 
Note 143)- 

"* Gratitude for the interest taken in the Missions of Missouri, and for 
the welcome tendered to Fr. N'iel, For whatever success he meets with, the 
Catholics of this district will I)c indel>ted to you, and they will not fail to offer 
their prayers and their good wishes for those to whom they owe the means to 
know and practise their religion. 

'^' This will be mailed by Fr. De Neckere as soon as he lands in France. 
In case my other letter be lost, I say here I gave him permission to go to 
FCuropc, because the doctors et. If he recovers, he will come back; otherwise 
he will stay in Rome, and you will send someone in his place. 



DOCUMENTS 271 

Fr. Odin accompanied him to Ste. Genevieve. Answered 
Fr. Dahmen ^~^. In the evening, Confessions of the Semi- 
narians. 

27 XVth Sunday after Pentecost. Early in the morning, Con- 
fessions of the Brothers. Mass in the chapel. I did not 
assist at High Mass, but remained at home and wrote : 
1. to Fr. Cessarii ^^^, Superior of our house of Fermo. 
3. to my brother ^", Sora. Vespers in the church. Re- 
ceived a letter of Mr. Brazeau, and a petition of some 
Irish Catholics of St. Louis, who complain that no sermon 
is preached in English at Mass, but after Vespers ; they 
ask, therefore, that the priests preach alternately in 
French and English-"" 

28 Monday. Early in the morning Spiritual Conference to 
the Seminarians, on avoiding dissipation of mind. 1. 
Motives: (a) it is harmful to piety; (b) to studies; (cj 
it helps temptations and sins. Means: (a) silence; (b) 
study; during recreations, raise the mind to God (Mr. 
Jourdain). Mass in the chapel. 

29 Tuesday. Spiritual Conference to the Community (Mr. 
Timon) on zeal for our perfection. Motives. Because 
without this zeal for perfection we cannot correspond to 
the end for which 1. we were created; 2. we were re- 
deemed ; 3. we were called to the Congregation. Means. 
1. the spirit of our vocation; 2. observance of rule; 3. of 
our office. Mass in the chapel. Fr. Odin baptized Louis, 
the chief of the Nation Shawnee. 

30 Wednesday. Mass in the chapel. 

31 Thursday. Mass early in the morning in the chapel. Con- 
ference to the Nuns. Received a letter of Fr. Audizio."^ 



1'^ Grant dispensation, in case you have not the necessary faculties. The 
alms for the 3d degree is $10., not included in the $10. for the dispensation 
of bans. I will buy the tobacco you speak of : send it here by the first oppor- 
tunity. The certificate you ask for will be sent you if Mr. P. comes. 

17^ Will continue to write, in spite of your silence. Introducing Fr. De 
Neckere. 

i'8 Did not write since we parted, because etc., etc. News. Wish to hear 
from you. 

^'» Original in Archives of the Proc. Gen. C. M., Rome. — News: good 
health; back in the Seminary; occupations, coming retreat and Ordination: 
laying of corner-stone of the church ; consecration of Bp. Porticr. Fr. Borgira 
wrote to you. Death of aunt Louise ; greetings to all. 

180 Cf. F. G. Holweck: The Language Question in the Old Cathedral of 
St. Louis, in St. Louis Cath. Hist. Review, Vol. 11, p. 9010. where that petition 
is reproduced in full. 

181 Original in Archievs of St. Louis Archdioc. Chancery.— The people of 
Grand Coteau think he will not do, because he cannot speak English. 



272 I'IST OF MEMBERS 



CATHOLIC HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF ST. LOUIS 

•Most Rev. Archbishop J. J. Glennon. D.D St. Louis, Mo, 

Most Rev. .^rchbishop I. \V. Shaw New Orleans, La. 

Rt. Rc\-crend Bishop Morris Little Rock, Ark. 

Rt. Rev. Bishop Francis Gilfillan, D.D St. Joseph, Mo. 

Rt. Rev. Jules B. Jeanmard Lafayette, La. 

Rt. Rev. .'Xbhott Ignatius Subiaco, Arkansas 

Rt. Rev. J. J. Tannrath St. Louis, Mo. 

•Rt. Rev. O. S. Hoog, V.G St. Louis, Mo. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Gassier Baton Rouge, La. 

Rev. Dr. Chas. L. Souvay, CM Webster Groves, Mo. 

Rev. Dr. M. S. Ryan. CM Webster Groves, Mo. 

Rev. Wm. Fischer. D.D St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. D. J. Lavery, D.D St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. M. J. O'Connor. S.J St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. Gilbert J. Garraghan, S.J St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. Dr. Jos. Scllinger Jefferson City, Mo. 

Missouri Providence Educational Institute, 

St. Louis University, Rev. W. Wallace, S.J St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. James T. Coffey St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. M. S. Brennan St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. J. J. Dillon St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. Wm. J. Dames Dutzow, Mo. 

Rev. H. Hussman St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. F. G. Hohvcck St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. J. Wcntker St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. E. J. Lemkes St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. John P. Lynch Columbia, Mo. 

Rev. E. Pruente Cape Girardeau, Mo. 

Rev. Dr. .^ug. Lager Illmo, Mo. 

Rev. E. O'Toole St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. John Rothcnsteiner St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. J. T. Scsnon St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. F. X. Wilmes St. Charles, Mo. 

Rev. J. T. Shields St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. C. L. Van Tourenhout Stc. Genevieve, Mo. 

Rev. Thos. J. Walsh .St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. A. A. Jasper O'Fallon, Mo. 

Rev. Martin B. Hcllriegel O'Fallon, Mo. 

Rev. C. Winkelman Rich Fountain, Mo. 

Rev. C. L. Wcrnert Arcadia, Mo. 

Rev. John F. Stevens St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. Edw. H. Amsingcr St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. Otto Sicscncr St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. John P. Ryan Maplcwood, Mo. 

Rev. Henry Groll St. Louis, Mo. 

* Life Members 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



273 



Rev. R. L. Foristal Poplar BIuflF, Mo. 

Rev. Walter A. Riske St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. Michael O'Keefe : St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. W. H. O'Brien St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. J. J. Fisher St Louis, Mo. 

Rev. James J. Downes St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. Francis J. O'Connor St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. S. L. Cassidy St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. A. J. White St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev W. F. Mullally St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. F. R. Woods St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. T. V. O'Reilly - St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. Jos. F. Lubeley St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. Jos. F. English St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. J. J. McGlynn St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. E. H. Prendergast St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. P. D. O'Connor St. Louis, Mo. 

Rev. Walter J. Tucker Webster Groves, Mo. 

Sister Agnes St. Joseph's Academy, St. Louis, Mo. 

Academy of the Sacred Heart Maryland and Taylor Aves., St. Louis, Mo. 

Academy of the Sacred Heart Meramec and Nebraska Aves., St. Louis, Mo. 



Paul Bakewell St. Louis 

Miss Mary Const. Smith St. Louis 

Edward Brown St. Louis 

Mrs. Seth W. Cobb St. Louis 

J. R. Cooke St. Louis 

Louis Fusz St. Louis 

Miss Louisa Garesche St. Louis 

E. V. Papin St. Louis 



Mrs. Ida M. Schaaf St. Marys, Mo, 



Firmin Desloge St. Louis 

Jos. F. Imbs St. Louis 



John T. Tlapek St. Marys, Mo, 



Mrs. M. Valle Bain St. Louis 

Timothy F. Cleary St. Louis 



Miss Genevieve Huss Farmington, Mo, 



Miss Josephine Cobb St. Louis 

O'Neill Ryan St. Louis 

Geo. L. Dyer St. Louis 

Dr. R. Emmet Kane St. Louis 

Dr. Alexander N. DeMenil St. Louis 

John S. Leahy St. Louis 

John R. Scott St. Louis 

Miss Rowena Brown St. Louis 

Mrs. Terese Lumaghi St. Louis 

Mrs. David G. Evans St. Louis 

Miss Anne D. Cooke St. Louis 



Mo. 
Mo. 
Mo. 
Mo. 
Mo. 
Mo. 
Mo. 
Mo. 



Mo. 
Mo. 



Mo. 
Mo. 



Mo. 
Mo. 
Mo. 
Mo. 
Mo. 
Mo. 
Mo. 
Mo. 
Mo. 
Mo. 
Mo. 



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